Home | Comment & Analysis    Thursday 29 September 2011

SPLM and mass media: Promoting history on falsity


By Elhag Paul

September 28, 2011 — The late John Garang De Mabior would have certainly objected to being projected as a separatist by his widow Rebecca Nyandeng, close relatives, the Dinka community and the SPLM in their never ending quest to use his formidable life story to promote him as the person who brought the independence to South Sudan and by implication Dinka superiority.

Recently, having personally attended the shameful and shambolic celebration of independence of the republic of South Sudan on 9 July 2011 in Juba, it was asphyxiating to witness the promotion of Garang as the father of the nation and the hero of independence of South Sudan. Large electronically refined coloured adverts on giant billboards around Juba’s main streets showing pictures of Garang walking into freedom with masses of followers. This story is a fabricated lie and had Garang been alive, he certainly would have objected to it.

Garang was very honest with his political beliefs. He made it absolutely clear in various fora and writings that he was an avowed unionist and this gained him respect in North Sudan, Arab world, Africa and the west.

Garang in his book, titled ‘John Garang Speaks’ published in London in 1987 by KPI on pages 253 and 254 writes that:

“Our believe in the Sudanese Unity and territorial integrity is axiomatic, that is, it is principled position. In our Manifesto published 31 July 1983 we said in very unequivocal terms, and I quote, It must be reiterated that the principle objective of the SPLM/SPLA is not separation for the South. The South is an integral and inseparable part of the Sudan. Africa has been fragmented sufficiently enough by colonialism and neo-colonialism and its further fragmentation can only be in the interest of her enemies. The separatist attitude that has developed in the South since 1955 has caught the imagination of the backward areas in Northern Sudan. Separatists Movements have already emerged with guerrillas fighting in Western and Eastern Sudan. If left unchecked these separatist Movements in the South, East, West coupled with stubborn determination of repressive minority clique regime in Khartoum to hang onto power at all costs will lead to the total disintegration of the Sudan. The imminent, latent and impending disintegration and fragmentation of the Sudan is what the SPLM/A aims to stop by developing and implementing a consistent democratic solution to both the nationality and religious questions within the context of a United New Sudan. This was in 1983. Our position remains the same.”

There you are. This is from the horse’s mouth. To refuse to believe it is to make a fool of oneself.

Unity has always been the official policy of SPLM/A. It did not remain in the files as a redundant or dormant policy but it was operationised and put into practice with devastating consequences on the separatists. Garang did not hesitate to kill any separatist who make his case.

Among the prominent separatists who paid dearly with their lives were Samuel Gai Tut and Akot Atem. The atmosphere in SPLM/A controlled areas at the time was akin to that of the communists during Nimeiri’s era in the Sudan. The words associated with secession were considered treasonable and the consequences were dire for anyone who dared to invoke them.

At the apex of Garang’s power towards the end of 1980s and beginning 1990 he had become so arrogant to the extent that he freely rubs salt on the wounds of the separatists at every occasion the subject came up. He haughtily proclaimed that ‘our first bullets were fired against the separatists.’ Anybody doubting should research the barbaric murder of Samuel Gai Tut and Akot Atem.

Peter Nyaba in his book, titled ‘The Politics of Liberation in South Sudan: An Insider’s View’ published by Fountain Publishers in 1997 in Kampala, Uganda on page 45 writes that after Kerubino’s forces ambushed and murdered Gai Tut, he (Kerubino) refused ‘the burial of the remains of Mr Samuel Gai Tut and to have his corpse given eighty lashes daily until it decomposed.’ From this act alone, one can imagine the raw emotions of hatred towards the separatists.

What kind of people are these who engage in such a wanton brutality to the extent that they could not respect the dead? These dead brave South Sudanese spoke and died for separation. Paradoxically, today, the very people who killed them are enjoying the fruits of these separatists’ foresight. So far, the SPLM has not shown any remorse or decency to say sorry for their heinous acts and their divisive policy of ‘New Sudan’. What a shame on SPLM/A.

In the House of Commons in UK, the then secretary for International Development Claire Short used to dismiss us the South Sudanese pressing for support of secession. Her argument was that she had no misgiving about South Sudanese aspiration to secede. Her own visits to the refugee camps in Kenya, Uganda, Congo and the liberated areas in the Sudan proved to her beyond doubt that the overwhelming majority of South Sudanese wished to secede. However, what confused her was that also the majority of South Sudanese supported SPLM/A and its objective of united Sudan. Garang and SPLM, she asserted, were adamant about unity and so it was up to us the South Sudanese to speak with one voice of what we wanted. Because SPLM/A represented the majority of South Sudanese she would promote unity of the Sudan. With this, the separatists melted away like ‘Halawa Goton’. Or should I say with tails in between legs. Such was the hullabaloo SPLM/A created.

With the above, Garang has abundantly made his case loud and clear. What baffles people like me is the mendacity of Garang’s family and the SPLM to assert forcefully that Garang is the father and champion of South Sudan’s independence. How could this be when Garang put his policy of unionism in practice by killing separatists? The fact is that the separatist victims of Garang’s policy are well known and well documented. These should be the true champions of South Sudan independence and not Garang. To be fair to Garang, he was a revolutionary who worked hard to transform the Sudan. He fought tooth and nail to realise his objective but unfortunately this has not materialised. May be the SPLM/A North in the Sudan will succeed to implement the project of ‘New Sudan’ in that country. But it must be emphasised: Garang was not a separatist. He was a unionist to his core.

SPLM/A knows that to promote the lie that Garang is the hero of South Sudan’s independence, it has to use all means available to it regardless of the cost. Hence, it is now engaged in deploying the arsenals of mass media in the form of advertisement, SSTV and the radio service to bludgeon South Sudan psychologically. By bombarding the South Sudanese masses on a daily basis with the lie, it will not be before long when the young generation and the South Sudanese masses succumb to the story of the masters resulting into ecstatic triumph of the rulers in establishing themselves as the elites of South Sudanese society.

This is on one front of the media war. On the other, the heavy use of advertisement to promote Garang as the champion of South Sudan independence although it is costing GOSS a fortune is not for nothing, it has a strategic meaning. The purpose of advertisement is to create fantasy and illusions in the mind of the watchers to promote craving for the product – in this case, the story of the ‘hero’ of South Sudan’s liberation. As this kind of product is not for purchase pecuniarly, it is specifically designed to influence thoughts and the mind to cultivate a hyperreal history of the struggle. The consumer (you, me and others) if not critical minded and well informed inevitably end up by believing what is shown on these giant billboards as the truth and reality. Once this is achieved, history is distorted and re-written in favour of the agents beautifully portrayed in the adverts.

To buttress this fabricated story, SPLM has blended Kiir in. During the independence celebration an interesting poster was displayed around Juba. This poster presenting sergeant Kiir in long white Jallabia sitting amongst a group of senior SPLA officers in military uniform wearing red epaulets. The writing on the poster congratulated sergeant Kiir for liberating the country. Like those posters of Garang, it not only buttresses the fabricated story but elevates the social status of these actors.

In this particular poster, Kiir’s dress indirectly appears to be designed to present him as a benign, intelligent, and caring leader protected by the might of SPLA. Here is one man the country cannot afford to lose. Therefore, he must be protected like the queen ant. Looking at this poster subliminally draws one attention to the well circulated picture of Jesus in Jallabia carrying a lamb and followed by sheep. Now Kiir is being presented as the caring saviour and shepherd. While in reality, this is the man who was Garang’s Rottweiler for 22 years. He supervised the despatch of hundreds of innocent people to death. Kiir was responsible for the suffocating poorly aerated prison containers. Do you remember the story of John Nambu who was imprisoned in a container until he turned yellow before his death due to lack of aeration? Nambu’s crime was only because he hailed from the wrong ethnicity and wanted to join the SPLM. This was only one horrible way of violating human rights in SPLM/A. The other was the imprisonment of freedom fighters whose identities or ideas were not entertained by the movement leaders in 10 meters deep holes where the unfortunate prisoners occasionally were visited by all sorts of deadly snakes and creatures. During the rainy season prisoners got drowned in these prison holes. The master supervisor of these horrendous joints was none other than Kiir himself. Please note that most of these victims were separatists.

This benign supposedly caring leader has now been in power for six years and what has he done for the people of South Sudan. Nothing at all, apart from presiding over orgies of looting and massive corruption. His lack of due diligence in running and protecting the country is breathtaking. Yet SPLM is squandering massive resources on media to promote him and re-write our history. Come to us here in Juba and visit any office, you will not miss seeing Garang and Kiir looking at you from hanging photographs strategically positioned.

The work of Jean Baudrillard (1929 – 2007), the French philosopher and sociologist on the influence of mass media techniques and especially of images on human beings shows that the use of images create its own reality divorced from original facts or truth of what is being represented. It paints its own reality constructed by values and stories attached to the images displayed. This is politics at its most psychologically dangerous, because it is not only the blatant promotion of crude tribalism, but it is also the sowing of seeds of discord for future conflict.

SPLM as an instrument of the masters of South Sudan is using massive resource of the country to promote a big lie with implication for history and future generations. The question to ask is: why is the SPLM deploying expensive mass media techniques to promote a fabricated story of one section of our community to distort our history? Whose interest as a minister of information is Mr Barnaba Marial serving? Is it serving South Sudan or a specific tribe? I leave the answers to you to work it out for yourself. Why is the true story of the South Sudan not being promoted since 1983? Why is there no reference to Oliver Albino’s and other books on the Anya-Nya movement? Why is there no mention to Aggrey Jaden hard work on separation of the south? Why this obsessive promotion of our fresh distorted history which when truly unpacked contains horror stories?

To understand the magnitude of the brutality, inhuman policies and heinous acts of SPLM/A against humanity, it is absolutely necessary to read the work of Garang, Peter Nyaba, Lam Akol, and reports prepared by Human Rights bodies such as Africa Watch, Amnesty International and so on. There is no justification for that kind of behaviour meted out to the South Sudanese people other than from wanton criminals. Hence, the necessity to pursue the establishment of Justice and Reconciliation Commission, as in the case of Rwanda and South Africa to bring Kiir and his cohorts to account. Bringing these people to account might help us even to understand better Kiir’s current presiding over the orgies of looting of public resources and corruption by his group. For South Sudan to develop healthily, this deep internal mental injury on its psyche must be addressed and urgently. Glossing over it with mass media tricks is a surest way of returning to mistakes done by the rulers of the Sudan at the time of its independence in 1956.

The self determination which the South Sudanese had been fighting for since 1947 was forced on SPLM/A by circumstances beyond its control. It first entered into the vocabulary of SPLM/A following the 1991 failed Nasir coup led by Reik Machar, Lam Akol and John Koang. These three, opportunistically calculated that since SPLM/A lost its support base following the overthrow of the Mengistu Dirge regime in Ethiopia the time was ripe to get rid of Garang. As we all know, they failed and they continued to pursue their objective of ousting Garang through alliance with NCP. But the benefit to South Sudan of their unpopular act was to force SPLM/A to accept the principle of self determination, especially after the talks in Abuja in early 1990s. This was further advanced in the Khartoum agreement of 1997 with the same group. However, paradoxically this time NCP blundered and included the principle of self determination into the constitution of the Sudan. When the peace talks under IGAD was first started in early 2000s, self determination was not on the agenda. SPLM and Rev. John Danforth, the American envoy to the talks were content with the idea of solving the problem of the Sudan within a framework of a united country based on the project of ‘New Sudan’ which would be multi-racial, multi-religious, multi-cultural etc. It was only when the Diaspora in Europe and North America rose up forcefully and brought pressure to bear on the talks that the principle of self determination was then included on the agenda. The first protocol on self determination was won because NCP was cornered by the fact that self determination was already catered for in the constitution of the Sudan. The rest was history and we had our CPA of 2005.

The provision of the referendum in the CPA allowed each and everyone of us to decide for ourselves what we wanted. We individually (through the power of our votes) chose separation and thus liberated ourselves from the Arabs. It has nothing to do with Garang liberating us to qualify him as the father of the nation. This must be made clear to avoid distortion of our history and construction of a false history. The true separatists are those Garang fired his first bullets of unionism at such as Samuel Gai Tut and Akot Atem.

In light of the above, the minister of Information should desist from promoting one section of our society as being solely responsible for the liberation of South Sudan with Garang as its founding father based on falsity. For this does not bode well for the future.

Elhag Paul lives in South Sudan. He can be reached at elhagpaul@aol.com

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  • 29 September 2011 06:35, by Raan Naath

    Dear Elhag Paul,

    Excellent revelation on the ongoing distortion of our history by some who are desperate to claim that John Garang is the father of South Sudan independence.

    We all know that these are serious attempts to falsify our history. As you correctly stated, how could one become the father of the nation when he was only forced to join the process of self-determination by other?

    repondre message

    • 30 September 2011 21:22, by Mungu Wangu

      Dear RAAN NAATH,
      The mouth talks plenty which the heart does not say,
      i think you know very well what Dr.Garang has done in term of bringing this nation to these jointures,your mouth is good at talking but your heart knows what the African hero did not only South Sudan,i wish you have moved to see how his image reflects on S.Sudanese,i thought you people would have brought unity to the scattered.

      repondre message

  • 29 September 2011 07:48, by Anyangaliec

    Dear Elhag Paul,

    Your views and takes about the SPLM/A and its leader are completely obnoxious and bias. Therefore, I think it would have been wise for you if you could have chose to expressed your views free of any bia instead. Otherwise, the late leader, DR John Garang De Mabior is the true founder of our young nation. And therefore he’s our nation’s father.

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    • 1 October 2011 18:59

      M.r Paul Elhage, thanks for revealing the truths to those who did not know.
      I for one agree with most of the analogy addressed publicly on this forum.
      However, I would appreciate those disputing the claim by inserting their facts.
      But Based on my observations, most of writers on the forum either have little knowledge, or they are hypocrites who defend the rhetoric blunders.


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    • 1 October 2011 19:21, by Lokimang.

      I want to thank M.r Paul for this wonderful and educative article.
      Truly , the Late D.r John cannot and should not be viewed as founding father.
      My reason is the same as M.r Paul’s. He can be credited for his hard work and one of the most memorable hero, but not a founding father because he was a junior officer to Joseph Lagu in 60’s. Founding father means that, he started the war against the nort

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  • 29 September 2011 16:35

    SPLM DC man,

    You know what that man called Garang did, only that you are trying to play around with his bright history unlike yours full of betrayal and malice.

    If Garang wasn’t separatist, who on earth could be one? The CPA architectural alone implies his wit to liberate you when you were busy collaborating with the enemy in Khartoum.

    Shut your dirty mouth and join Southerners in rebuilding.

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    • 30 September 2011 14:46, by LL Reuben

      Paul, you just don’t know what you are talking about because the hatre is driving you and probably leading you into indulging in these kind of hateful rhetorics.

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  • 29 September 2011 16:38, by lokorai

    SPLM DC man,

    Stop spoiling the bright reputation of this man, enough with your betrayal and malice!

    If Garang wasn’t separatist who else could be one.


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  • 30 September 2011 01:22, by Southerner

    Paul, once again excellent article thank you. My comment is really to reiterate that the true founders of South Sudan are those who raised one unified voice for freedom in the referendum. But if it is insisted that individuals must take credit, then the honor must go to the late Fr. Paolino Doggale, the true founding father and the first to be executed by Khartoum for the cause of Southern Freedom

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    • 30 September 2011 11:17, by Manyok

      pual you are right in one part to say garang was Unionist,that was strategy to acheived the current nation,take example of direct separatist movement lead by Joseph lague and Dr.Riek they all fail because Arabs is not easy,so to tackle them it needs enveloment of other part of Sudan to lessen their strength and Garang the Hero did it,Dr.John Said Him and those who were in the Bush have accomplishe

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      • 30 September 2011 19:24, by Southerner

        John Garang a hero yes, by virtue of dying during the struggle similar to other millions of fallen heroes and heroins for the cause of Southern freedom. But Garang is no founding father, there are those before and even after him who are well-deserved of this honor. I wonder why he is buried in Juba, and not Bor? Now that the capital is relocated, are they going to relocate his grave too? Butchers!

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  • 30 September 2011 09:10, by David

    I strongly disagree with this Article. Instead of promoting Development for our New young Nation your are promoting Hatred.

    I Thank all the South Sudanese for the new youmg Nation because they are the people who brought the independence By millions of Votes.

    However Do not forget who brought the choice of Independence on the Golden Plate

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  • 30 September 2011 13:20

    Elhag paul, i can’t have enough of your articles! keep up the good work.the truth must be told.

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  • 30 September 2011 20:15, by Elijha B. Elkan

    Mr. Paul,
    In my humble opinion, this article is very disappointing to many readers on this form. The gentle man is tying to rewrite the history. Dr. Garang was masterful in politics; he knows what to say so he gets the support, and many countries gravitated to his ideas. Mr. Paul, you’re the one who is asphyxiating on the “Dinka Superiority”. Please drop "the Dinka superiority" nonsense.


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  • 30 September 2011 21:12, by Mungu Wangu

    Dear Elhag Paul&your people
    I think you better come out and campaign for your party as SPLM-DC,why do you like spoiling the name of a party and some of you were in Central African Republic and some parts of Congo when other innocent and political leaders tried their best to bring this nation to the way it is today,stop pretending with your good for nothing supporters,shame on you for not knowing i

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  • 2 October 2011 00:16, by Anya-Nya

    Mr Alhag Paul, with regard to your names I am not sure about your political motive, nevertheless we are living in a 21st century and Dr. Garang’s legacy are all documented and he summerised them in his speech at IOWA state in 2002 and you can find them on "youtube" from part 1 to 15 on the following link: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YXli1ilEt8A

    You are advised to listen from part 1 to 15,

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  • 2 October 2011 03:39, by JohnGarangFreedom

    I do respect the Author opinions, because it is a good way to express ourselves. However, I don’t agree the author opinions opposition to Late Dr. John Garang de Mabior as being acclaimed as freedom father or nation founder of South Sudan. To me, Garang de Mabior is the absolute freedom father and South Sudanese’ nation founder. Based on my personal logical reasoning, Dr. Garang deserves history

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    • 2 October 2011 14:38, by Anya-Nya

      The Sudan conflict and civil war was religiously motivated, given that you belong to both sides of religion; Alhag when you are in Muslim area, and Paul when you are in Christian areas, it is clear that your political motive is not about who is the founding father, but a political nightmare. If you want to form a party just go ahead without make unnecessary noice.

      repondre message

    • 2 October 2011 19:32, by Southerner

      When will you ever change this rigid and primitive tribal mindset? You are the ones who are promoting ethnic hatred by distorting and hijacking South Sudan’s history. We have seen the consequences of inflated egoism in Rwanda, and the horrors which unfortunately are bound to be replicated in South Sudan if some groups continue to hijack it’s history as a mechanism to wield power. Illiterates!

      repondre message

  • 3 November 2011 18:57, by acuil deng

    Mr. Elhag Paul
    By reading most of your posts on this forum I came to believe that your vicious attacks on SPLA/M symbols, and everything that has to do with "Dinkas" is baseless and stemming from a personal problem or issue.
    I would love to see you addressing "NATIONAL ISSUES" that concerns all of us rather than wasting your time and energy on something that will benefit non-of-us.

    not impressed

    repondre message

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