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Military expenditure in South Sudan declined, says report

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May 6, 2018 (JUBA) - Military expenditure in the East African region declined last year with war-hit South Sudan reducing its spending by over 50%, a new report from the Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (SIPRI), shows.

Founded in 1966, SIPRI is an independent international institute dedicated to research into conflict, armaments, arms control and disarmament.

In South Sudan, despite the ongoing civil war, the worsening economic conditions reportedly led to further reductions in the defence expenditure.

Its says South Sudan spent just $72 million on its military, down from its all-time high of $1.1 billion in 2014 at the peak of the violent conflict between the government and the country’s rebels.

Overall, according to a report released on Tuesday, military expenditure in South Sudan decreased to $59.50 million in 2017 from $135.30 million in 2016.

Military expenditure in South Sudan averaged $450.14 million from 2006 until 2017, reaching an all-time high of $697.70 million in 2011 and a record low of $59.50 million in 2017, the report said.

However, unlike war-torn South Sudan, Kenya remained the region’s top military spender, at $963.5 million in 2017 from $933.1 million spent in the previous year.

In March, the campaign group, Global Witness accused the leadership in South Sudan of using revenues from Nile Petroleum Corporation (Nilepet) to fund the war.

South Sudan got the lion’s share of the oil when it split from Sudan in July 2011, but it’s only export route is through Sudan, giving Khartoum leverage and leading to pricing disputes.

The Global Witness report claimed NilePet is under the direct control of President Salva Kiir and his cronies and is being used to funnel millions in oil revenues to the country’s security services and ethnic militias, with little oversight and accountability.

GLOBAL TRENDS

According to SIPRI’s report, African military spending was down by 0.5% to an estimated $42.6 billion in 2017 or 2.5% of global military spending. For instance, military expenditure in sub-Saharan Africa in 2017 amounted to $21.6 billion, up 0.9% from 2016, but 6.8% lower than in 2008.

Overall, total world military expenditure rose to $1 739 billion in 2017, a marginal increase of 1.1% in real terms from 2016, the report further indicates.

(ST)

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  • 6 May 11:21, by jubaone

    An inflated army of village luakjiengs in the payroll, purchase of outdated hardware reserviced by Uganda and prices inflated is the reason for this bloated spending. Generals like Malong, Jok Riak, Obuto Marmur and others all exaggerated military purchases whereas poor foot soldiers went for months without pay. Instead Uganda has benefited through inflated sells of worthless second hand hardware.

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    • 6 May 12:15, by padiit gaga

      All those money were given to soldiers but to top leaders the rest were burried underground in Jieng Luak for future famine some were given to Uganda soldiers who were fought to defense slave kingdom. This evil
      Leadership is at hand to fall and democracy leadership must comd who qualify all citizens of s.sudan not Jieng alone but all.

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    • 6 May 13:52, by South South

      jubaone,

      Our SPLA is called SPLA. You can call it any name you want, but who care? Our guns are very strong enough to send your uncles to refugee camps. If they are second hand and outdated hardware, show us how many towns you captured in South Sudan. When the real men talk about the country, coward men MUST listen. We are trying to fix the country for you to live like a human being, not rats.

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      • 6 May 14:53, by jur_likang_a_ likan’g

        South South,

        I am shocked by the way you think and say out things. You as a part of Juba government propaganda machinery can not see, feel how bad things are in the country. Perhaps is it because you have amassed the monetary loot from government purse and cares not about our poor masses. Now just think if Jallaba invades us how can we defend ourselves in this economic situation? Think junubi.

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        • 6 May 15:26, by Khent

          Jur

          Where was this apparent concern for the military and security threats posed by the North when you formed a political, economic and military alliance with Khartoum until your return in 2006? Hundreds of thousands of people died when tens of thousands of Nuer militiamen helped...

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          • 6 May 15:29, by Khent

            ..Khartoum to achieve control of the oilfields; billions of dollars in weapons were used to target those that did not follow that death-deserving traitor, Riek. Salva Kiir should never have allowed traitors to return to the very army they’ve been fighting since 91; Riek should have been left out in the political cold when he returned in 2004. Traitors deserve only death.

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          • 7 May 08:32, by jur_likang_a_ likan’g

            Khent & South South,

            You are sub human beings by the way you express yourselves on national issues that you have made tribal under the disguise of national problems. If you follow history well you would agree with me that Samuel Gai Tut, Akot Atem were murdered by Dinkas, Murle, Mundari and Fertit were not spared too. The worst was on Didinga. If Nuer begged for few guns for defence from North

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            • 7 May 08:38, by jur_likang_a_ likan’g

              Sudan there can not be any query because they entitled to live like you people. You hijacked the struggle from patriots and made it tribal whereby national resources are used to eliminate citizens with assistance of devils from south of our national border. Here no body can blame Riek and his people because you could have done the same thing if you were him. Politics is all about interests

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              • 7 May 08:45, by jur_likang_a_ likan’g

                and no one can be an enemy for life in this game. We saw number of Dinkas with Jallaba fighting hand in hand with our people and no one has complained about it. Please do not think all good things are supposed to be yours because the good things can turn to be bad. Resistance will always be there to set you in the right direction of humankind. You have failed and accept that ya awalik!!

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                • 7 May 18:48, by Khent

                  Jur

                  You are in no position to label anyone "sub-human" on the basis of asserting that traitors deserve death for the misery they have wrought... especially when your precious Riek boasted about killing Dinka civilians and deluded himself into thinking that he could wipe out the Dinka...

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                  • 7 May 19:05, by Khent

                    Ah, so the Dinka killed Akuot De Mayen? The man (like Garang) was also from Twic-east, so how can it be tribally motivated? Dinka men like Majier Gai and Kawac Makuei were also targeted in *personally* and ideologically motivated power struggles...

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                    • 7 May 19:06, by Khent

                      The killing of Samuel Gai Tut was not tribally motivated. It was an unfortunate derivative of a power struggle between two different camps, with two different ideologies and different ideas on the strategies required for the struggle.

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                      • 7 May 19:07, by Khent

                        Samuel Gai Tut was one of our sons [from Dinka Hol and Twic east] whose family migrated to Nuer territory in recent memory for reasons I cannot pinpoint. We still have some of their families with us in Duk Padiet and Panyagor. It was not tribal...

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                        • 7 May 19:08, by Khent

                          The split in the leadership was thus based on ideological and personal differences, not tribal, since both Akuot Atem and Garang were Twic Dinka from Kongor district, and there were Dinka and Nuer commanders ranged on both sides. (The Root Causes Of Sudan’s Civil Wars: Peace Or Truce, Douglas H. Johnson

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                          • 7 May 19:09, by Khent

                            Is the historian that I have just cited above lying!? The very same historian that was instrumental in retrieving Ngundeng’s dang from the British and restoring it to its rightful owners. You took something that wasn’t even remotely tribal, and killed thousands of young, unarmed patriotic Dinka recruits in cold blood. You started this senseless and vicious cycle of revenge.

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                            • 7 May 19:10, by Khent

                              We didn’t initiate the killing of thousands of civilians... You did. In 1984 three thousand of unarmed Dinka recruits were murdered by Nuer sections in Jonglei. This is a year before the Nuer were massacred in turn by the survivors of these ambushes.

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                              • 7 May 19:11, by Khent

                                Heavily armed by the Sudan, the Anyanya II attacked SPLA recruits on their way to the training camps in Ethiopia. In May 1984, more than three thousand recruits from northern Bahr el Ghazal were ambushed and massacred in the area of Fanjak, and in 1986 over two thousand were massacred in the Lou area. (Playing Different Games: The Paradox of Anywaa and Nuer Identification)

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                                • 7 May 19:14, by Khent

                                  You ambushed and murdered 3, 000 unarmed, exhausted, starving and emaciated Dinka SPLA recruits from Northern Bahr el Ghazal that were on their way to the training camps in Ethiopia in May of 1984 — a year before the 1985 Gajaak massacre; a massacre that was precipitated by your cold blooded mass murder of thousands of patriotic young men that were still civilians at that point.

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                                  • 7 May 19:18, by Khent

                                    Most human rights violations in Equatoria by the SPLA involved summary executions, rape, the looting of essentials like grains and sorghum, and killings that claimed dozens of lives in each incident. These things also happened in Dinka areas that the generals perceived as withholding resources and young men. No tribe in Equatoria was targeted for destruction...

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                                    • 7 May 19:21, by Khent

                                      Human rights violations took place at the back-drop of quelling dissent and rebellions within a rebellion. What Riek did in 91 was different precisely because it was not aimed at squashing resistance and dissent in civilian areas in operations that would kill dozens to a hundred civilians at a time...

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                                      • 7 May 19:23, by Khent

                                        What Riek did in 91 was different precisely because it was not aimed at squashing resistance and dissent in civilian areas in operations that would kill dozens to a hundred civilians at a time; Riek targeted a specific sub-section for destruction based on the fact that his opponent was from that area...

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                                        • 7 May 19:24, by Khent

                                          Riek lied to Nuer sections (armed by Khartoum) that Garang was purposely directing relief supplies away from Nuer areas and that therefore everything that the Dinka had was a legitimate target and could be regarded as compensation. This turned out to be completely untrue - a fabrication that has created a poison that refuses to die...

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                                          • 7 May 19:25, by Khent

                                            In the early days of the split, in order to secure popular support against Garang, the Nasir faction deliberately propagated the false allegation that Garang diverted relief supplies to Bor. (Civilian Devastation. Abuses by All Parties in the War in Southern Sudan)

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                                            • 7 May 19:26, by Khent

                                              According to a later study, the Nuers’ suspicion in August and September 1991 that Garang and the SPLA were hoarding U.N. relief supplies in Bor was not accurate. The U.N. had information about the need in this Nuer area, but a plan of action to bring supplies from the South to this area was vetoed by higher authorities in the U.N./WFP.

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                                              • 7 May 19:27, by Khent

                                                (Civilian Devastation. Abuses by All Parties in the War in Southern Sudan)

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                                                • 7 May 19:28, by Khent

                                                  Many Nuer who rallied to the Nasir commanders did so because they thought that now the Nuer would rule as the Dinka were accused of ruling before. (The Root Causes of Sudan’s Civil Wars: Peace Or Truce, Douglas Hamilton Johnson)

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                                                  • 7 May 19:28, by Khent

                                                    You killed tens of thousands of Dinka civilians on absolute falsehoods because you failed to think before acting (as usual) and have created this atmosphere of hate that you now want to pin on the Dinka. Your motivations in 91 were all about Nuer Nationalism and Riek’s quest for power as part of your tribal superstitions.

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                                                    • 7 May 19:34, by Khent

                                                      Nothing was "hijacked", and you certainly were not patriots. Your Anya-Nya II was just a tribal militia used by Khartoum to further its own ends; this tribal militia had tens of thousands of Nuer militiamen in its ranks doing Khartoum’s bidding... and this essentially split the Nuer into two — those that were with the movement (SPLA) and those that were with Khartoum...

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                                                      • 7 May 19:39, by Khent

                                                        ..And you then all joined Khartoum in 91 for purely tribal reasons based on complete lies. You had not been targeted since the Gajaak massacre — one that was in retaliation for your earlier massacre of 3,000 young Dinka patriots, so spare me this nonsense about you just defending yourselves.

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                                                        • 7 May 19:40, by Khent

                                                          Many Nuer who rallied to the Nasir commanders did so because they thought that now the Nuer would rule as the Dinka were accused of ruling before. (The Root Causes of Sudan’s Civil Wars: Peace Or Truce, Douglas Hamilton Johnson)

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                                                          • 7 May 19:44, by Khent

                                                            Riek’s forces roasted children alive in front of their parents. His forces purposely inflicted further pain and suffering by stealing all the livestock and by slashing and burning all the crops. Was that not "sub-human"? Riek boasted about killing these Dinka civilians...

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                                                            • 7 May 19:44, by Khent

                                                              This is what Riek said to a journalist-historian in the wake of the 1991 split:

                                                              He discounted tribalism as “from a different age”, though boasted that he has “not seen a Nuer who doesn’t support me.” In the same breath, he added, “if there is a tribal element, the Nuer would destroy all the Dinka.” (Me Against My Brother: At War in Somalia, Sudan and Rwanda, Scott Peterson)

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                                                              • 7 May 19:45, by Khent

                                                                The atrocities committed are things [the Dinka] asked for”, he said. He claimed he had dictated what happened: “Fighting at Bor did not get out of control. I was in total control of how far the troops went. “(Me Against My Brother: At War in Somalia, Sudan and Rwanda, Scott Peterson

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                                                                • 7 May 19:51, by Khent

                                                                  We made the people that committed the Bor massacre pay for their crimes when we burned down Uror, Akobo, Nyirol, Yuai and Ayod in our retaliations in 91-2-3. We will not be governed by a traitor; a traitor that was deluded enough to believe that he and his tribe could wipe out the Dinka, and he found out the hard way that he was sorely mistaken. Insist on Riek and you insist on war.

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        • 6 May 15:53, by South South

          jur_likang_a_ likan’g,

          Khent has answered your questions, so I will not go there anymore, but for people like you, jubaone and Eastern who want to destroy South Sudan and think we will be sitting watching them are very wrong. Fake Arabs are facing economic hardship these days like us, so no worry about them.

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          • 7 May 08:46, by jubaone

            South South
            This us jienge republic and NOT "our" country. Jienge republic must be destroyed and a new all inclusive, just and equal society established where each group or ethnicities can freely develop themselves. But your silly and stupid arguments are; the South Sudan is jiengeland and jiengeland is S Sudan. Sorry, Equatorians don’t buy this shit 💩. For this, Equatexit or Kokora.

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        • 6 May 20:19, by jubaone

          Jur,
          How dare you ask such a subhuman such intelligent question? Did you not expect such a behavior from Jienges? They have split personalities perhaps something between cognitive and conscious humans and irrational and unpredictable apes. The jienges has no human position. Just as a chimp has no position, obligation and conscience.

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          • 6 May 21:55, by Khent

            Jubaone

            If these childish games of yours had any real effect in the real world - you would have achieved your goals a million times over. Keep ranting and raving on the internet like some angsty teen while the world just goes on without you.

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          • 7 May 08:56, by jur_likang_a_ likan’g

            Jubaone,

            Mananye, I completely agree with you. These people have no tomorrow. Secondly they have neither thank you nor sorry that categorizes them with apes. They only happy if their tummies are full as regards to where the CHAM comes from is not a matter to them. That is why Mungula is their occupation while Uganda feeds them. They are one of the worst species of living things.

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      • 6 May 15:49, by Eastern

        South South,

        Like I have been saying again and again, Kiir cannot wage a war of attrition and he expects the economy to remain intact. South Sudan was an economy of LAZY SUPER consumers where the petrodollar was settling the 98% of the bills...Generals were acquiring concubines every other day, SPLM top-dogs where stashing away the green bucks like there’s no tomorrow. Now face it...!

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        • 6 May 17:49, by South South

          Eastern,
          We are moving ahead with our country, if you like that, fine, if you don’t hit the road.

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        • 6 May 17:49, by South South

          Eastern,
          We are moving ahead with our country, if you like that, fine, if you don’t hit the road.

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      • 6 May 20:08, by jubaone

        South South
        From nothing comes nothing and as a jienge idiot trying to camouflage his idiocy and foolishness, it’s quite simple to call oneself "brave". Apparently, you can’t use the word "intelligent" cuz you are just a congenital idiot. I can’t help you. Your virtue of "brave" is a glimpse of your savagery. Fix your luak first, then we chat. You still have to evolve into a human. Monkey 🐵.

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    • 6 May 15:40, by Kuch

      Jubaone, has it one day came to your bonehead that ’Jubaone = J1? No one to harm the South Sudanese innocent civilians idiot. But since you idiots only job in South Sudan is always to act contrary to the aspirations of South Sudanese people? You idiots have been honestly ask to shelf your damn aimless armed rebellion, register your own parties, come back to South Sudan, review our constitution>>>

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      • 6 May 15:46, by Kuch

        and contest in elections against the current government. And if you losers win, then you win & can rule our country like everybody else. But if you losers lose, then you lose & reorganize & fight for next elections another day. That is how democracy in done in other countries & even here in South Sudan’s villages idiots. But you losers are not for the interests of South Sudan & the South Sudanese>

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        • 6 May 16:24, by Kuch

          people----some of our Nuers, some of you Equatorians, Shilluks & the bunch of Fertits & even some Acholis are still ’rooting for their foreign masters’. But these days, their alignments is two-three-way-alignment. The losers are still rooting for their cloned arab North Sudan, ethiopia & the US, the UK, their UN, their NGOs & their evil juus:

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            • 6 May 16:47, by Kuch

              Jubaone & Co. fools,
              http://c.newsnow.co.uk/A/936349101?-21266:8599
              That Mr. Henry Dilah Odwor is going to be dead pretty soon diot. He is just an LRA criminal whom we are going to nip off any day from now. Do you fools know, LRA & SSLA/SSIM. EDF, the current so-called SPLM-IO and other foreign criminals are a menace to our country & our people?>>>

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              • 6 May 16:54, by Kuch

                Fellows, here in our Nilotic plains, we will never welcomed the lawlessness of Acholis, Luos of Kenya, the lowly informed Muers, Shilluks and Fertits at all costs into our country. Fellows, if these fools were to be smarter than us, then why did the losers let their next door, their Eastern Congo being ravaged by the Europeans for so long or even Rwanda all along?>>>

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                • 6 May 16:59, by Kuch

                  Fellows, this is South Sudan, a Dinkas/Monyjiengs country, a country of people who have an absolute contempt towards an evil on earth who thinks that he/she can step over over necks. Fellows. Watch this space. We will never ever welcome the evil white Americans, English people, their evil juus, their cloned so-called arabs of North Sudan, Saudi Arabia & some of their creepy allies into our>>>>

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                  • 6 May 17:03, by Kuch

                    country like ethiopians. Fellows, war is here fools & we are going to bomb you & your foreign masters fools to near extinction----fellows; pure HATRED & RACISM IS HERE.

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                • 7 May 08:52, by jubaone

                  Kuch aka koryom2
                  Tribal chauvinism of the lowest order. Just keep your jienge shit 💩 to yourself as long as that remains in jiengeland. Oh mighty monyjienges, the great warriors who though are scampering like frightened chicken 🍗 and squatting in Equatoria. Develop your luaks so we too will wish to visit you. Don’t just run to us to be fed, accomodated and butts wiped clean. No.

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      • 6 May 20:14, by jubaone

        Kuch aka koryom
        Is that not twisted logic, that slaves of yesterday suddenly have evolved into some masters trying to enslave the others? Jienges who lay at the doorsteps of jellaba slave houses are now emulating their earlier masters. What amnesiacs . Chicken 🍗 minds and careless infidels who are swayed by food and not wisdom and intelligence. Scumbags.

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        • 6 May 21:44, by Khent

          Jubaone

          "Slaves"? You mean the people who have been fighting and resisting Arabs for centuries? There’s not a tribe in all of Sudan with a longer and more respectable track-record of fighting Arabs; we kept them at bay and absorbed all the threat they posed to those further in the interior. We paid the heaviest price during the war as well while Equatoria had dozens of militias in Khartoum’s...

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          • 6 May 21:51, by Khent

            ..service. You’ll gain nothing from making this tribal. Your constant rants about the totally fanciful "Equatxit" will achieve nothing. You claim to be superior but you’re just deluding yourself. You’re a bitter little man that always speak of the need for Equatorians to make use of force while never revealing what armed movement you have joined.

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          • 7 May 07:31, by jubaone

            Khent
            Self glorifying and embellishing jienge history won’t help. Oh yes, a sizeable proportion of Jienges have jellaba blood and ancestry. Pretending not to have supplied the bulk of slaves during Mahdiya and thereafter is twisted history. If "Khartoum" were jiengeland, then ostensibly jienge resistance here failed as Jienges dashed further south. Your take on this?

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