Home | Comment & Analysis    Saturday 6 November 2010

Egypt is not just looking for Water!


By Justin Ambago Ramba

November 5, 2010 — Egypt’s role in the Sudanese affairs is quite a long one that carries with it a lot of bitter memories and is dissented across a wider section of the Sudanese population. Sudan’s ‘northern neighbour’ is both remembered as a collaborator of the imperialists during the colonial era [of the Turkey-Egyptian administration and later the Condominium Anglo – Egyptian rule] in the country. However it is the greed for the resources of its sub Saharan neighbours and as well as the continuing patronising attitudes that has put many at odds with this colonial expansionist. No great wonder that in south Sudan, the moment Egypt is mentioned, people’s minds immediately go to the Jonglei canal, the protest demonstrations of the early 1970s, and how the project has become a curse to talk about openly.

Nevertheless we are all aware that Egypt is not alone in these expansionist policies towards sub Saharan African, meant to pass through the land of south Sudan. Our oral and written histories have countless records on Egypt’s role in the slave trade and raids that ravaged the whole area. This will remain a hot issue in our relationships and the Egyptian leadership must prepare itself to give apologies and must rightly pay compensations to the relatives of the victims. However it seems that our people are meant to pass through yet difficult times and hurdles before we make our rightful presence felt along the Nile. If Egypt is suffering from collective amnesia, we are not.

It is true that it has taken too long before any south Sudanese ever puts it clear to the Egyptians that they are the main culprits in the difficulties facing our people today. It was the Egyptian throne that annexed south Sudan and Darfur to the present day Sudan, a move only justified by greed and pure colonial interests. And no wonder that they are still seen to play the role of the hand in the glove with their fellow Arabs of the riveran north Sudan in the joint ventures of Arabisation, Islamisation and the simultaneous dehumanisation and marginalisation of the indigenous black Africans.

Now we have been told that the Egyptian Foreign Minister Ahmed Abul Gheit has expressed fears that the referendum for south Sudan’s independence scheduled for 9th January 2011 could spark violence and a huge exodus of refugees.

“We fear separation may be accompanied by some violent actions that affect Sudan’s relations with neighbouring countries and Egypt, which circumstances may oblige to host Sudanese” fleeing unrest, the official Mena news agency quoted him as saying.

“This is matter of concern that requires adequate preparations,” he said.

In reality one puzzles at this monotonous statement that came from Egypt’s top diplomat. However the people of south Sudan are keen enough to read between the lines as to exactly what this Arab agent is up to. It is worth appreciating his recognition to the fact that the referendum is obviously leading to the independence of south Sudan. And this quite clearly underscores the main reason for his anxiety.

It is also true that over quite a long period of time that Egypt has hosted large numbers of Sudanese refugees who were made to flee their homes due to the so many political unrest that the country has to face as a consequence of a rotten policies in the centre, since a time immemorial. Even dating back to the colonial era many people declared by the rulers as persona non grata had always been exiled to Egypt and this later continued to include opposition leaders and ousted heads of the state etc. These were of course people who fled to Egypt with huge loots from the public coffers that the host is very happy to have. late ex-president Jaafar Nimeri and the late ex-head of the supreme council , Ali Mirghani and of course a countless other politicians from the old Sudanese Socialist Union [SSU] days to the current leaders of the Sudanese Sectarian parties and the drop outs from the Ingaz system of the NIF/NCP, all enjoyed and continue to enjoy refuge in Egypt.

But it is the other group of refugees that the Egyptian chief diplomat is worried of and they are the black Africans mainly from south Sudan, the Nuba Mountains and Darfur who fled their villages and towns due to the scorch earth campaign by the central government in Khartoum. However even this demography may not exactly represent the whole picture as Egypt was already in receipt of Sudanese nationals who fled the man-made floods in Wadi Halfa, when the High Dam was built . The sad outcome of this ambitious project was a great loss to the indigenous Nubian, land, people and civilization.

As I write hundreds of northern Sudanese continue to make it to Cairo on weekly basis and this has nothing to do with the north-south politics. So for the Egyptian top diplomat to conclude that the secession vote in the south would ultimately lead to an exodus of refugees is rather an over-reaction, because refugees from the Sudan had kept pouring into Egypt even when Sudan is still a united country.

Obviously when Abul Gheit refereed to the referendum and its obvious out-come as a matter of concern that requires adequate preparations, he wasn’t really doing his country’s diplomacy any favour. Does he need to remind that Egypt was part of the whole Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA) which brought about the relative peace between the north and the south? Does he need to be reminded that the CPA also spelt very clearly the right of the people of south Sudan to self determination in the end of the six years? Why did Egypt accept to be a witness to this agreement and how comes that it failed to prepare his Arab fellows of northern Sudan to keep count of time and get prepared earlier?

Although one may have to say this every time an Arab spoiler comes up to say that the preparations for the referenda are behind schedule as if unaware of the evil intensions of their fellows in Khartoum, I will do it. Let Egypt be reminded for record that its fellows in northern Sudan and the dominant NIF/NCP of President Omer al Bashir have come out-openly on several occasions to say that they would do whatever it takes to abort the independence poll. Mr. Diplomat the issue at hand is that your Arab fellows, the northern Sudanese Arabs and their NIF/NCP regime do not have the political will to implement any agreement whatsoever the case.

Egypt of all countries should have understood better that the root causes of the Sudanese Political Crisis as a country, lies with its ruling elites of the Arab riverans who are not in any way willing to share power with the vastly marginalised Sudanese of the periphery. The solution thus lays in up-rooting this cancer that is right in the centre of the Sudanese politics-----yet they [Egypt] chose to turn a blind eye and do business as usual.

Abu Gheit has definitely gone on the offensive, and is doing his best to hatch the plan that the Arab League have laid down behind the closed doors..... a futile attempt to drown the south Sudan’s freedom. It is all in what he said:

“It is not a problem if the referendum is delayed for several months,” Mena quoted the Egyptian minister as saying. “Sudanese should take into account the priority of the importance of life over the importance of holding the referendum on time,” he said.

Now it can be seen that Egypt is desperately trying to dope the people of south Sudan into accepting second class citizenry ..........the importance of life, even if remaining in servitude. To the Arabs and Egypt is no exception, there is no importance in holding the referendum on time. Let us hope that south Sudan will find the forum to answer Abu Gheit and thank him for his concern over our lives. But as of now he needs to know that we would rather die standing on our feet than to continue to live on our knees. It is a problem to delay the referendum even for a day Mr. Abu Gheit.

In a similar development the Egyptian Foreign Minister was also quoted (MENA), as saying that his country had offered Sudan a "confederate" solution, but did not give details. This eventually reflects the fact how Egypt and the entire Arab world have chosen to live in denial in spite of the naked reality that south Sudan is determined to go its way and everything that is happening now are just formalities. The option of “confederate system” has lost its appeal to the people of south Sudan. It was suggested in Abuja- Nigeria, by the former Nigerian leader Ibrahim Babangida, and although it received an acceptance from the SPLM/A - at that time, unfortunately it wasn’t favoured by Khartoum. Again it was turned down during the IGAD managed peace negotiations in Kenya. This was how the Right to Self Determination for south Sudan emerged as the only choice.

For the sake of simplicity my readers can do well to see the example of ‘confederate systems’ from the countries that practise it. Usually it is an arrangement between two or more independent countries that chose either for security [self defence] or economic reasons to confederate. Under such an arrangement the members usually share common economy, monetary system, defence and the foreign policy.

In these days when everybody seems to be saying something whether sensible or not, we have heard even some senior members of the south’s ruling SPLM party who were captured in the media stressing the need to maintain good links between the north and the south even following the inevitable secession. Such things are easily said than done, and nobody in their right state of mind can be deluded into believing that the NCP and the SPLM, who dramatically failed to create any harmony in the government of national unity [GoNU] over the last six, can miraculously turn around to make and run two confederate states.

Economic confederation needs trust and transparency, and although the test in our case was largely limited to the oil revenues, it was enough to make a strong case where the South felt deceived in its share of the money. How do you expect this very people who will continue to rule on both sides of the divide to establish any functioning and viable unitary economy without trading accusations that can eventually lead to the same war that the Egyptians now claim to be worried of? Call it the war of resources and it can only be avoided by honouring treaties, but not pushing them under the carpet.

The other issues are the foreign policy and defence. These two in the current Sudan are extremely difficult if not impossible to remain one due to sharp ideological differences between the two parts or even the ruling parties. The north and the NIF/NCP for that matter is bound to have an Arab and Islamic foreign policy and military, while the south and the SPLM will obviously maintain its secular, Pan African foreign policy and army. The contrast is clear and too vivid to be pushed under the carpet. Egypt cannot pretend, NOT to see all these.

Down the centuries African statesmen have cried out against their relationship with the Arabs. Worse still was the devastating rampage caused by the Arab slavers. About the year 1396, Uthman Biri Ibn Idris, King of Bornu (the Bornu Empire (1396-1893) was a medieval African state of Nigeria from 1396 to 1893. It was a continuation of the great Kanem Empire founded centuries earlier by the Sayfawa Dynasty. In time it would become even larger than Kanem, incorporating areas that are today parts of Chad, Niger and Cameroon) in a letter to Sultan Barquq of Egypt, complained:

“We have sent you as ambassador my cousin, Idris Ibn Muhammad, because of the calamity we suffered. the Arabs who are called Judham and others have taken captives our free subjects ---women and children and old people, and our relatives, and other Muslims....these Arabs have harmed all our land, the land of Bornu, continually up to the present, and have captured our free subjects and relatives, who are Muslims, and are selling them to the slave-dealers in Egypt and Syria and elsewhere, and some they kept for themselves.”[Chinweizu- decolonising the African mind].

When all these experiences are taken together, it is clear that, as far as Arabs are concerned, all may be equal in Islam, but blacks are decidedly less equal than Arabs and whites, and can be discriminated against, enslaved and even out-rightly cheated with clear Arab conscience.

The same is now being replicated in Darfur which was purely a black African and Muslim Sultanate and was invaded by this very Egypt who annexed it as a colony to the current Sudan. Today Darfur continues to bleed from this expansionist Arab campaign, but do we know what those who created the status quo are doing? Instead of helping in sorting out the Darfur conflict, Egypt has resorted to train its snipers using live bullets on unarmed Darfuris who are themselves victims of the state sponsored Egypt Arab Bedouins.

In light of all that we can better appreciate the following remark by Vusamazulu Credo Mutwa, [born on 21 July 1921 in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa is a Zulu Sangoma (traditional healer) and High Sanusi]: “I find it hard to understand the role the Arabs are trying to assume nowadays------the pose of spokesmen for the black people, and even that of liberators. It will take more than honeyed overtures of friendship to make us forget what the Arabs did to Africa.

Although we are made to think that Egypt is driven by its concerns about its Nile water rights in spite of the historical fact that it does not contribute even a single bucket of water to the Nile water, the realities on the ground are beginning to show just more than that. It is trying hard to make its presence felt in south Sudan by erecting some water and electricity projects and the state airline EgyptAir is expected to fly twice a week to the southern capital Juba. But to put it mildly, this North African giant looks much trapped in its past glories when it had control over south Sudan as part of the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan. We would appreciate if they limit their search to a quest for water. This they better do that without toeing the line as times have changed.

Dr. Justin Ambago Ramba, M.B, B.Ch, D.R.H, MD. He can be reached at either justinramba@doctors.org.uk or justinramba@aol.co.uk.


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  • 6 November 2010 06:44, by DASODIKO

    Dr. Ambago

    Good job, these Egyptians and the Arabs are panic to see Sudan the country they deemed inhabited by fools,break away and go out of their control. The Arabs when they make you an Arab and they know that you can’t be an Arab, then they are looking for your resources and to stand on their side in their crisis. But when you are are in trouble they stand aside and look.
    They call Sudan the gate of Africa, to do what in Africa? to impelement Sharia laws on African men and women?

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  • 6 November 2010 10:38, by AAMA

    Ok, Egypt might be selfish some times, but so are many other countries including the future south sudan lead by people with your hateful attitude. I dont know what is the end of this rotten and sick mentality. For god sake, stop brainwashing your peoples minds by insighting ethinc and religious differences between them and their future partners. You talked about slave trade also, which is fine but you should also know that everybody countributed to that unhuman activity including your own people by fascilitating and enslaving there brothers. You also need to now that you and your selfish leaders in the south are not helping your fellow so called second class citizens (who techinical have more (deliberatly unused) rights than the northerners, including the breaking up the country while their northern brothers are sitting idle) I just wonder who is the second class citizen today ?.

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  • 6 November 2010 12:36, by Akolde Nhiak Jinub

    Mr/Mrs AAMA,

    It is good that you have admitted Egypt being a great-role- player in slave trade against majority; black African tribes in Sudan and other nations along the Nile river and Sub Saharan Africa countries.

    Dr. Justin isn’t brainwashing or instigating any educated or knowledgeable Southerner today in South Sudan or outside.
    A good example is the 2006 incident, in which Egyptian Police heartlessly killed innocent South Sudanese civilians at open in Egypt, who are at sit-in strike to UNHCR, and was not to Egyptian Government, and without causing any harm or damage to anything or human in Egypt. What are you talking about you idiot!!!???

    Egypt MUST stop its rhetorics of referenda delay or else we South Sudanese of today will permanently black-list Egypt and be considered second greatest enemy to South Sudanes living, existence, and its quest for its rightful place on earth!!!

    Stop your barbaric talks of Referenda (South and Abyei)delay and support to NCP and its idiots in north Sudan and never; or else Egypt remains an enemy to South Sudan and her people. South Sudan and Abyei are gone as separate state (People’s Republic of South Sudan Ooooyeee).

    Akolde, Rumbek, South Sudan

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    • 6 November 2010 13:59, by AAMA

      Mr/Mrs Akolde,

      First, i am not an idiot and i don’t have to exchange insults with you or your likes.
      Second, i am not a pro NCP (I hate their policies just as i hate the SPLM policies).
      Third, best wishes with your new country and please get out of this oppressed guy box because you are not opressed any more.
      Fourth, the difference between me and you is that i think before i allow myself to be manipulated, but for you, you just tend to trust and blindly follow such authors allowing your self to be a tool for them.
      Fifth, i don’t want to see anymore hate in Sudan after the upcoming division, and these writers incite such hate to charge the people to reach certain goal (something that i see as unethical).

      Peace and i wont reply any futher insulting comments please !!!!

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  • 6 November 2010 16:47, by Samir mahmoud

    Whoever writes with a northern name in Sudan Tribune is automatically classified as "NCP",how stramge????
    Notably by one Dassidoko,who i suspect is a Ugandan operative paid by Musivini?
    Ambago ramblings make no sense at all.Confederation was before tabled by none other than Dr,Francis Deng,i doubt very much if Ambago Ramba have read that lecture that Dr.Francis deng gave and neither Ramba nor Dassidoko,can rise up to his status as a Sotherner Intellectual.
    As for the historical references,Ambago makes,they are not certified sources and are more of imaginations,i would appreciate if he were to give us the authorities he quotes.
    I for one criticized Egypt’s proposal but for more objective reasons.
    Slavery,to which he jgnorantly refers and blames it on the "Arabs",and not all people of the North are as arabs ,by the way,is a old practice even between the trribes and ge better go back to history and what used to happen in tribal wars.
    I am ashamed of my position that I stand for a united Sudan,and still believe in Dr.Garang’s vision of unity ,of a new Sudan.
    My last question to eavh and all here,including Dr.Ramba is:
    Will you accept the choice of the people of South Sudan or would you only accept Musivini"choice?

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    • 6 November 2010 20:31, by Ambago

      Dear Abu Samra

      It is me Ambago again writing to tell you that , I am not a naive fool as you would want people to believe. If you are keen enough to find a proof of what I wrote,read the book " Decolonising the African Mind ", by Chinweizu. Mind you I am here as an eye opener to you and your likes. Arabs and Europeans slave traded in Africa and who are you to say otherwise? In case you need more references please dont hesitate to contact me on my e-mail. And mind your words, I am not rambaling - by the way who is that Dr. Francis - that you would what to relate to the issue at hand?

      Go back and read my son. It takes decades of it to come out and talk.

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      • 7 November 2010 01:25, by Samir mahmoud

        I am referring to Dr.Francis Deng and I am not relating him to any issue,I told you he referred to the Confedration in a lecture organized by the UN Mission to Sudan,and was also published in Sudan Tribune.
        Dr.Francis Deng is a well known scholar,dipolmat and writer.
        I thank you for informing me about Chinweizu’s book,though Chinweizu is not a historian ,i will read it and get back to you.

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      • 7 November 2010 03:10, by Paul Ongee

        Ya AAMA & Samour Mohamed,

        Be reminded that Dr. Justin is never inciting hatred against Northern Sudanese who claim to be Arabs but never ever resemble Egyptians, Algerians, Tunisians, Moroccans , Kuwaitis or Saudis. He is simply stating the facts so that the Egyptian diplomats or government officials and the ruling elite in Khartoum be aware that Southerners of today are totally different and the dynamics have dramatically changed.

        People have rights to move and live in a place of choice. But in our case, Khartoum which is historically backed by Egypt has never made any effort to bridge the religious, economic, political, cultural and social differences left by the colonial administration. Based on my understanding of Sudan’s political history, I can blame Khartoum more than the colonizers --- Egypt and Britain.

        Even if the independence of 1.1.1956 was attached to a string, Khartoum would have still managed to bridge the relevant differences that is irreversibly disintegrating Sudan now. The successive ruling elite in Khartoum was and is still the problem not the entire Muslims living in the Northern part of Sudan. The ruling elite considers institutionalization of inclusive policy as non- Islamic although Quran supports unity in diversity.

        Instead of making laws that should foster unity through either marriage without preconditions or burying even the dead bodies in the same cemetery, Khartoum keeps widening the gap to suit its interest without considering the potential implications that are facing us today. Discrimination and marginalization were the order of the day. Committing mistakes and apologizing are human as White South Africans and White Americans did to their fellow citizens of the same countries but for Khartoum to do the same and make reconciliations is like forcing Sudanese Muslims to convert to Christianity.

        So, since religion in Sudan can never be constitutionally separated from the State, why NCP officials in particular follow the same footstep of previous regimes by using intimidating language against the freedom of choice, God’s given rights and dignity of non-Muslims? It’s better to live in peace in countries partitioned on the basis of individual liberty than live in unity characterized by constant conflict. We can still part in peace but not pieces or hatred and be better neighbors since we understand more what unites us than what divides us on both sides of the equation.

        Paul Ongee
        Khartoum, Sudan

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        • 7 November 2010 06:17, by Samir mahmoud

          Dear Paul Ongee
          I have no problem with Dr.Ramba’s views he is entitled to them,my problem with he says and you say is that you tend to portray the people of the Sudan as non-africans,and only you people of the South are Africans and here i beg to disagree with you.We are no less Africans than you and even African countries will not deny what the Sudan did to help in their liberation struggle,despite our meagre resources,ask the ANC,ask the PAC ask SWAPO,ask MPLA,all of them.
          This is not the first time in our history that we face a dictatorship,we changed two regimes before and both were changed because of their policies in the South.
          And the NCP regime will not be different,we will change it too.
          You may know that 80% of the arabs are indeed Africans,and that the Africans are the ancestors of the arabs,if you read Genesis,16:16:
          "So Haggar bore Abram son,and Abram named his son,whom Haggar bore Ishmael."
          Haggar Dear paul is the Nubian,known in Arabic as Hajir and Abram is Ibrahim and Ishmael is Ismail the ancestore of the arabs.
          The people who came out to receive and welcome the late Dr.John Garang should have convinced you and Dr.Ramba,that we are the same people,
          However Dr.Garang(Rest in Peace ) died and with him a dream died.
          THough my word will change nothing,I am not ashamed to say I am pro-unity,and pro new Sudan,whther the South votes for unity or secession ,I am for a new Sudan.
          All I am against is the hatred and the incitment that I read,i always read what Dr,Ramba writes,and in this one you can see that he refers to the "Arabs" in the North,he involes past experiences,but Dear Paul,let us agree that comes January 9th,the people of the South will vote,but should they vote simply to condemn the past?or should they vote to build the future?
          Will the South secede because of past practices?
          You refer to issues that are sociologicak more than political,such as marriage,you know of course that marriage is a social act governed by social habits,such as endogoamy and exogamy,in the South for example there are endogomous tribes that narry their girls to their tribesmen only,and in the North,there are the same norms,how can any government,whatsoever decree otherwise?
          As for cemetries,this is common every where in the world and is not unique to Sudan,next door Ethiopia,for esample,you find Christian Cemetries and Moslem cemetries,in the USA you find the same.
          Reasons like these,Dear Brother,do not justify breaking tehcountry into pieces.
          We must also realize,that countries before us went through these problems,with education and development things changed into what we see around us to-day,in Africa,tribalism and tribal affiliations are still strong ,but change will come.

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          • 7 November 2010 21:01, by DASODIKO

            One horse never dust among many racing horses.What you write belies the reality we have been living in Sudan for fifty years. The silver tongue will never work its days is over dued. So I advice you to search for new relations with Egypt or Eritrea as Egyptian intellegence threatened the people of South Sudan war from Eritrea!
            Its not only South Sudan that will go for good or worst by the rest of people from African origins, Darfur Nuba Mountains, Blue Nile and Eastern Sudan. These are unplatable facts you must swallow them.

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  • 7 November 2010 16:43, by Thyinka

    This is an impressive article by Dr. Ambago. This article highlight the need for independence of Southern Sudan from Arab oppression and domination. It also provide a historical context for the struggle of the marginalized periphery against the centre. Good job.

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    • 8 November 2010 08:02, by Martin Garang Aher

      Dear Samir,

      I think you would better be left alone. You might be confused by Khartoum leaders of successive governments that have messed the country up to the point where Southerners have been driven to the point of no return. If you say you ashamed, that could be true too but understandable at this point.

      People like Dr. Ramba are not new to Sudanese politics but have live and thrived in Sudan, a country where identity is yet to be defined. They write to inform and pass information with a hope to triggering idle minds to think and possibly juggle a healthy debate on current affairs. This is part of secularism and freedom of expression. I know it sounds and appears strange because it is not part of Northern governments of all times.

      The ideology of New Sudan is completely misunderstood by many Northerns or they simply try to imply it differently for the sake disadvantaging others or use it entirely to suit one-way mindset of the Arabs and affiliates in Northern Sudan. But this is a Souther Brainchild. We know it better than anybody else, what it could do to the people of the Sudan and what it means in its entirety. Ongee has explained this under this article and somewhere else to both scholars and pseudo-scholars alike. The main theme in the New Sudan ideology is secularism.

      However, secularism is not something that goes down well with northerners because they think that Islam is much more than the unity of the people of the Sudan. If we had accepted secularism and its concepts, southerners would not have had a referendum Act penned in the CPA.

      So, brother Samir, it is sad that secularism was murdered by northerners in the Islamic regime in Khartoum. They never gave it a chance. They did not even want to exploit it for the better. that was so foolish really. Nonetheless, secularism in the Sudanese context, is equated with unity and vice versa. You cannot have a free and united country where things are done according to one mindset in affiliation to middle East.

      It is good now that you are mentioning Hagar for the first time publicly and asserting that all Arabs are of African, or black descent. I hope they will not crucify you for that statement. The truth is that our brothers in the north don’t see themselves as Africans. if so, why teach middle east geography and history in Sudanese syllabus? Southerners knew that you are indeed Africans but this assertion is utterly ignored either for lack of confidence or dehumanizing lowering of status quo.

      I was surprised to see Ali Osman in Kenya in 2005 speaking like an Arab but looking darker, even Kikuyu MPS in Kenyan government who were sitting near were mistaken to be him. The question is, are we Arabs by blood or colour? Everything in the north is political, whether it is at the grave site or at the water hole. Nothing is social so as to be social.

      so, don’t say anybody is mixing things that are social with those that are purely political. A clear cut can only happen in the New Sudan but this has been sadly rejected Mr. Samir. Your guys never saw it appealing but they are now regretting it.

      However, Sudan is dragged into the abyss by ignorance and false affiliation. Everything in Sudan is done in light of separation. why do you deny this?

      If Muslims have their own grave yards, banks, universities, hospitals, development, road, water, hotels, lodges, Azan callers and what have you, what is it that makes Sudan and the people of Sudan one? For the remainder undivided things? This is schizophrenic!!!

      New Sudan is a southern brainchild. We know what it means and how best it may serve the people of the Sudan, now and in posterity. New Sudan, Federalism, Con-federalism all have been tried. None has succeeded. To be comfortable, just keep quiet and let southerners do it their way this time. "They are the boss, no questions, no arguments, we will just do things their way."

      Dr. Garang is a unionist but a comparative secularist. Even if he were alive, he would do nothing in respect to the southerners decision. He can never change centuries of one-way mindset and religious fanaticism. He can change Sudan if Sudan accepts to be secular.
      Samir, New Sudan concepts aimed at secularism, making some thing un-Islamic and Sudanese to forge African identity.

      Read what these scholars say:Islamic Fundamentalism & Politics and Islam in Contemporary Sudan by Abdel Salam Sidahmed. War of Visions: Conflict of identities in the Sudan by Francis Mading Deng.

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