Home | Comment & Analysis    Saturday 1 September 2007

What is this so-called “Dinka Bor Massacre”


By Gatkuoth Lam

August 31, 2007 — Members of the Dinka Bor community around the world have turned the 28th August a day on which they propagate every year claiming that thousands of their community members were massacred in Bor in 1991 by the then forces of the SPLM/A-Nasir faction led by Dr. Riek Machar Teny-Dhurgon. Dr. Machar defected with Commander Dr. Lam Akol Ajawin and Commander Gordon Koang Chol with their forces from the old SPLM/A led by the late, Dr. John Garang de Mabior, which Garang then re-named ‘SPLM/A-Torit faction’ after the split. The split was declared on 28th August 1991 in Nasir town in Upper Nile region.

The reasons for the split were clearly articulated by the then SPLM-Nasir faction leadership and were understood and still being understood by the concerned people of Southern Sudan and the international community. Before the split, the SPLM/A had no clear objective for which the people of Southern Sudan fought and lost two million souls. There were no proper structures put in place for clear responsibilities, which would also guarantee collective decision making in strategizing for the Movement’s programs and executing its war against the Khartoum government. There were also gross violations of human rights by late Garang’s leadership. Dr. Garang was using the Movement as his own property. I will shed some light on these issues in the next paragraphs below.

Since the inception of the SPLM/A in 1983 until 1991, if you asked any SPLA officer what he was fighting for, he would not provide a clear answer simply because he did not know what he was fighting for. I remember when I was in Itang in 1986 and asked a friend of mine who was also an officer what he was fighting for, he just replied “I don’t know but John Garang knows”. And he continued to say “to me I think we are fighting to liberate South Sudan territory from the Arabs who dominate us.” Even those who thought to be SPLM politicians were not sure about the objective for which the war was launched. And to inquire that from Garang himself for possible correction was deadly. Tens of thousands of SPLA soldiers lost their lives in battles while not clear about the cause they died for and the destiny they wanted to reach and achieve. This was the pre-1991 situation in the Movement.

There were no proper structures established in the Movement although there were sufficient educated SPLM cadres who could run every necessary structure if established at the time for better strategies on policies and successful execution of the war. Dr. Garang instead established only what he called ‘Political Military High Command’ in 1980s in which he installed semi-literate personalities on most senior positions in that single structure. Dr. Machar was a member of that structure, but intentionally put in the bottom of the list by Garang. The Political Military High Command was mandated by Garang himself to look into matters related to both political and military. The group’s most powerful personalities lacked any political experience and could not even see what was wrong with the objective of the Movement, let alone the importance of establishing a separate structure for SPLM. The way they executed the war was not also professional and this might explain why they could not capture a single capital city among the three capital cities of the three regions in the South for twenty one years until the CPA found a way out in early 2005. Worst of all, members of the Political Military High Command could not meet to decide what to do next as a collective body. Many of them did not even know their faces, they just heard of each other’s existence somewhere. Those who were fighting in the battle fields like Dr. Riek Machar in the early years of SPLM/A were depending on orders from Dr. John Garang without their views being put into consideration on how to effectively wage the war.

Gross human rights violations were committed by late Garang’s forces against a number of ethnic groups in Southern Sudan, which included massacres. One of the worst massacres committed by Garang was the war he launched against the Gaajaak sub-clan of Jikany Nuer in 1985. The war was launched against the whole sub-clan simply because of an argument over fish between a villager of the sub-clan and an SPLA soldier. The villager went fishing with some of his colleagues, caught a fish and was ready to take it home. Some SPLA soldiers came to the river, and as it was common behavior among the forces at that time, wanted to take the fish by force from the villager. The villager resisted and was then shot dead by one of the SPLA soldiers. Villagers from a near by village heard the gun shot, rushed to the scene and found their colleague dead. They immediately retaliated by killing a number of SPLA soldiers on the spot. The remnants of those soldiers run for their lives back to Bilpam, which was the then SPLA General Headquarters on the Ethiopian border. They reported the incident at the Headquarters. The SPLM/A leadership was furious and decided that the whole sub-clan be disciplined by wiping them out of their villages. This is how the war against the Gaajaak sub-clan of the Jikany Nuer started in 1985, resulting in untold massacres of human beings and their cattle.

Many people who used to hear the late Garang commenting on the territory occupied by the Gaajaak sub-clan before the war knew that the fish incident was used as a pretext for war against the Gaajaak. Dr. Garang used to tell his Bor intellectuals that the territory occupied by Gaajaak was in fact a Dinka Bor land. He used to explain that the Dinka Bor community was displaced from the land during the Nuer expansion from Bentiu in Western Upper Nile hundreds of years ago. Perhaps by wiping out the Gaajaak from the territory, he would have encouraged the Dinka Bor community to resettle in the land so that they border Ethiopia and resolve their current status of being landlocked in the Bor’s tiny territory in Jonglei. He was not happy also with the way the Nuer inhabit a huge territory without being isolated by other tribes, which extends from Western Upper Nile bordering the Nuba Mountains in Southern Kordofan in the north across the River Nile in Upper Nile region up to the Ethiopian border in the East.

Dr. Garang dispatched both late Kerubino Kwanyin Bol and late William Nyuon Bany to personally command that war against the Gaajaak sub-clan. For those of you with short-lived memories, late Commander Kerubino Kwanyin Bol was the Deputy Chairman of the SPLM and Deputy Commander-in-Chief of the SPLA forces. He was number two to Dr. John Garang. Late Commander William Nyuon Bany was the Chief of Staff of the SPLA forces; the post previously occupied by Comrade Salva Kiir Mayardit and currently occupied by Comrade Lt. General Oyai Deng Ajak. You can imagine how Garang was determined to entirely wipe out the Gaajaak by launching those powerful military commanders to massacre the unarmed Gaajaak sub-clan. Both Kerubino and William went to the battle fields to personally command the fighting. The war resulted into untold losses where thousands of people were killed, several villages completely wiped out and burnt to ashes. However, the SPLA won some of the battles but lost the war against the community! Dr. Garang failed to get the territory back to Dinka Bor community. The two parties finally decided to stop the fighting and came back to the peace table and forgave themselves for the sin. That crime against the humanity committed by Dr. Garang against the Gaajaak community might have been forgiven but not forgotten. Of course the Gaajaak community may not file criminal cases in The Hague against those three most powerful leaders of the SPLM/A at the time because they are no longer with us on this earth. As a member of the Gaajaak community, I personally ask God to forgive late Garang and his colleagues.

Similar atrocities were also committed against other ethnic groups in the South such as the Toposa, Murle, etc. by Dr. Garang’s forces in the 1990s. All are documented!

The claim by the Dinka Bor community intellectuals that the 1991 SPLM/A split resulted in the massacre of Bor by the then Nasir faction leadership was and still a propaganda campaign against personalities like Dr. Riek Machar. Of course, there was a fight over Bor town which actually resulted in the lost of may be thousands of lives. This cannot be disputed! But who can the Bor personally hold responsible? The fight over the control of Bor town to my best knowledge was not ordered by the leader of the then SPLM/A-Nasir faction, Dr. Riek Machar Teny-Dhurgon. These were some of Dr. Machar’s military officers who felt very angry after hearing the news that Garang’s forces were killing in cold blood Nuer officers who were on Garang’s side in Equatoria region. Dr. Garang’s forces, particularly from the Dinka ethnic group decided to kill in cold blood every Nuer officer on their side in Torit town simply because a Nuer leader has challenged Garang’s leadership in Nasir town.

These angry Nuer military officers from the SPLM/A Nasir faction mobilized some of the Nuer armed civilians and attacked Bor town. They had fierce battle with Garang’s forces stationed in the town. After several hours of fighting they overran the town, which resulted in lost of hundreds or thousands of lives and massive displacement of the Dinka Bor population up to Equatoria region. I personally feel sad about the incident. But the Dinka Bor community members should not use it as a propaganda campaign against Dr. Riek Machar for reasons best known to them. This is a pointed finger at the wrong person. They should learn the truth about the incident, what provoked it and who organized the attacks.

The same was true with the attack on Malakal town in 1993 by the armed Nuer civilians organized by the late Wurnyang Garkek. Late Wurnyang claimed to have been possessed by God’s spirit and that the spirits directed him to help liberate the South. He successfully organized a force that was popularly known as the ‘White Army’ from the Nuer civil population and ordered them to capture the capital of Upper Nile region, Malakal. They attacked the town and captured about seventy-five percent (75%) of the town. The Sudan government forces held certain positions in the outskirt of the town. Because the Wurnyang armed civilians were not trained soldiers without supplies of ammunitions, when they ran out of ammunitions, they were shouting in the town calling on their individual colleagues to supply them with some bullets if they had plenty. The government soldiers came to realize that these were just armed civilians and that they had run out of ammunitions. The government forces gave them a final full thrust and chased them out of the town. The town again fell to the government’s forces full control. The government forces first thought it was Dr. Riek Machar’s forces attacking the town, but this turned out to be somebody else organizing and ordering the attack on Malakal town.

To me, as a person who has been in the SPLM/A since its inception in 1983, I see the 28th August 1991, split as one of the most blessings the people of Southern Sudan have received from their creator. Of course, the split resulted into setbacks when it came to military activities against the Khartoum government, but has revolutionized the SPLM system and set a clear objective for the satisfaction and achievement of the aspirations of the people of Southern Sudan.

The 28th August 1991 Nasir Declaration, which was code-named ‘The Creeping Revolution’ under the then leadership of Dr. Riek Machar Teny-Dhurgon, called for Self-determination for the people of Southern Sudan to determine their political destiny. This is to be determined in a referendum on vote for separation or unity and to be supervised internationally in Southern Sudan. This patriotic call by the people of Southern Sudan was resisted by late Dr. Garang until the year 2002. Garang was instead calling for a United Socialist Sudan in the 1980s, which he then changed in 1990s to a United Secular Sudan (or New Sudan as he called it). The viability of this big dream or vision was in question as many people saw and still see it as just a beautiful dream but unrealistic in its achievement and was meant to confuse the cause of the people of Southern Sudan given the complexity of the problems in the Sudan and their deep rooted origins. Subsequent American administrations in Washington DC dream of a ‘New World Order’ whicht they now find unrealistic to achieve for the whole world. Every body can dream beautifully, but making the dream come true is the question. We need to be realistic in our visions!

The 28th August 1991 Declaration also called for democratization of the Movement by putting its structures in place, particularly the arm of the SPLM which was treated subordinate and incorporated into the arm of the SPLA by Garang’s leadership. This explains why in the old days of the Movement, Dr. Garang put the SPLA first by calling the Movement the ‘SPLA/M’ instead of the ‘SPLM/A’. This was corrected after the 1991 split. The Movement was also lacking its legal institutions. Garang was every thing. After being challenged reasonably by the Nasir faction leadership on these issues, he reacted by organizing and calling for the First SPLM National Convention in Chukudum in 1995. Before the Convention and in the months leading to the time the Convention was called for, Garang felt much pressure on his leadership from within his faction and began to understand the need to establish structures for the Movement. There were voices who called for change on how the Movement was being run by one man.

For fear that many more intellectuals and military Commanders would continue to defect to Dr. Riek Machar’s faction, Dr. Garang found himself toothless and could not resort to his old ways of either murdering his political and military opponents from within in cold blood or silencing them in prisons without trial. His leadership survival at that time after the split significantly depended on how Dr. Machar would handle his coup against him. If Dr. Machar were to choose to over through Garang militarily by attacking his positions in Equatoria region, Garang’s leadership would have come to pass in those years. Machar instead chose to engage Garang in dialogue to resolve the issues and would only fight in self-defense if Garang attacked his positions. This helped Garang to re-organize his forces that were in the state of panic. Luckily and by chance, Garang used Machar’s peace talks with the Khartoum government to accuse him of collaborating with Khartoum. This also helped him to regain support from those in the region and Western world who wanted the war to continue in Southern Sudan. Dr. Machar’s position not to escalate fighting by removing Garang using military might in Equatoria region where he shifted his bases and fighting force resulted in sharp disagreements with his colleagues which also resulted into further splits within the Nasir faction. Can you see this dilemma which was not completely taken note of by Garang’s faction?

The 28th August 1991, Declaration prompted its leadership to strategize on how the liberation struggle could be achieved. The leadership chose the path of peace as a way forward. They engaged themselves in a series of peace talks with the present government in Khartoum in Abuja One and Abuja Two and subsequently signed the Khartoum Peace Agreement in 1997. Dr. Riek Machar incorporated other factions which also defected from late Dr. Garang’s faction and became their overall leader. These factions included the Bahr El-Ghazal Group (BGG), led by late Kerubino Kwanyin Bol, the Bor Group (BG), led by late Arok Thon Arok, the Equatoria Defense Forces (EDF), led by Dr. Theophillus Ochang Lotti, and some other groups. Dr. Machar signed the famous Khartoum Peace Agreement on behalf of all the factions that joined his faction, the South Sudan Defense Forces (SSDF). For the first time in the history of the Sudan, the Khartoum government conceded the right of self-determination for the people of Southern Sudan in the Agreement. This was also enshrined in the National Constitution of the Sudan in 1998 and clearly articulated that this right would be exercised in an internationally supervised referendum after four years from 1997. The referendum was to be exercised in Southern Sudan in the year 2001 about six years ago.

Dr. Garang at the time vowed that he would not sign any agreement with the Khartoum government under President Omer Hassen El – Beshir. He used to say that the Khartoum government was too deformed to be reformed and that he wanted it removed by military force. He called the Khartoum Peace Agreement a sell out despite the inclusion of the clause ‘self-determination’ in it plus many more achievements including Southern Sudan retaining a separate army. The significant thing I personally feel was missing in the Khartoum Peace Agreement was the involvement of the international community, which distanced itself from the Agreement on a number of interests that I don’t want to write about here. The Khartoum Peace Agreement, like any other agreements signed in Sudan, was violated by the Khartoum government in the year 2000. Dr. Machar decided to resort to other strategies back in the bush.

On 6th January 2002, the two factions of Dr. Machar and Dr. Garang merged in Nairobi. This time with bold declaration that the two groups agreed to resolve the issues that led to the split within the SPLM/A on 28th August 1991. The right of self-determination for the people of Southern Sudan as called for in the Nasir Declaration was officially accepted and became the official objective of the Movement to determine the future political status of the people of Southern Sudan. Democratization of the Movement and respect for human rights were re-affirmed because Garang had already adopted these principles after the 1991 split and before the merger in 2002. But the Merger Agreement recognized that more work needed to be done on these principles. The Nairobi Merger Agreement also called for a Second SPLM National Convention to be held within three months to elect the leadership of the ‘new’ SPLM. Dr. Garang delayed the convening of the Convention indefinitely for fear of being defeated in the election by Dr. Machar or any other candidate. The Merger Agreement also called for serious revival and resumption of peace talks with the Khartoum government.

As a result of the Merger Agreement between the two leaders with renewed spirit and quest for peace, just six months later, the first protocol of the CPA on self-determination for the people of Southern Sudan was signed in Machakos, Kenya in July 2002. Commander Salva Kiir Mayardit, the then Deputy Chairman for Military Affairs signed the Protocol on behalf of the SPLM/A. The road to peace became irreversible!

On 9th January 2005, the SPLM/A and the National Congress Party-led government signed the Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA). Dr. Garang signed on behalf of the Movement while the then First Vice President of the Sudan, Ali Osman Mohamed Taha, signed on behalf of the Sudan government. If you read the CPA in comparison with the Khartoum Peace Agreement, you would be convinced that the CPA is no more than a revised text of the Khartoum Peace Agreement with the exception of the international support and the United Nations Peace Keeping Force in the South. However, the effectiveness or not of the international support and the UN Peacekeeping forces in Southern Sudan is another thing one may evaluate.

The clear message I want to send to those who might have been blinded by tribal sentiments and cheap propaganda against leaders who have greatly contributed or actually revolutionized our way forward as the people of Southern Sudan is that they should get realistic and honour these great leaders like Dr. Machar with utmost respect. 28th August 1991 Declaration should not be used for negative propaganda, but instead be remembered as a blessed birth day on which a clear path for the liberation and freedom of the people of Southern Sudan was set. The road to our freedom is still long and painful! We need to get united as one people with one objective that will lead us to our desired destiny. Propagating on the so-called Dinka Bor massacres with fabricated negative stories attributed to innocent and great leader like Dr. Riek Machar and posting them on websites like the ‘Sudantribune’ or publishing them in Khartoum-based newspapers will not help the cause the Dinka Bor want to achieve in Southern Sudan or in a united Sudan.

*Gatkuoth Lam is an ordinary citizen living in Southern Sudan

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  • 2 September 2007 05:18, by Alier Mach

    How many time do you have die? I will meet you and your hero Riek machar in Daylight. Thank you very much.

    View online : what is this so-called "Dinka Bor Massacre"

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    • 4 September 2007 00:15, by choldit

      Is this a threat to the writer Alieu? I think you people need to recognize the fact that when we (South Sudanese) talk about our personal losses to this war, we feel so sad. Why did you think Gajaak whose villages were burn down by SPLA thru Garang orders do not perceive Garang as enemy? I am saying Dr. Riek kill Bor as you claim people.

      Alieu recall that elders of Gajaak who were not able to run for their life from their own children (SPLA) burnt alive in 1980s and that was by people you are leading us now. Dr. Riek is a hero with no doubt you can prove it yourself if you fought for SPLA. He brought us the Self-determination that many are falsely claiming. Recall that Garang’s slogan was "United Sudan" while Dr. Riek’s was "Self-determination for South Sudan" as the writer clearly said.

      If we need someone to blame for Bor incident we have to think before we point fingers at people like Dr. Riek who was and is working for the interest of South Sudanese. If we are part of the forces planing to stain others images in bid for leadership gain then you are working against South Sudan citizens since you are basically saying recall the bad things done to them.

      We will not bring them back by falsifying evidences surrounding the incidents that happen in the South Sudan long ago between our movement and civilians. I lost 15 family/extended family members but I can imagine killing 15 people from Bor can bring them back to life or pointing finger falsely to others can help my feeling. Those 15 were killed while their hands were tied behind their back let alone being defenceless. They were killed because they were who they were. You can imagine how I feel seeing those who did that.

      However, we all know that loss of life was unavoidable in nearly all form of social movements.

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  • 2 September 2007 17:11, by JOHN CHOL


    The Dinka Bor Masscre is one of the doomed days when your uncle Dr.Machar and Gordon Chol defected from the SPLA in 1991 to form SPLA/A-Nassir that carried out mass killing in Bor.To get more information,ask your father where your cows came from,and he will tell you the source.

    In the year 1997 April Agreement between Riek and Beshir-Turabi; Riek offered unworkable government promise of self-determination. Nuer become alarmed at government’s intention to redeploy Gellaba troops in formerly liberated Nuer regions, rapid extraction of oil deposits in Western Upper Nile, and government’s malicious instigation of political and armed conflicts between Nuer and Dinka SSDF Commanders.Could this be a scenario that you said Dr.Riek forged the idea for self determination for the South?

    SPLA since its inception have had its main objectives and goal that were not realized by Dr.Riek Machar Teny.Inspite of this,Riek was swayed away by big heart thinking that he will get SPLA/M leadreship which lastly became in vain.

    The question of SPLA soldiers mishaving with civilian,was something obvious to every community.It first statred in Bor during the release of Koryom in Bilpam,so many civilians lost thier lives defending their animals.The same thing applied to Ayod and other part of the South.The situation was unwelcomed,but SPLA had to.Such brutal events were at the hand of the operation officers and not from the SPLA leadreship and this explained why Dinka intrude not to raid Nuer,Murle,Toposa etc....Such events should not be related to Bor Masscre.

    Unlike,when Riek Machar mobilized his tribemates to clear every living in Bor.Suppose,this was a joint plan as mentioned,what prevent the Shilluk of Dr.Lam not to raid the Dinka as well.

    Dear Gatluak,Lets’ change our community rather than defensing the culprit.Although Nuer did it,Dr.Riek will bear the consequences in the court of law.

    John Chol,Bor town,Jonglei State

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    • 4 September 2007 00:20, by choldit


      Is this a threat to the writer Alieu? I think you people need to recognize the fact that when we (South Sudanese) talk about our personal losses to this war, we feel so sad. Why did you think Gajaak whose villages were burn down by SPLA thru Garang orders do not perceive Garang as enemy? I am NOT saying Dr. Riek kill Bor as you claim people.

      Alieu recall that elders of Gajaak who were not able to run for their life from their own children (SPLA) burnt alive in 1980s and that was by people you are leading us now. Dr. Riek is a hero with no doubt you can prove it yourself if you fought for SPLA. He brought us the Self-determination that many are falsely claiming. Recall that Garang’s slogan was "United Sudan" while Dr. Riek’s was "Self-determination for South Sudan" as the writer clearly said.

      If we need someone to blame for Bor incident we have to think before we point fingers at people like Dr. Riek who was and is working for the interest of South Sudanese. If we are part of the forces planing to stain others images in bid for leadership gain then you are working against South Sudan citizens since you are basically saying recall the bad things done to them.

      We will not bring them back by falsifying evidences surrounding the incidents that happen in the South Sudan long ago between our movement and civilians. I lost 15 family/extended family members but I can imagine killing 15 people from Bor can bring them back to life or pointing finger falsely to others can help my feeling. Those 15 were killed while their hands were tied behind their back let alone being defenceless. They were killed because they were who they were. You can imagine how I feel seeing those who did that.

      However, we all know that loss of life was unavoidable in nearly all form of social movements.

      repondre message

  • 3 September 2007 01:46, by Juach D Juach

    That’s rubbish to say that the split was "a blessing and that it provided the movement with clear vision", what did Riek and his faction achieved when they surrendered,only humiliation and they came back again to the populace they betrayed.
    You are traitors and that has gone down in the history of the Sudanese struggle, there is no question about it.
    It does’nt matter how you’ll polish your stooge, the chronology will never change.
    Mind you during the defection of Riek i was an active SPLA officer in Pibor county i repelled several attacks at Lekuangle and saw to myself first hand the aftermath of Bor massacre.
    FYI am not a Dinka Bor but from Gogrial county the birth place of your fellow collarator who betrayed us during the hardest time of our struggle.
    To conculde i find a such article so offending and that it brings backs bad memories, the discussion moderators should be careful of such critque to be published.
    If this discussion continues for long, it’s going to stir hatred against our beloved GoSs Vice President who has the ambition of one day to rule South Sudan and that will not benefitial to him.

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  • 3 September 2007 03:19, by Anyieth Duom Angok

    It is unargueable that Dinka Bor massacre exist unless someone who involve in the actual killing will denied it and start calling it a propaganda. Remember Gatkuoth"A fool may sometimes speak a true word but if you listen to him closely, he will soon add something to it that will tell you his mine is still spoilt"

    SPLM has never been a movement without a vision and clear objectives but agreedy man can not understand this wise objectives. I remember Riek Machar was just a trailer and Lam Akol was an engine fulling that load

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  • 4 September 2007 01:53, by John Awan

    Gatkouth, are you a Sudanese from the South? A Sudanese and does not know, "1991!" "1991" is a living history. Those who were orphaned, widowed or survived it are still living.It is not something you should denied if you havesome sense of humanity in you. It has nothing to do with being a Nuer or not, or being a Dinka or not. It is something that has happened, and we should not want to escape from it reality. The only thing all peace loving people should do in Sudan is to find permenant solutions thatwill lead to forgiveness, or otherwise those who were involved will have to face human judgement before their awaiting God’s judgement if they don’t repend and be forgiven.
    I know a lot of things have happened and are happening and you might have been moved by "some unkown hatreds." Please, be aware that peace, love and forgiveness are important, and it need acknowledgement of the truth inorder for it to be achieved. You have been very much biased to people who lost their life under careless action of Machar and you, if you been involved in anyway, and you need to repend.

    Please, I know, acknowledging the truth might cost your job, but don’t make your mind being ensalved.
    Don’t just be a consumer! There were SAF forces(Arabs) in Malakal,(closer to Nasir) why were your faction invaded the Bor villages, and not Malakal, if you would answer me? The SPLA (John Garang) were fighting in Juba, and they were not fighting Nuer in any case, since Juba was not under Nuer control but under SAF forces.

    1If I speak in the tongues[a] of men and of angels, but have not love, I am only a resounding gong or a clanging cymbal."

    Gatkuoth, I don’t think you are in your right mind or you might have not study Sudanese political-history closely to understand that any right thinking Dinka or Nuer are working hard to resolve their past, and that why you a lot of things being over the previous few years. However, you and your hatred are not solutions.

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    • 5 September 2007 00:05, by choldit

      What is it that happened at Bor is not clear to many. Are the Bor people saying Dr. Riek attacked Bor citizen but not SPLA soldiers that were using citizens as shelter or they are saying why SPLA at Bor were attacked? I think we all know that Dr. Riek should never attack any Arab civilians let alone Bor because he is a many of principles that is why Garang asked him and Thowath Pal to go and talk peace with Chuol Barrow at Dorrong village in Gajaak area before he (Garang) ordered other forces to attack Chuol Barrow while meeting with Dr.Riek and Thowath Pal which was another assassination attempted on Dr. Riek and Thowath Pal by Garang.

      As for some people like Kuot Ngor who are pointing fingers at wrong directions for dead of Francis Ngor Makeich, I am very sorry to hear someone blaming civilians for defending themselves from someone attacking them with those weapons SPLA has at that time. So, Manjangdit massacre on Gajaak by Garang’s Dinka-Bor “born to rule” politic misguided SPLA cannot fit in the fabrication moves you people are manoeuvring now. Ngor was a hero whose Garang see as threat to his leadership, just like Majier Gai and others, he was ordered to be killed thru while doing something he should be blamed for (mass murdering Gajaak civilians). Remember Ngor and his forces were coming from Southern Blue Nile where he fought a successfully but redirected to made unethical attack on civilians at Manjangdit for reason he was not aware of (well, I assume Ngor was not although he should know Bor’s underground SPLA agenda). Kuot Ngor should point fingers at his own Bor leader, Garang not Gajaak for Francis Ngor Makiech’s dead.

      Dr. Riek is a hero and will remain a hero so the split is a blessing thing to South Sudanese, because without it people would remain in the darkness of “born-to-rule” policy that was making unforeseeable dreams of “United Sudan” and ignore “self-determination for South Sudan”

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      • 6 September 2007 03:58, by Deng Thiak Adut

        Dear all: it is true that, we all had our loses, and wins. I am very much sure that you gentlmens need to work together now. We have very powerful two tribes in the country that can work together for future generations, but we need to forgive one another, and otherwise all be doomed to failure. No law will protect Riek Machar or Garang Mabior or anyone for their contributions to unreasonable wars which causes many lives. Riek and others; are not immunes from their’s acts and conducts that are personal or discriminatory in character. Mr. Machar was not reasonable in his incriminating policies and I have no authority to judged him, but I do know that Many Nuer-Bor brothers and sisters will always be willing to ask question: would/could a man be held responsible for his action; and whether that action was reasonable justifiable ; actionable per se?

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        • 7 September 2007 08:36, by choldit

          Deng, do you and others think Dr. Riek ever ordered SSIM forces to went and killed citizens of Bor in 1990s?

          If you have can’t answer this question with certainty brother, you better leave this kind of policy because it doesn’t favour any South Sudanese but Jallaba. We will run into unproductive business over this can of fabrications. Look at how the GOSS is structure and ask yourself how Nuer should feel about it. Man, the Nuer are paying our wages thru their oil money brought from their states and their silence over ministerial and head of all commissions formed which the Dinka hold or used to buy support for from other South Sudanese.

          Remember, 25% of the oil revenue should be given to oil producing states under 1997 Dr. Macher’s deal with NIF/NCP but our selfish (Garang) leaders who hijacked the deal and named it CPA gives only 2% to oil producing states simply because they think that will reduce Nuer power.

          we should thank Nuer for fighting on our behalf during Ngundeng, Guak Ngundeng. They fought British during colonise time while British bases were stated in Bar-Gizal and Bor. Thanks to Azainde in Equator who make some resistance to British colonise policy and fight British alongside Nuer.

          The Nuer need to put some resistance to your nepotism, self-centred policy and tribely guided shameless policies that your people are practicing because their silence is not giving them anything but loss of their resources.

          Do you read what Dr. Macher’s job description is? The one that talks about what Salva ordered him to do and adds he is appointed by President Kirr which the writer inserted to alert the public that Kirr and his Dinka minded fellows have gut to control South regardless of how worse is their Dinka policy is.

          People are getting tried with your selfishness. So, you don’t need to fuel it up with false accusation.

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    • 6 September 2007 22:06, by Bob Tata

      John male mi goa! don’t you think that you talked just like an idiot who has just lost his bloody mind! what make me said this is because you don’t seem to recognise the truth that Rami Raan was trying to say!

      In fact Gatkouth (son of God) is correct in all the things he said; not because he is Rami Raan (Nuer) like me but merely because he was saying the truth about the nonsense and baseless accusations that you and your master Dinka Bor have fabricated in order to musk the evil deeds and carnages that were committed by your idiot SPLAers under the command of its Idiot and opportunistic leaders such as John Garang, Nyion Bang,Koal Manang and among others.

      So, whatever you are trying to say in order to degrade Gatkouth (son of God) the Rami Raan for, I truly denounce it as rubbish and baseless allegation and it is nothing more than just a cheap tribalism.

      However, like it or hate it!the story of south Sudan will know us as people who fed the entire region for years yes we fed SPLA for years! Thanks to the Nuer generosity! We will also be known as the people who put your Bottoms on those chairs of the GoSS; thanks to the Nuer power and courage!

      So, what else do you want? another round of fight! for I think we have already taught you your lessons! but if you want some more then, we are ready to give you! Otherwise shut up and mind your businesses such as corruption, nepotism and robbing of south Sudanese resources that you seem to be busy with right now and keep out of igniting tribalism!

      Nevertheless, if you insist that the so called slaughter did infect take place (which I shouldn’t dare to condemn even because there were plenty of such crimes or offences committed against Nuer) and you really want to take a vengeance on Dr de Machar, then, go for it!

      But remember one thing only!! you will leave us with no other option than to take you back to the time before colonisation, when our superior Nuer ancestors such as Latjour Dingyan the creator of Eastern Nuer(Nasir) and "your worse nightmare" were in the verge of colonising and enslaving almost all tribes of greater Upper Nile region and were even advancing toward other southern regions before they were stopped by the British ; so we are Naath or what you call German!

      I want to remind you about the fact that even if your so called Bor massacre is true, I don’t think that you can take any Rami Raan to international Court of law in Holland to stand trail there! because that day could be the end of South Sudan as an entity! male mi goa gat maar!

      Don’t make a mistake by thinking that I am defending your de Machar because to me he is not a great leader as well! but what I am simply saying is that if you will ever hurt Machar or any Nuer commander simply because he is Rami Raan (Nuer) then, your fate will be collectively decided by all Nuer People as a tribe.

      I think you were very lucky by dividing Nuer during your disastrous war, that cost us nearly 2 million people of whom the majority were Nuer!a big mistake in the story of Nuer! that one do not want to recall or see it repeating itsellf ! But this time, I don’t think you will succeed to do that again! because the Nuer generation that you will be dealing with by then, will be completely different from those of traitor Nyeon Bang’s and his ganisters who sold you Nuer blood very cheaply simply to make Garang as a three week poster-first vice president of Sudan! thank God! as both of them got their fates, because what goes around comes around! you can’t kill 2 million people simply to become a vice president and you expect to live and enjoy yourself! I am really wondered by such a stupidity! Such deeds will never ever happen again!

      Those Nuer traitors I have just mentioned above, were unlike our superior Nuer ancestors who were in the threshold of making everyone in Southern Sudan Nuer! if not stopped by the British who themselves were also subjected to suffering by Nuer once they tried to colonise Nuer by force and thus, my ancestors forced them to make peace with Nuer yes! the British!! your colonisers! what a great story! So imagine! We were not colonised! so don’t try us because we are very lethal!!

      Douthni ke mal

      By Bol of Greater eastern Nuer Nasir

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      • 10 September 2007 08:21, by Deng Thiak Adut

        Choldit: in my opinion,this place is not a proper avenue of answering your question; however, I am more obligated to answer your question with affirmative. I do believed that Riek had taken may lives which you could not personally justified. Choldit’ with your respect; how do you justified that kind of killing of innocent people was ok? Can you personally justify the killing? I think not. Look mate, I would be fooled to say that Nuer had never been braved or countiues our course of struggle; nor did I said that I had problem with Nuer in general. No body is immunes from their owned crime and it seems that you justify the crime committed by x-SPLA/M officers. Learned gentleman (Choldit), should/ought to have reasonable excuses to justify in law, what is humane in killing of any kinds? I do think that, there is no just killing and everything must be consider for future references. For your owned consideration; please define genocide? Riek had both, mental and physical criminal elements of indiscriminate killing of innocent people; but Riek in my opinion, had no clear intuitions of genocide. We do need to look at the definition of genocide, considering the policy behind the acts; and the surrounding circumstances of the act. Chotdit, with your respect; for the interest of justice, the accused is entitle to rebut the claims and non of us should pre-judged the outcomes.

        Thanks you: If you had question please do not hesitate to contact me. deng_thiak_adut@hotmail.com

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        • 10 September 2007 13:23, by choldit

          Deng, did my writing read as a justification for anyone’s action? What should be justified? The question is whether Dr. Riek has ordered SSIM to attack Bor Civilians or SPLA stationed in Bor town in 1991?

          You and I know very well that what Dinka Bor are doing against Dr.Riek is nothing to do with what happened at Bor in 1991 but turning the split into a tribal war so that Bar el Gazelian will think Dinkawise (as they did by cowardly killing all SPLA Nuer officers in Bar El Gazel, a fact that can’t be denied by Daniel Awat Akot as he should be the first to answer for their killing) rather than judging the split base on Nasir Faction side of history.

          As for the benefit we may get out of talking over this, I am sure there is nil for South Sudanese but Jallaba. But how long should we keep listening to Dinka Bor fibrations against Nuer while they know the reality is a mass killing of Gajaak Nuer by John Garang in 80s.

          We shouldn’t recall those days. If you were in Itang in Ethiopia, you should know what sort of days I mean. I am sure the Nuer are getting try of what is going on. Well, at least I am. I assure you this not for Dr. Riek Macher. It is for Nuer as your people speak it.

          Dr. Riek has no ambition to compete for the president pose as many are worry about in Juba. He need us to have our South Sudan by whoever can lead us to.

          Good day mate!

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          • 11 September 2007 04:45, by Deng Thiak Adut

            Never be negative Choldit:
            I understand were you came from, and I do basically, I agreed with you that Gaajaak had suffered lots. Please don’t mistake as defending SPLA. Against the atrocities they caused. If you agreed with me on this; X-SPLA officers should not be defended; and their action are not be taken as general community focus. I termed their passed and present acts as culpable in nature. We don’t want them crims get away with crimes. I agreed with you, Nuer’s are capable as you said to determine and make decisions, but for the record, I am not closed-minded person to makes conclusion on this matter, but guided by ‘you’ and ‘others opinions. We don’t want to put blankets on things were wronged on both side. It is for the interest of justice and progression in our community that is the key. Pardon me if I said something that offended you in the pass, and let’s work for the solution.
            Cheers mate.

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      • 10 September 2007 08:50, by Deng Thiak Adut

        Dear Bol; No need for another war. There will never be a winners and I promise you that. Please, do not use insulting words to bring about your emotions. There is no logical in mesmerising the words that are not suitable to many ears. I take your opinion as equal to personal capacity and not of general Nuer (Rami Raan) to be precise. Some day, I will drink and eat with you. We had invisible enemy and it is your duty and mine too, to end it. Let’s not preaches hatred-ness to future generation; but apply logic to our arguments: With your respect, I had read your post and I was very delighted to read it.

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        • 10 September 2007 17:52, by Bob Tata

          Mal mi diid Deng!

          If mentioning of SPLA and its dictator Garang’s carnages of innocent Gaatjaack Nuer and other Nuer people during 80s is emotional, I believe I have to regardless of how you will perceive it, because we have been trying not to bring them up as I motioned in my other interventions, that our wounds are still bleeding and thus don’t remind us about the fast because it was not long ago since my people were abused by the so-called SPLA.
          Above all, given to the magnitude of the suffering and prices paid by Nuer, as well as the human lives lost sustained by my people during Garang’s disastrous and nonsense war, I believe we should be the one to seek the apology from SPLA war criminals or even a revenge if those who had committed such evil deeds fail to do so!
          I know Garang and some of his collaborators are dead but some of them are still alive and are walking freely in the streets of south Sudan as we are speaking!

          I don’t think that it is one’s interest to go to war again unless you leave us we no option other than to do just that.

          By Bol Thourmuck from Greater Nuer

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          • 11 September 2007 04:21, by Deng Thiak Adut

            Mal mi gau Bol:
            I believes all capable of doing wrong and good things. No need for war again. For instance, we Bor and Nuer had suffered in the war, and if we keep fighting, we will never spend enough resource on education, for future generation. Here lies truth. Other tribes in the country are laughing at us, calling us fools, and much worse...and most of all they will assume the offices, at our expenses. What is good about the war, and salvation we gave them whiles we don’t enjoy it? We need to be careful and decide our future. In your own words "forgiver and forget". I am very determining to see us getting along. I had good caused to say that every leader in SPLA should be brought to face justices; and I do share the same grievance as you. But for the interest of justice, there are many people in Nuer and Bor community that wanted to go ahead and lives with your "wounds". Remind you, SPLA too had abused many Bor Community just like Nuer. The powers given to the x-SPLA officers were exceptional and ultra vires. They were powers for improper purposes, abuse of natural justice, abuse of humanity, abused of freedom of expression, and most of all, the policies were capable of being overborne in the mind of officials as the were above the law. Enough is enough; so let’s bring those crims to face justices and lets us enjoy the fruit of our suffering.
            I had wonderful time discussion these issues with, and it’s my pleasure to thank you in person.
            Cheers: Deng Thiak Adut

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            • 18 September 2007 16:53, by Bob Tata


              I didn’t get what you meant by people will laugh at us! Who are we? Did you mean Nuer or you who assumed all the important posts in GoSS?
              If you are talking about people such as Lam Akol and his collaborator Riek Machar that has nothing to do with us.

              What I am simply saying is that don’t ignite tribalism by rising hot issues that are still hurting almost everyone in south Sudan! SPLA committed a lot of carnages and others human right violation to their opponents,e.g. Garang used to send highly educated persons from other tribes to fight in front lines while leaving his own people and others from his collaborators as guards in Itang;
              SPLA used to rape individuals wives in their husbands watch, they used to steal and confiscate civilians properties, and the worst or the most horrible thing was that they forced kids to go to war plus many more! So what do you think our reactions should be when you remind us about those evil deeds? Garang is dead, but not Kual Manyang who used to hang his opponents up on the trees! And there will be no peace in the existing of such people.

              People will laugh at you (not we) because you are the one that are turning the country’s Wealths into your own properties and thus marginalising or sidelining other south Sudanese who have paid heavily for the CPA that positioned you where you are now.

              Douthni ke mal

              Bol of Greater Nuer(Nasir)UK

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