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South Sudan Independence: John Garang’s home celebrates in style

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July 11, 2011 (BOR) – Citizens of Twic East county, the birth place of Sudan People’s Liberation Movement / Army (SPLM/A) founder, the late John Garang, celebrated the declaration of independence Republic of South Sudan on Saturday, proud of their countryman.

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Twic East commissioner Dau Akooi rising South Sudan flag, Panyagor, South Sudan, July 9, 2011 (ST)

Celebrations for the birth Republic of South Sudan, were marked on 9 July following January’s referendum promised in the 2005 peace accord that ended decades of civil war in the Sudan. The former southern rebels, the SPLM/A signed the Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA) with the Khartoum government ending the 1983—2005 rebellion led by John Garang who hailed from Twic East, Jonglei state.

Garang died in a helicopter crash on 30 July, 2005 – three weeks after becoming the Vice President of the Republic of the Sudan.

Many citizens and representatives from the state legislative assembly attended celebrations in Panyagor, the headquarters of Twic East county.

“We are very proud because the dream has come true,” said Dau Akooi Jurkuch, the commissioner of Twic East county on Saturday. “For Madam Rebecca [wife of late Garang] and his sons and daughters, Dr. John Garang never died in vain. This freedom for the people of South Sudan is your everlasting father,” the commissioner added.

Present at the three day event were members of Jonglei state assembly including John Amuor Kuol, Peter Deng Aguer and Deu Aguil, Bishop of Twic East diocese Ezekiel Ding Malangdit, Bishop of the Reform Church Daniel Dau, Twic East Paramount chief Duot Ajang, SPLM secretary in Twic county among others.

Thousands of local residents attended including musician Nyapaleu, youth from cattle camps who displayed their oxen and performed traditional dances. Several cattle were sacrificed.

(ST)

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  • 12 July 2011 06:26, by biarawieu

    we are there together with you celebrated that happy birthday to our new nation. dream come true that it.

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    • 12 July 2011 07:09, by Dinka Dominated SPLA/M

      we missed you father of the nation founder Dr John Garang de maboir Atem. we love you we respected you and we honnor you untill our lifes end we love those who die for our people
      i love to be a Dinka with historical of sucess and leadership style.
      I also love those brother from different tribes who fought with us and supporting us to reach this freedom of today.
      We forgive those who stabbed us at the back but we will not forget what they did.
      Thank you dr John Garang thank you Salva Kiir Mayardit.
      Thank you south sudanse people.

      Being loyal make me proud of who i am.

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      • 12 July 2011 07:23, by Naath

        You are kidding yourselve, you are not loyal at all. loyalty comes with dignity of heart, and stong judgements, you must be ashame to yourself. Many Dinka are well judgmental when it come to planning, but not you in particular you failed to learn that tactice of many dinkas since you are not resourcing any good cognitive manner." A body doesn’t know that he is dirty until he look on the mirror". this quot reffer to you, take it or throw it away bro.

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    • 12 July 2011 10:13, by superior Junibi

      To all my Jonglei brothers, Stop lying please. This is a time to tell the truth. You people ly even when you dont have to!!!! Killing cows, and dancing in circle like morons is not a stylish celebration. Be creative and create something intelligent other than, copying you dumb ancestors.

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  • 12 July 2011 06:26, by George Bol

    I give thanks to our founding father of the RSS-Dr John Garang for his outstanding work to liberate our people.
    I also thanks our leaders for their jobs done. our our martyrs did not simpley die for something that we had fail, we achieved what we were fighting for long. Thanks to our President Salva Kiir Mayardit for his job as always in difficult time. We will be depending our country from anybody. Thanks

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    • 12 July 2011 09:24, by jacob mayen ajuoi

      aim also give thanks to our Late hero’s father of the Nation Dr Garang de Mabior for his historically moment.i wish if to was not Dr Garang we would have not even race up to these time.my advise southern Sudan ’s the independence country we can not compare southern Sudan of yesterday, and southern Sudan for today.last solve our problem in a good ways please.

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  • 12 July 2011 10:58, by Constant’s

    look @ their Naivety! how can commissioner of Twic East county rise a flag while in Suit?, he has to respect it and for us to respect it too. the flag everywhere in south Sudan was raised by soldiers not civilians, I wish he should have known it before venturing into what will later on level him unloyal to our Nation.

    Dr. Kiir took an oath with his cow boy hat on, Do this Idiots want to spoil our reputation worldwide or they are incapable of running their duties. I gues they might have been drunk like pagan Amum

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    • 12 July 2011 13:56, by Cadaai ?o?

      People always says, "it is not what you see outside is often than what inside and good" so to me, their inside more important than your judgement based on clothes or materials they wore.

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  • 12 July 2011 13:05, by Phil

    To many western and regional observers John Garang’s dream was to achieve united new Sudan. His vision for new Sudan was extremely attractive to people from North, particularly the communist party. On the other hands intellectual from the south, who were separatists, were murdered in cold blood. It was disappointing for him when southerners demand for self- determination became popular and won international community’s support.

    Great to see southerners celebrating their independence, there is still a chance for united new Sudan when SPLM in the takes power in Khartoum.

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  • 12 July 2011 14:06, by Cadaai ?o?

    Firs of all, I thank God (Nhialic) for the blessing gifts to our people. Also I deeply pay my respect to heroes, disables, limbless, hurt insides, veterans, widows, orphans, etc. Thank you very much Dr. John Garang de Mabior, you had shown the world our blessing characters and integrity of Dinka Twic East, may God (Nhialic) rest your soul in peace. Your chievements will be there for many generations of the South Sudanese. Even now one of your book Biography had already came out as it title: Dr. John Garang de Mabior: ’The Undiscovered Stories About Man Behind South Sudanese’ Freedom’

    Websites: http://www.ssaana.org
    http://www.amazon.com/dp/boo54N7BS2

    South Sudan Oyeee! Jonglei Oyeee! Dinka Twic East Oyeee!

    Thank you President Salva Kiir Mayardit, good job and may God (Nhialic) continues to bless with many things in your leaders.

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  • 12 July 2011 16:58, by Kim Deng

    Garang’s "New Sudan," vision and its effects on Southern Sudanese unification

    By: Kim Deng, Bilpam, South Sudan

    The 1955 Torit mutiny marked the beginning of the 17 year old war that was ended by the defunct Anya-Nya I and by the Anya-Nya II insurgencise from 1975-1983, were fought on the priciples of the right of self-determination-meaning the establishment of an independent and sovereign State in the South. When the Addis Ababa Accord of 1972 was signed as an attempt to bring the country its first civil war [1955-1972] between the government and the rebels’ movement to an end, there were a pocket of Any-Nya I elements who doubted about the implementation of the Accord due to lack of commitment and seriousness from the government side. Those few separatists remained in the bush despite the Accord until many other rebelious soldiers of the Sudanes Army rejoined them after Akobo mutiny in 1975 spearheaded by CDR. Vincent Kuany Latjor, eight years before Bor and Ayod mutinies erupted in 1983 respectively. They became a unified force and carried the name SSLM/A or Anya Nya II, the only well-known name for many people under CDR. Vincent Kuany Latjor’s command, whereas the greater Bilpam became their Headquarters. There were over 7,000 troops behind SSLM/A [Anya-Nya II] and the objective of their movement was for total separation of the South from the rest of the country unlike SPLA/M with its "New Sudan," vision.

    After the arrival of "Newcomers," in 1983 as Anya-Nya II call them, two camps were formed within "New-arrivals/Newcomers," Camp A, was under the leadership of Lt. Col. Samuel Gai Tut Yang, Mr. Kuot Atem and CDR. Abdalla William Chuol Deng. Meanwhile, Camp B, led by Col. Dr. John Garang, CDR. Kerubino Kwanyin Bol and CDR. William Nyuon Bany. It is noteworthy mentioned the factious between the two camps and it was due to critical following factors: 1) What should be the sole objective of the movement and its principles, and 2) Who shall lead the movement [SPLA/M?] Camp A, proposed that the objective of the movement shall be "self-determination for South Sudan which mean total separation for South Sudan from the rest of the country, and it shall be led by Mr. Kuot Atem follows by Lt. Col. Samuel Gai Tut Yang," instead camp B, did not only reject that proposal, but came up with its own ideology, an ideology of "’United Socialist Secular/New Sudan,’ and the leader of the movement shall be Lt. Col. Samuel Gai Tut Yang follows by Col. Dr. John Garang."

    It took the two camps few months before camp B rushed to use force against camp A due to fact that, the Ethiopian government which sealed a conspiracy and surreptitious deal with Garang against the separatists was acting behind the scene rather than being a mediator between the two rivals. From their last meeting, CDR. Rhino William Nyuon Bany who doesn’t care about the human life pulled out his pistol and hold it with his right hand while pointing it at Lt. Col. Samuel Gai Tut Yang and CDR. Cobra Abdalla William Chuol Deng, and said "from today onwards, anyone who appears to oppose Dr. Garang’s leadership and the objective of the movement must not be silenced by talks, but bullet." Thus, Camp A, took technical withdrawal from the area (Itang) without a fight to avoid casualties which may result within the town and to give camp B more time to resverse its dead-end judgments toward South Sudan issues.

    To make the matter worse, after Col. Dr. John Garang’s group secured its position against Lt. Col. Samuel Gai Tut’s group, the seizure of Lt. Col. Samuel’s group by Mr. Marxist-Leninist Garang’s group did not satisfy Garang’s appetite, but went further and channeled his plan to annihilate the SSLM/A [Anya Nya II] in Bilpam by force due to fact that this seccessionists’ movement shared the same objectives and principles with Camp A. Therefore, to secure the "New Sudan," vision fully, the "Any-Nya II HQTRs, Bilpam must be destroyed and/or dislodged from its foundation," Garang declared. And on other hand, Mr. Mengistu Hailemariam of Ehiopia, a man who got separatist rebels’ movements [Woyane & Shabiah] in his own backyard , decided to impose his socialist ideology on southern Sudanese, and that mission must be fulfilled by someone who believes in that vision; "Dr. Garang must be the right person," according to calculation of Dergue regime base on its interests and bipartisan issues between the two allies.

    With no regret, the Ethiopian armed forces along with few elements from Garang’s group launched an asault against the Anya-Nya II position in October 1983 which caught them by surprise. The Anya-Nya II Headquarters, Bilpam was not only smashed down to ground, but also many of its separatists’ fighters were eliminated and those who caught alive were ordered to dig out their own graves before excuted them by firing-squad if they repudiate joining the former Marxist-Leninist SPLA/M. Of cours, many deserters from SSLM/A [Anya Nya II] joined Garang’s group conditionally, amongst them; CDR. John Kulang and CDR. Kuach Kang.

    There exist relationship between the Anya-Nya II and Lt. Col. Samuel Gai Tut’s group came in exsistence before and after Garang’s group failed to engage Lt. Col. Samuel Gai Tut’s group in dialogues, but in confrontations in Warfield as he [Garang] declared from his under ground rally. Thereafter, Lt. Col. Samuel Gai Tut’s group merged with SSLM/A [Anya-Nya II] under his leadership since Vincent Kuany Latjor, the Anya-Nya II first leader was caught alive and put into very isolated World (prison) after his Headquarters, Bilpam was burned down to ash by the two Marxists [Mengistu & Garang.] Without Ethiopian armed forces back-up, can Garang’s group alone be attempted to annihilate Anya-Nya II forces in Bilpam?

    In war, the skin of Fox is at times necessary as that of a Lion, for cunning may succeed when force fails. Speaking from his undergound rally as mentioned so far, in a message to his disciples, he declared that "the first bullet must be fired against the separatists [Anya-Nya II]," as an attempt to impose his self-claimed "New Sudan," vision on Southern Sudanese and hijacked the movement from its founders/separatists altogether, coincidence?

    A year later, Lt. Col. Samuel Gai Tut’s group, [SSLM/A /Anya-Nya II] who were expelled from Ethiopia came back to engage Garang’s group in dialogues because there exists, the great hope from the separatists’ side in the vision of reunification of unionists [SPLA/M] and separatists [SSLM/A/Anya- Nya II], as it had been the case against "Dergue" regime of Mengistu Hailemariam by two rebel factions [Woyane & Shabiah/separatists and unionists] from his own backyard who accomplished their mission in May 1991 when they waged a war agaisnt the tyranny regime under unified force. What if the Sudan’s rebels [Unionists and Separatists] put their differences aside since 1983 and confronted the common enemy, the Khartoum government[NIF/NCP] as a unified force? I leave the answer(s) for you.

    First, they [Anya-Nya II] camped at Mangok, Chatyier and other surrounding areas on their way toward Achua (Itang) where the talks should have been renegotiated. The SPLA/M was reluctant and not fain or serious to deal with SSLM/A [Anya-Nya II] in dialogues, but in warfare instead. While the Anya-Nya II was waiting for talks to resume once again after arrival at Itang, the SPLA/M and Ethiopian armed forces were planning to encircle the Anya-Nya II forces in order to capture their ringleaders alive and/or eliminate/imprison them. This left Lt. Col. Samuel Gai Tut with no other option, but to withdraw his troops from the town which they have surrounded for more than a week after he learned that, Ethiopian government and the SPLA/M were not interested in peace talks, but war.

    CDR. Cobra Abdallah William Chuol Deng, a man who fears no man on earth, the human toll was the least of his concerns rejected Lt. Col. Samuel Gai Tut’s order and wanted the whole town to be burned down to the ground, this prompted Lt. Col. Samuel Gai Tut to order some of his soldiers to tie-up CDR. Cobra Abdallah William Chuol Deng. Lt. Col. Samuel Gai Tut did that not only to avoid heavy casualties which may result mainly on innocent people [women and children] in the town, but also to give Col. Dr. John Garang’s group more time to relinquish its poor "New Sudan," vision for the movement. Lt. Col. Samuel Gai Tut’s last word to Col. Dr. John Garang and his subordinates after the talks failed in 1984. Mr. Samuel said, "Mr. Garang, you have not anchored South Sudan to your ’New Sudan,’ vision, but you have anchored your ’New Sudan,’ vision a unified Sudan to South Sudan. In the end, my friend(s) you’ll find it will not work. It will be ghastlier than you can even imagine."

    Mr. Marxist-Leninist Garang’s group viewed Lt. Col. Samuel Gai Tut’s group retreat as a defeat to Anya-Nya II, and as such; "the next step must be to chase them until their ringleaders are eliminated and/or caught alive." The second engagement between the Anya-Nya II and the SPLA/M at the battle of Thiajack (Adura) was not a big surprise to Anya-Nya II forces and as a result of that clash, the Any-Nya II forces did not only burned down the town which was under the control of SPLA forces at the time, but inflicted heavy loses on unionists’ side, killed many, scattered and pursued those who could run for their safety until they reached Mangok-Chatyier unknowingly. Yet even though, the victory was on separatists’ side, from the battle of Thiajack, a man who loves and value all human being from all walks of life regardless of ethnicities; a man whose vision has been for South Sudan independence; a man who qualified both in politics and military and above all, a SSLM/A [Anya-Nya II] leader, Lt. Col. Samuel Gai Tut’s life was cut short in that ruthless, aimless and epic conflicts between the separatists and unionists just simply because he opposed Mr. Marxist-Leninist Garang’s self-claimed "New Sudan," vision. This shameful death will never be forgotten for generations to come.

    After receiving the bad news, regarding Lt. Col. Samuel Gai Tut’s death, CDR. Cobra Abdallah William Chuol Deng became wild and ordered the Anya-Nya II troops to "fight like mad dogs against the unionists to the last man." As a result, many lives were wasted from both sides in many engagements, counterattack after another. The SPLA/M activities were blocked by the Anya-Nya II forces across the greater Upper Nile until Lt. Gen. Gordon Koang Chuol declared that, "there is no need for Mr. Garang’s "New Sudan," vision to keep South Sudan hostage, but to reconcile with unionists and challenge Garang’s "New Sudan," vision within."

    DK. Koat Matthew played a crucial role in that strategic move, but a man of his words and fearless man, Lt. Gen. Lion Paulino Matip Nhial declined the move and said, "I’ll never united the Anya-Nya II with Marxist-Leninist SPLA/M under Mr.Garang’s leadership with his "New Sudan," vision. If I do which I doubt, that will be the day when I walk with my feet upside down." Which mean, over 80% of Anya-Nya II forces under the command of Lt. Gen. Lion Paulino Matip crossed the great Nile from East Bank to the West side, whereas Mayom became their Headquarters, meanwhile, the remaining 20% under the command of Lt. Gen. Rhino Gordon Koang merged with SPLA/M, which gave Garang’s group wide-gauge windows to capture many towns and garrisons from the common enemy [NIF/NCP] including Nasir town itself. Then, what if the whole Anya-Nya II [Separatists] merged with SPLA/M [Unionists] and confronted the common enemy as a unified force regardless of their differences? With no doubt, Mr. Marxist-Leninist Garang’s "New Sudan," vision was a setback to Southern Sudanese unification since 1983 and its brings many advantages to the main enemy beyond unioinsts’ imagination.

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    • 12 July 2011 17:34, by Cadaai ?o?

      By the way, like your counterpart article. However, I my view is different from yours. In political terms, I don’t think the self-determination would have achieved this freedom or independence we Southerners celebrated this days. Why? Because the vision of Anya-Nya II was the same with Anya-Nya I failed struggles for South Sudanese independence. That’s why the SPLM/A did take indirect road to achieve that goal. I did say "Indirect road", if I had mentioned it, my friend; the SPLM/A was fighting for South Sudan independence. In which the only conspiracy of political you may not understand. And here are few of my support about indirect road of struggle. The SPLM/A under Dr. John Garang was tricky under its visions. For example, the unionist statement was used for interests of the movement to marginalized our some of the Northerners who had been used by Northerners to kills our people in South through the name of religion and those sorts of an ideology. Also to gains support from Mengistu, Gadhafi, Egypt, Tribes in North, and of course, from the Arabs world’s nations. Furthermore, if Dr. Garang had been purely fought for South Sudan independence. I don’t think we would have achieved the freedom we owned today. Why? Because we are not much with North Sudan’s power based on populations and other elements of war related. Finally, arab countries would have attributed to their brothers and sisters in North. Nice tried body, but the truth of matter is, the unionist have just achieved the same goal people like don’t believe it would happen.

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  • 12 July 2011 17:03, by Kim Deng

    The 2nd split between the Separatists and Unionists within SPLA/M in 1991

    There have been many Separatists within SPLA/M since 1983 who believed that Garang’s "New Sudan," vision must be challenged within until their strategy yielded signal towards Garang’s "New Sudan," vision in 1991 due to what we call "Nasir move," the very blessing day for Southern Sudanese, the Nasir Declaration of August 28, 1991 which gave birth to "self-determination for South Sudan. http://www.sudantribune.com/spip.php?article27738 It divided the movement [SPLA/M] into two factions once again; the SPLA/M-Torit faction under the command of Mr. Marxist-Leninist Garang with his self-claimed "United Socialist Secular/New Sudan," vision and the SPLM/A-Nasir faction under the leadership of Dr. Riek Machar Teny-Dhurgon with his "self-determination for South Sudan." http://www.africa.upenn.edu.hornet/sd_machar.html

    Dr. Riek was compelled to declare Nasir move, not only because Mr. Garang was running the movement like his own property which was acknowledged by Lt. Gen. Salva Kiir after it was already too late in 2004 when he find himself openly at odds with his superior, but due to lack of clear directions, objectives, principles and human rights for/in the movement. Therefore, if the Naath (Nuer) as a community has been hungry for leadership as Jaang (Dinka) always shamelessly claim it, why would Lt. Col. Samuel Gai Tut select Mr. Akuot Atem who is a Dinka by tribe to be the leader of the movement in 1983 if not only because the selection was rejected by Mr. Marxist-Leninist Garang? Why would CDR. William Nyuon Bany aim his Pistol at Lt. Col. Samuel Gai Tut, CDR. Cobra Abdalla William Chuol Deng and their supporters just to secure another Dinkaman, Mr. Garang’s leadership?

    In the Garangist mental scheme, all the "anti-New Sudan," who still believe in Anya-Nya II vision of secession must be eliminated. As far as Garang knew, the SPLA forces of Torit faction under his command had every reason to believe that they had upper hand and that they could make it all the way to Nasir. Garang thought that the SPLM/A-Nasir faction under the command of Dr. Riek was very weak, demoralized and incapable of defending its Headquarters, Nasir let alone taking offensive operations. Shortly after the Nasir Declaration of August 28, 1991 was announced, Garang declared, "the Gang of two Drs," as he prefers to call them (Dr. Riek & Dr. Lam) "must be given their last blow." He went further, "we will break them down soon, and it is a question of time before we bring the separatists to the vision of no-return." After Garang’s statements were intercepted by SPLM/A-Nasir faction, Lt. Gen. Tiger Bol Koang declared that " the very existence of the SPLM/A-Nasir fation is in danger," and demanded that "all soldiers stand firm and fight to last drop of blood."

    Not surprisingly, the SPLA-Torit faction forces under the command of CDR. Rhino William Nyuon Bany launched an assault which routed almost instantly against the Anya-Nya II position along with few soldiers who appeared to be from SPLA-Nasir faction forces, burned down some villages from Nuer Genesis homeland Bentiu [Liech/Unity State] including Leer, Dr. Riek Machar’s hometown. What CDR. William Nyuon and his forces didn’t realize at first was that in the second half of September, Lt. Gen. Lion Paulino Matip already redeploying many of his troops [Anya-Nya II] to prepare for "Operation Typhoon." Instead of accepting their fate, the Any-Nya II fought back with a ferocity that stunned the ill-prepared Torit-faction. Most of Torit-faction troops were ground-up by the Anya-Nya II forces. The Any-Nya II forces under the command of Lt. Gen. Lion Paulino Matip did not only inflicted heavy losses on Torit-faction, but pushed back William’s forces and penetrated deep inside BEG. This campaign against CDR. William’s forces, compelled them to retreat from the area just after Lt. Gen. Lion Paulino Matip sent in more reinforcements.

    But the SPLA-Torit faction forces under the command of Lt. Gen. Salva Kiir and Lt. Gen. Kuol Manyang Juuk who were deployed from the direction of Kongoor and Pochalla respectively to wipe out Dr. Riek Machar’s forces as ordered and predicted by Mr. Garang, failed miserably from their suicide attempt, instead encircled and pursued like hunting dogs chase rabbits or deer by Dr. Riek’s forces under the command of Lt. Gen. Tiger Bol Koang and CDR. Tiger Koang Banypiny. As a result, almost all the surrounding garrison-posts under the control of SPLA/M-Torit faction: Duk Padiet, Panyagor, Kongoor, Twic East, Mading Bor ... plus some part of BEG were burned down to ash when the "Operation Typhoon," was launched as the two Heroes (Bol Koang & Koang Banypiny) call it. Garang understimated the SPLM/A-Nasir faction military strength, but his commanders on the ground knew they were often paying a heavier price of them than expected in terms of casualties-and that, in many areas, the Torit faction advance wasn’t moving as swiftly as they had hoped. Garang’s commanders were preoccupied with the more immediate goal: ensuring that their troops would maintain their progress as they prepared to strike Nasir faction from all directions.

    Dr. Riek ordered his troops to withdraw after reaching Jumeza in greater Equartoria. The SPLA forces under Torit faction suffered tremendous losses and their mission to bring "the Gang of two alive or dead and trash the self-determination for Southern Sudanese into garbage bin for good," as Garang declared earlier before the war widespread like a wildfire beyond his imagination, failed miserably rather than vice-versa. A straggering pace that reflected the disarray of Garang’s subordinates encountered in most of the areas under attack. Torit, Kapoeta, Yei ... were on the verge of cowardice and panic-mongering evacuation until the common enemy overan almost all the liberated areas without any resistance from Garang’s SPLA/M-Torit faction. Why did the SPLA/M-Torit faction fail to withstand its ground?

    Many areas including major towns: Torit, Kapoeta, Mading Bor ... were recaptured and/or surrendered to the common enemy without a fight as a result of split. The remaining few garrisons/towns under the control of Torit faction were on the verge of panic of evacuation either to Uganda or Kenya refugees’ camps as well. Garang was blinded by his burning conviction that Torit faction has to depeat and subjugates the Nasir faction, a movement that he contemptuously dismissed as "a Gang of two." Garang himself suffered a near psychological collapse as his faction looked as though it might implode. Garang’s forces should have been crushed/break down and/or chased up to Kenya/Uganda-Sudan borders if Dr. Riek was for military option rather than reconcilation through peaceful dialogues. Garang’s "New Sudan," vision did not accomplish anything, but setbacks, chaos, death, subjugation by terror and epic conflics between the separatists and unionists. It was Garang’s ambition in war that compelled Nasir faction to take immediate retaliatory-military countermeasures. The burning questions are: What prompted Garang to be the first to ignite the fire which he could not extinguish? Did Garang’s SPLA/M have the political will and muscles to confront both the main enemy (NIF/NCP) and the separatists at the same time?

    There is no connection between the Nuer vs. Dinka and Separatists vs. Unioinsts. Of course, the armed civilians from subject tribes intervened during confrontations between the unioinsts and separatists in those dark days, and their intervention should not justify that the war was between the two big tribes rather than reasons suitable to their own interests. There have been ups and downs between these two big rival tribes since 1800s and it still functioning as we speak. Duk Padiet which was burned down to ash twice by Mighty Nuer Warriors/Jech-in-Bor at the presence of GoSS and its army (SSAF/SPLA), proved beyond the reasonable doubt that Nuer vs. Dinka still exists.

    The Nuer ethnic group has never been thirsty for leadership/power as some folks may believe especially the Dinka, as a matter of fact the movement [SPLA/M] from its first two years, it was mainly dominated by Nuer ethnic group. The first two battalions [104 & 105] or Jamus & Tumsah almost all the troops were from Nuer tribe and if in doubts, don’t hesitate to consult someone like Lt. Gen. Salva Kiir, Lt. Gen. James Gathoth Mai, Lt. Gen. Oyiey Deng Ajack, Mr. Governor, Taban Deng Gai, S.G. Pagan Amum, Mrs. Nyandeng Mabior, but just for your information.

    Many elements from Anya-Nya II who deserted conditionally joined the SPLA/M within 1983. CDR. Rhino William Nyuon Bany who is believed to be the one to bring Garang to power is a Nuer by tribe. Lt. Col. Samuel Gai Tut and his group wanted another Dinkaman, Mr. Kuot Atem to be the leader of the movement, but Garang and his group did not only rejected the offer, intead wanted Garang to lead the movement after the Dergue regime of Mr. Mengistu Haile Mariam secured the "New Sudan," vision for them. The blessing day for Southern Sudanese, the August 28, 1991 of Nasir Declaration was not a mean to hijack the leadership from Dinka as many people may assume, but a strategic move to force Garang and his disciples to make a U-turn from "United Socialist Sercular/New Sudan," vision to self-determination for the people of Southern Sudan. Therefore, base on all the above mentioned factors, it demonstrated that, the Nuer as a community has never been hungry for leadership/power and this must refute Dinkas’ claims.

    And of course, as a result of Nasir move, Garang divorced and abandoned the alliance, called the SPLA/M 1st National Convention at Chukudum in 1994 and the self-determination for South Sudan was the first agenda in that Convention. The movement changed from its former name, SPLA/M as it was wel-known back then to SPLM/A. Garang put self-determination for South Sudan to be the first agenda/priority whenever there is a peace talks with Khartoum government and Garang himself eventually signed for it [self-determination for Southern Sudanese] in CPA. Garang gave up his "New Sudan," vision, a vision he always refers as a "vision of no-return." This raised too many unsettling questions from his allies especially the inner circle of NDA, Nuba Mountains and Blue Nile who were not only oblivious, but also betrayed by his self-observed "New Sudan," vision thereafter they realized that Garang shamelessly made a U-turn which left them in illusion.

    The right of self-determination has been eloquently championed and ariculated nationally and internationally by the Anya-Nya II and SSIM/A since 1975. The Nasir Declaration on August 28, 1991 has a democratic and an inalienable right to all people as well as conflict resolutions. The National Democratic Alliance (NDA) an umbrella of the traditional Northern political parties, the former Marxist-Leninist SPLA/M and the National Islamic Fundamentalist (NIF/NCP) regime in Khartoum were all asthmatic to cencept of the right of self-determination. Thus, no matter what the so called traditional parties do, they do not have the trust and confident of the South for their deception and unilateral abrogation and dishonored of many agreements. The SPLA/M alliance with NDA was a repeat of the past, which SPLA/M should have not fail to understand its future implications for the South once the so called NDA gets the wheels of the power in Khartoun.

    Then, why remain separated if the former Marxist-Leninist SPLA/M led by Garang relinquished its "New Sudan," vision after it was forced by Nasir move to adopt the only sole objective for the movement, the self-determination for South Sudan? Leadership has never been a big concern from separatists’ political point of view since 1983 as some people may blindly believe, but directions, objectives, principles and human rights for/in the movement. The SPLA/M division between the separatists and unioinsts should not justify the merits to classify the SPLM/A and/or GoSS as a Dinka movement/gov’t just simply because the two leaders; Col. Dr. Garang and Lt. Gen. Salva Kiir hail from that ethnic group. If this is the case, as some folks claim it, Lt. Col. Samuel Gai Tut, Col. Dr. John Garang, should have not joined the Anya-Nya I [SSLM/A] under the leadership of Mr. Joseph Lagu, but viewed it as Baria’s movement.

    Kim Dng is a military Historian, SSAF officer from Headquaters, Bilpam and he can be reached at kdeng75@yahoo.com

    repondre message

    • 12 July 2011 17:37, by Cadaai ?o?

      Mr. Kim

      By the way, the incident of the 1991 is now being called as "Southeastern or Eastern Dinka massacre". Just because your are historian.

      repondre message

      • 12 July 2011 17:39, by Cadaai ?o?

        Again, as you are historian as well. Dinka (Jieng) Twic/Tuic East is not Dinka Bor as most people always miss-identify this tribe. Thanks.

        repondre message

  • 12 July 2011 18:32, by Deng MANYOK Awuol

    the effort of Twic community is highly appreciated in the attainment of this Nation. Different ideologies needed unity so Garang’s unity was meant for Southerners. May the dead rest in eternal peace and Twic community be always the same with the same vision.

    repondre message

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