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Roots of Sudanese conflict are in the British colonial policies

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By Savo Heleta

January 12, 2008 — What is wrong with Africa? Why is the largest number of failed states on the continent? Is something fundamentally wrong with Africans or could there be another explanation? Trying to find answers to these questions, let’s see what historians and social scientists believe are the roots of the conflict in Sudan, an African country where peace lasted for little over a decade since 1956.

Like in all other parts of the world, there was always some form of conflict in the region that became Sudan at the Congress of Berlin in 1886, where the European colonial powers drew the borders of African countries. Bechtold (1976) writes that the animosity between the northern and southern Sudanese can be traced back to the Arab slave raids when northern tribes had been contracted by the Arabs to conduct raiding activities in the south. However, before the late 19th century, the Sudanese conflict was not strictly ethnic, between the Arab north and the African south, writes Prunier (2005), but tribal conflict over territory and resources. Similar fighting occurred all over the continent and around the world throughout the history.

Since 1899, Sudan was ruled by the Anglo-Egyptian Condominium. However, Egypt had little influence in reality (El Mahdi, 1965; Albino, 1970; Holt and Daly, 1979). Deng (1978) calls the Condominium a "British rule with Egypt as a rubber-stamp half."

Trying to control half of the world at the time, the British did not have the force to occupy Sudan. Like in other colonies across Africa, they had to institute the "divide-and-rule" policy in Sudan. They wanted Sudanese to distrust, fear, and fight each other, instead of their colonizers.

The "divide-and-rule" policy separated southern Sudanese provinces from the rest of the country and slowed down their economic and social development. The British authorities claimed that the south was not ready to open up to the modern world (Chapin Metz, 1992 ). At the same time, the British heavily invested in the Arab north, modernizing and liberalizing political and economic institutions and improving social, educational, and health services (El Mahdi, 1965, Eprile, 1974; Chapin Metz, 1992; O’Ballance, 2000).

The British Condominium government had nothing against Islam in the northern parts of Sudan. In fact, the British encouraged Islamization of the north through financial help for building mosques and pilgrimage travels for Muslims (Holt and Daly, 1979). In southern Sudan however, with the help of Christian missionaries, they wanted to prevent the spread of Islam (O’Ballance, 2000) and "preserve purely African way of life of the southern people" (Albino, 1970). Wenger (1991) claims that the British at this time planned to attach southern Sudan to the British colonial East Africa.

Another colonial experiment that slowed down development of southern Sudan had been the "indirect rule" policy. In order to prevent educated urban class and religious leaders from influencing social and political life in southern Sudan, the British authorities gave "power" to the tribal leaders and ruled through them (Holt and Daly, 1979). While the "divide-and-rule" policy separated the north and south, the "indirect rule" divided the south into hundreds of informal chiefdoms. The British authorities made their "indirect rule" policies official through the "Southern Policy" document.

The Southern Policy stated that, "the policy of the government in southern Sudan is to build up a series of self-contained tribal units with structure and organization based upon indigenous customs, traditions, and beliefs" (Albino, 1970). These southern tribal units were to be completely separated from the rest of the country. Under the Policy, northern officials were transferred out of the south, trading permits for northerners were withdrawn, and speaking Arabic and even wearing of Arabic dresses were discouraged (Albino, 1970; Eprile, 1974; Deng, 1978; Holt and Daly, 1979; Chapin Metz, 1992).

Deng (1978) notes that the period of the British rule in the south was the "longest period of peace and security [in history], at least from invasion and the use of crude force." Toynbee (quoted in Albino, 1970) believes that, while the British had prevented the oppression and exploitation of the southern Sudanese by their northern countrymen, they did little to help the south "to learn how to hold their own in the modern world."

The British administration reversed its Southern Policy in 1946, stating that the southern Sudanese were "inextricably bound, both geographically and economically, to the Arab north as far as future development was concerned" (Eprile, 1974; Bechtold, 1976; Chapin Metz, 1992). One of the reasons for this abrupt decision, writes Eprile (1974), was a need to repay northern Sudan for helping Britain during World War II.

The tensions and mistrust between the northern and southern Sudanese that had been building up over decades culminated into a large scale armed conflict in the mid-1950s (Eprile, 1974). Fearing marginalization by the more populous and developed north, southern army officers mutinied in 1955 (Bechtold, 1976). This was the beginning of the first long civil war in Sudan. Toynbee (quoted in Albino, 1970) believes that the British policies in the Sudan were the primary cause of conflict:

The British differentiated the northern and southern Sudanese from each other without separating them politically. This made it virtually inevitable that, if and when the British abdicated, the northerners, being by far the stronger of the two sections of the Sudanese people, should attempt, as they have done, to assimilate the southerners by force. This, in turn, has made it inevitable that there should be a southern resistance movement.

Similarly, Cohen (1996) believes that the British "indirect rule" policy retarded interactions among different groups in the south and lead to divisions and conflict between them, thus helping the northerners:
The protective umbrella of indirect rule made it possible for some tribal groups to develop vital interests while other groups became relatively underprivileged. When the British withdrew, an intense struggle for power ensued. The privileged became exposed to the danger of losing power and had to mobilize their forces in defence, while the underprivileged aligned themselves to gain power.

Historians and social scientists, both Western and Sudanese, believe that the post-independence conflict in Sudan was largely caused by the ethnic divisions created by the British colonial administration between 1899 and 1956. The south became economically underdeveloped and cut out from the rest of the country due to the British segregationist policies. As a result of underdevelopment and the lack of political organizations and unity, the southern region was not prepared to actively participate in the Sudanese government after independence.
Regional differences resulted in a deeply divided and economically differentiated Sudan – an Arab-dominated north, economically and politically stronger than an underdeveloped and weaker African south. The southern provinces, sidelined during the British rule, continued to be marginalized and underdeveloped in independent Sudan controlled by the northerners. This consequently triggered the southern rebellion and two civil wars that ravaged the country for the most part of the second half of the twentieth century.

So, what is wrong with Africa? Why there are so many failed states, like Sudan, on the African continent? While Africans are to blame for corruption, despotism, and the lack of rule of law since independence, the root causes of the majority of conflicts in Africa lie in the policies implemented by the former colonial powers, from South Africa, Rwanda, and Sudan, to name only a few. In the case of Sudan, the primary cause of mistrust, divisions, and conflict between the north and south lie in "divide-and-rule" and "indirect rule" policies implemented by the British colonial authorities.


* The author a postgraduate student in Conflict Transformation and Management at Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University in Port Elizabeth, South Africa. He is the author of Not My Turn to Die: Memoirs of a Broken Childhood in Bosnia. The book will be published in the United States by AMACOM, New York, in March ’08. More about the book on www.savoheleta.com



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  • 15 January 2008 13:18, by LADO

    SUDAN : THE LAND OF THE BLACKS ; " WHY IS SUDAN SUCH A TROUBLED WAR AREA IN AFRICA ? "

    The fatal dream of the Arabs - collectively of the Eastern World and the Europeans of the Western World aims have been common and to dstroy the entire population of the black people on the surface of this earth , what ever may be the case they hide their belief in the cloak of Religion as a pretext that there is their God who empowers them in their religion faithand that gives them the damn Right to kill or eradicate , to do away with the black people . Both Islam and Christianity are used for this goal . The biggest lie on this world is to believe that God himself is either a Moslem or a Christian or of any related religious Affairs provided it is not of African relique ritual beliefs . and therefore to enter a Kingdom of God , a Human being has to belong to either of these mind religion Organisations . .

    This treacherous belief embeded in Religion out of which springs up and has wealded up a base line political philosophy is what is ruining the remaing living fossils of the black people on this planet earth .
    What I think remains for the Blacks is to be aware of ; is the fact that a Religion is merely in differences , ways of reliques , rituals of worship formed by different living social entities / individuals mnd to have as an approach to the Creator : the only creator of the different Human Souls . There will never be one such single Religion which is better than others to reach a Kingdom of God . .Imagine today there are already sayings by the Catholic - Christian believers in advocating that the only true Religion to follow is Catholicism to reach God . Funny it sounds with attacks coming from other so called famous Religious organisations now .

    The conquest of the Sudan ( Sudan in Arabic - Bilad-es-Sudan ) means , country of the blacks - that region of Africa which stretches, south of the Sahara and Egypt, from Cape Verde on the Atlantic to Massawa on the Red Sea. It is bounded South .

    I) by the maritime countries of the west coast of Africa,

    2) by the basin of the Congo, and

    3) by the equatorial lakes, and East. by the Abyssinian and Galla highlands.

    The name is often used in Great Britain in a restricted sense to designate only the eastern part of this vast territory, but it is properly applied to the whole area indicated, which corresponds roughly to that portion of negroid Africa north of the equator under Mahommedan influence. The terms Nigritia and negroid land, at one time current, referred to the same region.

    The Sudan has an ethnological rather than a physical unity, and politically it is divided into a large number of States, all now under the control of Christian - European powers with exception of THE EXCLUSIVE affair of Lado ( Lado Enclave ) which till todate the Europeans find it hard issue to bring it under their Rule Control .

    The Sudan contains the basin of the Senegal and parts of three other hydrographic systems, namely: the Niger, draining southwards to the Atlantic; the central depression of Lake Chad; and the Nile, flowing northwards to the Mediterranean. Lying within the tropics and with an average elevation of not more than 1500 to 2000 ft. above the sea .

    The most Regions of the back cut off from the black North Africa by the Saharan desert, the inhabitants, who belong in the main to the negroid family proper, are thought to have received their so called and wrongly much talked of earliest civilisation from the East of Arab influence and the Moslem religion began to be felt in the western Sudan as early as the 9th century and had taken deep root by the end of the 11th centuary . The trend of the spread of Islam was through the war ( Jihad war ) declared on the black people which statted from 700 b.c in the North part of Africa .

    The existence of Native States of Nubia , Ethiopia , Eritrea and Lado hindered for some centuries the spread of Islam in the Eastern Sudan . And throughout these Country States some tribes have remained without even the Western European way of worship ( Religion ) or without the Arab Religion , hence sticking to their own way of worship ( Religion ) till todate . Such is like Ori belief as a Religion Affair in Lado . It was not until the last quarter of the 18th century that the European Natives became the ruling force to re - estabish what the Arabs were doing but this time in the cloak name of Christianity out of which is fogged their political Limelines over the Continent of Africa . .

    The terms Western, Central and Eastern Sudan became indicative of a created geographical positions merely. In fact the various States existing before in Africa were / are politically divisible into four groups by the Western European political minds up to this time I am writing :

    1) Those West of the Niger river;

    2) Those between the Niger and Lake Chad;

    3) Those between Lake Chad and the Basin of the Nile river;

    4) Those in the Upper Nile valley river.

    The first group includes the native states of Bondu, Futa Jallon, Masina, Mossi and all the tribes within the great bend of the Niger. In the last quarter of the 18th century they fell under the control of France, the region being styled officially the French Sudan. In 1900 this title was abandoned. The greater part of what was the French Sudan is now known as the Upper Senegal and Niger Colony (see Senegal, French West Africa ) . All these live now under the Sovereignty Status of France .

    The second group of the Sudan States is almost entirely within the British protectorate of Northern Nigeria. It includes the Sultanate of Sokoto and its dependent emirates of Kano, Bida, Zaria, etc ---., and the Ancient Sultanate of Bornu, which, with Adamawa, is partly within the German Colony of Cameroon ( see Nigeria and Cameroon ).

    The third or Central group of Sudan States is formed of the sultanates of Bagirmi with Kanem and Wadai. Wadai was the last State of the Sudan to come under European influence, its conquest being effected in 1909. This third group is included in French Congo.

    The fourth group consists of the States conquered during the 18th century by the Egyptians and now under the joint control of Great Britain and Egypt. These countries are known collectively as the Anglo - Egyptian Sudan which became independent as todays - The Republic State of Sudan but still under the Anglo - Egyptian Sovereignty . Lado is not a part of this Independent Republic of Sudan at all .

    The Anglo - Egyptian Sudan , the region which before the revolt of the Arabized black tribes under Mahommed Ahmed in 1881-84 was known as the Egyptian Sudan has, since its reconquest by the Anglo-Egyptian expeditions of 1896 - 8, has been the Area under the joint Sovereignty of Great Britain and Egypt. The limits of this condominium differ slightly from those of the Egyptian Sudan of the pre Mahdi Arabised period.

    It is bounded North by Egypt ( the 22nd parallel of N. lat. being the dividing line ),

    East - by the Red Sea, Eritrea and Abyssinia,

    South - by Lado and Belgian Congo.

    West - by French Congo. North of Darfur is the Libyan Desert, in which the western and northern frcntiers meet. Here the boundary is undefined , ( this is the real cause of War trouble in Darfur of the Boadry Issue at this very time of 21st centuary ) . The Anglo-Egyptian Sudan however forms the compact territory extending south wards to the north boader line of Lado (Lado , which has never fallen Legally under British Authority ) brings the whole of the Nile valley from the equatorial lakes to the Mediterranean under the control of Great Britain. The Anglo - Egyptian Sudan extends north to south about in a direct line, and west to east about also in a direct line. It covers 950,000 sq. m., being about onefourth the area of Europe ; what follows the term Sudan is used to indicate the Anglo-Egyptian condominium only. But there is still now what is boiling in the Ccoons of the Anglo - America mnds is to capture and destroy Lado as the Kingdom State still in Africa to show to the world that Africa has finally been completely colonised by the Western European world as enshrined in the Berlin Treaty . This , they are bringing out now by creating a new State to be called a Christian Southern Sudan State in Sudan to replace the political Indentity Issue of the State Kingdom of Lado which became so known founded Kingdom by 9th May 864 A,D and by the Lado Constitution of 9th May 1772 . One of the oldest State Kingngdom of the World still . The fighting going on in the Sudan Central Africa is all for that . The war machinery is being controlled by the Anglo - Americans ---- COLONISATION OF LADO . The question is , will they succeced these group of Europeans ? ?

    By -

    Lado - Institute of Sudanic Studies - ISS

    OCCUPIED KINGDOM STATE OF LADO

    HEART OF AFRICA .

    View online : Roots of Sudanese conflict are in the British colonial policies

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    • 18 January 2008 13:56, by LADO

      To know more about " LADO " in Sudan Central Africa , I am referring my Readers to more of my publication link to Historry Explained .com on Lado forum . Browse in -
      http://www.historyexplained.com/phpbb/viewforum.php?f=16&sid=6612dd2bb5707eef0cdd70801a71cebf

      and other related websites are :

      1 ) http://www.npi-news.dk/page37.htm
      - LADO NEWS PAGE .

      2 ) http://www.odidia.com/index.php?page=don-t-believe-the-hype

      TO SITE of Navigation : Home
      Manifesto Don’t Believe The Hype

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    • 22 January 2008 11:30, by LADO

      THE BRTISH WISHES AGAINST LADO KINGDOM EXISTENCE IN AFRICA .
      THE STRUGGLES OF LADO PEOPLE IN AFRICA -THE CRY FOR FREEDOM STILL !!

      SEPERATE STATES

      LADO STATE , THE REPUBLIC STATE OF SUDAN ,THE DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF CONGO AND UGANDA ARE SEPARATE STATES IN AFRICA BUT THE PEOPLE OF LADO ARE HOMELESS IN THEIR OWN LAND NOW .WHERE DO WE PEOPLE OF LADO GO TO LIVE ON THIS WORLD ?

      Here are some specifications to follow very carefully in the Literature please .

      Dinka people are not in anyway Sudanic Ladoans at all . Ladoans are descendents of the 29 tribes as shown on the Maps of Lado LAND ( political history Map of Lado on World Atlases before the Ist world war being removed away by the British Authority 1914 - 1916 ) .

      Bahr el Ghazal of the Sudan State

      Location of Bahr el Ghazal in Sudan

      The Bahr el Ghazal in Arabic language is both a River and a Region of southwestern Republic of Sudan State . The Region takes its name from the River. This River flows about 80O - 810 km east to Lake No where it joins the Bahr el Jebel to form the White Nlie sometimes called ( Bahr el Abiad ). The region in itself today , for the Administrative conditions in the Sudan State consists of the States of North Bahr el Ghazal , West Bahr al Ghazal , Lakes and Warab . Bahr el Ghazal borders Central African Republic to the West and Lado to the South

      The population of this Region is mainly by the Dinka people,and others are the Nilotic Tribes : the Shilluk and the Nuer and Jo Luo and the Acholi and Lotuhu .

      Bahr el Gazal historically was constantly subject to raids by the Fur and Arab Slave traders from the neighbouring Region of Darfur . This Slave trade was apparently put to end in 1864 by the Khedive of Egypt but soon re - emerged under Native Merchants, who set themselves up as Princes who created their own individual Soldiers . The most powerful known of them became of Al - Zubayr .

      Al - Zubayr fought and defeated a joint Turkish / Egyptian force sent to Bahr el Ghazal in 1873 . However the Khedive compromised the defeat and made Bahr el Ghazal a nominal province of Egypt, with Al-Zubayr as its Governor.

      Bahr el Gazal as the region was later incorporated into Anglo-Egyptian Sudan and became the ninth Province after being split from Equatoria in 1948 , became a Province, and then State, under the Republic of the State Sudan today .

      In 1996 the Region was divided into the four current Districts as part of an Administrative re - organisation of the Country - Sudan State .

      Bahr el Gazar has been affected by civil war for many years. It has ever been a scene of fighting in the First Sudanese Civil War - AnyaAnya wars against the State of Sudan .

      In 1982 the Sudan People’s Liberation Army ( SPLA ) was formed there by John Garang of Dinka TRIBE to fight the Arab-dominated Government in Khartoum

      This became known as the Second Sudanese Civil War . A conflict which continued and lasted until 2003 and killed more than three million people. A majority of the population of the region is internally uprooted or displaced and largely most of them are refugees now in neighboring countries especially now settling in Lado Land .( Lado occupied )

      THE COLONIAL AMBITION OF KING LEOPOLD OF BELGIUM

      KING LEOPOLD OF BELGIUM REIGN OVER SUDAN ( BAHR-EL-GAZA ) AND HIS AMBITION TO HAVE BROUGHT LADO UNDER HIS CONTROLL - " THEN FIGURED LADO ’ S ENCLAVE --- ( 1894 -1903 ) ".

      Although of short - lived existence, King Leopold II of Belgium had ordered the Belgian troops to occupy the Land Territory Situated in vast Sudan African Region in an attempt of colonisation .

      This was to full fill the Kings last thirst of Colonisation and this last territory added was to be part of « Leopoldian Sudan », more known under the naming " Lado ’ s Enclave ", and infact to become an integral part of Congo but by not the name Sudan . .

      When in 1881, the revolt of Mahdists ( Religious Groups of Arab descedents ) ended in the loss of the control of Egypt over the Upper - Nile Sudan Regions , Leopold II viewed it as a great Opportunity to spread his Territory Conquest Ambitions to the River White Nile .

      He therefore organised several Military expeditions for this purpose from 1881 starting from the Belgian - Congo Territory . King Leopold met with a fierce Great ever Resistence when the Belgian forces came into war Battle with the Lado Defence Forces . This war came to an ended with a Peace Agreement signed both by Lado and Belgium for a peaceful Cooperation signed on 28th September 1892 which entered in the Internation Convention Rules in which King Leopold accepted / Agreed in Diplomacy and Facts not to Exercise His Crown over the Sovereignity of Lado ( in Lado Lui-gbari Language , Sovereignity means ( Nduvunduvu ) .

      The Convention was signed for Lado by the Commandant Fahd El Mula Aga ( a lugbara ) and for Belgium it was signed by Leutnant Milz who took the place of the Belgium Commandant Van Kerckhoven who died before arrival to WADELAI - ( by then Capital CITY of LADO ) . WADELAI is situated in BUROA Region/ Area which the British change the name of Region - area known best to them and to Uganda as Rhino - Camp .

      Rhino - Camp is BUROA piece of Land nearby River Nile of Lado ( the name of River Nile to Ladoans is River ( Yira) Onama .This Agreement in short to say was recognised by the signature of two successive agreements ( in May 12 , then in August 14 , 1894 ) , wherein the British Government declared , in the name of Egypt , to let King Leopold II have a territory called " Lado’s enclave", Seperated from the Bahr el Gazal’s State of Sudan Sudanese Province ( Bahr el Gazal at times called the " River of Gazelles "), and being bounded by the latitudes 5°30 ’ N. and 30 ° W.

      The Fachoda incident, which set British troops against French at the edge of the Nile, the Sovereign Power of Egypt on Sudan was however restored and Britain decidedly through Military intimidating , obliged Leopold II to give up Lado ’ s Enclave in 1903, with the exception of Ituri / Uele - Wele , Mahagi regions of LADO . The south part of Lado was inturn ceded to Uganda which till today they call " West Nile " in Uganda . and the North of Lado attached to Bahr el Gazal . The towns of Juba and Yei etc ---- are town areas of North Lado .

      Since this Division / Partion of Lado is up to now illegall , Lado accordingly in LAW is a Sovereign State with all full rights to Protect Herself : Land Territory and her Citizens ( Article 51 of U N Charter ) from any Foreign Agressions even be attacked by the Mighty Britain and the like .

      By the Actions of Britain against Lado since from 1903 till today Britain is therefore still occupying Lado Militarily and so doing through these African Countries who by their Virtue being under the Supreme Command of the British Crown is Occupying Lado . You can be independent Country but without Sovereignty you and your Country remain a Colony or you are still Colonised on This Planet EATH . The British Diplomacy today , following the U N resolution ( ( cf : UN General Assembly Resolution 1514 (XV) of 14 December 1960 and the UN General Assembly Resolution 43/47 of 22 November 1988 ) is frenetically to re - introduce another notion to present now that Sudan State must be seperated in two Countries : North Arab Moslem Sudan and South Black Christian Sudan . But the Real Truth remains still to live the North Lado to Bahr el Gazal and PAYING a Considerable amounts of money to The Reublic of Sudan for the case . After all the real oil resources in the New to be created Southern Sudan State is in Lado to remove Lado State Immage . This is the Trying Diplomacy of the British always against Lado .

      Lado must be under a new controlled State as Southern Sudan State still for the British Interest .

      Meanwhile the Oil fields in South Lado will be directly brought under controll by Uganda and the rich other mineral & Oil in Ituri / Uele / Wele , Mahagi by the Democratic Republic of Congo . All in all the Ladoan people are there afterall to do the Labour work - to be enslaved in the Oil and minreal fields . .

      The FLAG ISSUE FOR LADO by Belgium

      INFACT

      Colonel Colmant imagined for these territories a flag and a coat of arms being inspired by the Congolese flag. The coat of arms is the copy of the flag augmented with the personal coat of arms of Leopold II as always indicated

      The blue colour and the yellow stars are directly inspired by the Congolese flag, so reminding the link with the Independent State of Congo. They are combined with St Andrew’s cross, or cross of Burgundy, in memory of the Company of Oostende which financed the first Belgian colonial expeditions.

      N.B — But It is to be noticed that neither this coat of arms, nor the flag, were officially recognized.

      LADO IS STILL IN FIGHTING WAR WITH BRITAIN FOR " OF HER FREEDOM RIGHTS OF SOVEREIGNITY " THEY IS NO ESCAPE FOR LADO ON THIS ISSUE .

      By __

      Lado

      Institute of Sudanic Studies - ISS

      OCCUPIED KINGDOM STATE OF LADO IN AFRICA

      N B

      ON my writing above , I am requesting my readers to follow the link to LADO FORUM which appears on the World History Explained where I have covered up eonough to know about General Idi Amin Awongo Dada from Lado State Kingdom in Africa who once became the President of Uganda in 1971 and why he was overthrown in 1979 .

      click on / browse in the link to Lado Forum please - http://www.historyexplained.com/phpbb/viewforum.php?f=16&sid=428bc1572b26a95f2bae2819ca9c85f9

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