By Amb. Francis Nazario
July 1, 2014 - The aspiration of free people in a free country is liberty, a functional government that is capable to provide security and tranquility for the citizens in order to enable them to develop and prosper. South Sudan with its diversities needs not only to seek individual liberty for all its citizens, but also to look for peace among the different communities. Besides individual freedom, peace among communities is one of the main objectives to seek in a multi-cultural Country. In order to promote peace among the different groups, an agreement has to be reached for a political systems which can provide special tools to facilitate the reduction of tendencies of creating centres vis-à-vis peripheries. People should rather look for system that emphasize multiple loyalties. A system that provides autonomy for the different communities on a territorial basis.
The government should promote the nation-wide Party systems which imposes a national character for its formation, which could be an additional tools for reducing the intensity of regional nationalism.
the unfortunate eruption of conflict in our beloved country on December 15th, 2013 that continues to unleash devastation and inflict untold suffering on the civilian population in South Sudan, should be put to end. Hoping that it is the last one, in the youngest Republic in the world we have already experienced in several rebellions in our territory since the year
2005. We have witnessed the rebellions of, General Gabirel Tangynya, followed by the one General Peter Gadet, and then the one of General George Athor, and the then of the General David Yau Yau all were in the greater Upper Nile region. The current civil so far has been the most devastating and has cost the country until this moment a lot of human life’s which is estimated to about 17000 death, and over one million of internally displaced persons, lost of property and destruction of towns.
Because of this conflict, South Sudan is now ranked the most fragile state in the world, it is widely considered to be at brinks of collapsing and facing a serious turmoil which is threatening its existence.
The reasons, which have been advanced by the different rebellions, included, exclusion marginalization, and discrimination among others . No doubt all South Sudanese want to live equally in this country, that no one should be treated differently for whatever reason.
All the people of South Sudan should enjoy equal citizenship by law. It is paramount for the country to put an end to the ongoing conflict, to start by addressing these grievances, set up the rule of law which will pave the way for a lasting peace.
Since the signing of May9th agreement between the President Salva Kiir and his former deputy Dr Riek Machar, the leader of the armed opposition, there are now hopes appearing at the end of the tunnel for Peace Agreement to be reached and the formation of the interim government that would prepare the way for the political future of South sudan, to tackle the question of which government system for our country, we should know what type of government we should advocate for as citizens.
The currently high debates about federal system vis-à-vis Decentralized system for South Sudan ( brought by the CPA)is proving that South Sudan is still repositioning herself on the global stage of political and socio-economic stability. Having keenly observed and gone through lengthy debates of why federalism is an option or not for South Sudan. It is indeed a healthy review for South Sudan It has shown that South Sudanese are at least doing some re-thinking and re-discussing what is good for the people of South Sudan. Federal system is all about giving autonomous powers to a region or a state within a diversified united country. This autonomy could as well be applied to the counties and payams depending on the constitutional frame work of South Sudan. If South Sudan is ready to accommodate diversity, autonomy could be used as a tool to accommodate diversities. Autonomy is feared and rejected with arguments that it prepares the way to secession, leads to disintegration, undermines harmony within the state, and creates important inequalities. Consequently autonomy is also regarded as an impediment to integration and instead systems of multi- ethnicity based on individual human rights are advocated in the belief that minorities will be to foster their special identities within the melting-pot or multi-ethnic system.
South Sudan is in dire need of an inclusive political settlement that addresses the underlying causes of the crisis and sets up a new inclusive political order. South Sudan undoubtedly doesn’t need a new war, but needs a new political dispensation. Unfortunately, South Sudan has inherited a political leadership that failed to rise to promote a clear vision of unity. Hence, the Republic of South Sudan has turned into a great disappointment and a defeat for the people of South Sudan and all their friends . While its various political leaders proven to be insensitive towards the agony and plight of its citizens are bickering over procedural issues,
the people of South Sudan are facing daunting existential challenges and a very gloomy future in their newly independent state.
For South Sudan to regain normality and finally live in peace, the negotiators from the two warring parties, due to sit in Addis Ababa ( Ethiopia) should necessarily address and agree on the following:
The system of Governance, that suits South Sudan
The root causes of the conflict
The injustice and the inequality felt by many people in the new state
The people of South Sudan in its majority are eager to see finally a Peace agreement is reached and being signed with some guarantees for it to be respected and fully implemented by the interim government.
As concern citizens we are aiming at an agreement that brings all the people of South Sudan to a common understanding on how this country should be governed and an agreement that puts an end to the inequality in power sharing, wealth sharing, opportunities distribution among all the communities of South Sudan. The agreement should and set a clear program and a road map for the interim government. We expect to see in the agreement:
a clear mention of the need for an urgent reforms of the following areas:
The security sector ( to avoid the domination of any branch of the security by one community)
The civil service ( to fight nepotism in recruitments, promotion and deployment) and fight all the related ills of corruption)
Financial management system in the country
Fight against corruption
a mention, of the non- inclusion of corrupt individuals in the interim government,
Non inclusion of people allegedly committed atrocities and crimes against humanity in the interim government
No impunity in the Republic of south Sudan
The author can be reached on firstname.lastname@example.org