Home | Comment & Analysis    Thursday 11 March 2004

Peace prospects in Sudan (IV): Who is who

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NAIROBI, Mar 11, 2004 (IRIN) — This is the fourth of a series of reports on prospects for peace in the Sudan. The reports are being published over two months.

NOTE: The following reference list is taken from a wide range of sources

[Arabic names in transliterated form]

Abd al-Majid, Abd al-Basit - Minister of culture. Was under secretary, ministry of education in 1996. Appointed education minister in 2000.

Abd al-Mawla, Karam al-Din - Minister of cabinet affairs. Was deputy governor of Northern Darfur State in 1995.

Agar, Cdr Malik - Sudan People’s Liberation Movement/Army (SPLM/A) secretary in southern Blue Nile. Key negotiator at peace talks in Naivasha. Joined SPLM/A with rank of lieutenant in 1986. Subsequently promoted to commander, he led many military operations in eastern Sudan until 1997.

Ahmad, Abd al-Jalil al-Basha Muhammad - Minister of tourism and national heritage.

Ahmad, Dr Majdhub al-Khalifah - Minister of agriculture and forestry. National Islamic Front (NIF) member. Minister of state for labour and administrative reform 1993-95. Minister of state for social planning 1995-96. Governor of Khartoum State in 1996.

Ahmad, Qutbi al-Mahdi - Political adviser to the government. NIF member. Was an ambassador at the external affairs ministry 1993-99. Then appointed head of the external security organisation, and in 2000 minister of social planning.

Akol, Dr Lam (Full name: Lam Akol Ajawin) - Shilluk. Senior member of the SPLM/A before breaking away with Riek Machar and Gordon Kong Chuol - both Nuer - to form the SPLM/A-Nasir in a rebellion that split the movement in 1991. He broke with Riek in 1995, becoming chairman of SPLM/A-United, signed an agreement with the government in 1997 and served as its transport minister for five years. In 2002 he resigned from the ruling National Congress (NC) party, and became a key member of the newly formed opposition Justice Party. Rejoined SPLM/A in October 2003, but not with full support of his militia. Dissenting members of SPLM/A-United still active in Shilluk kingdom.

Akot, Daniel Awet - Chairman of SPLM/A’s commission for judiciary and law enforcement.

Aleng, Elijah Malok - Executive director of SPLM/A’s humanitarian wing, the South Sudan Relief and Rehabilitation Association (SRRA).

Ali, Dr Mutrif Siddiq - Appointed minister of state at the presidency in 1998, now a key government negotiator at the peace talks in Kenya.

Amum, Cdr Pagan (Full name: Pagan Amum Okech) - SPLM/A governor of eastern Sudan and NDA secretary-general. Key negotiator for SPLM/A at peace talks in Kenya. SPLM/A secretary for trade and humanitarian aid in 1998, before which he had commanded SPLM/A operations in eastern Sudan.

Amum, Thon - Militia leader in northern Upper Nile.

Anya Nya - Army of southern separatists from 1955-1972 during first civil war. Largely incorporated into Sudanese army after 1972 Addis Ababa peace agreement.

Anya Nya II - Army of southern separatists from 1975-1991, opposing Addis Ababa agreement.

Arman, Yasir Sa’id - SPLM/A spokesman since 1997, former commander in SPLA, based in Asmara until 2003, member of President Umar al-Bashir’s extended family.

Arop, Dr Justin Yac - Secretary-general of SRRA 1986-88, SPLM/A representative in West Africa 1991-92, in Kenya 1992-94, SPLM/A health secretary 1994-97, then reappointed representative to Kenya.

Arop, Col (retd) Martin Makuei Malwal - Minister of cabinet affairs. Lieutenant-colonel and revolutionary council member 1989. Retired from the armed forces in 1997.

al-Atabani, Ghazi Salah al-Din - NIF member. Minister of state at the presidency in 1991. Secretary-general of parliament in 1996. Minister of culture and information in 1998. Resigned as presidential peace adviser in November 2003.

al-Awad, Maj-Gen Al-Hadi Muhammad Abdullah - Minister of cabinet affairs. NIF member. Serving brigadier in 1995 when appointed minister of state at the presidency and director of the internal security organisation. Was interior minister in 2000.

Aylah, Muhammad Tahir - Minister of roads and bridges. Minister of environment and tourism 1998-2000.

Ayud, William Deng - Commander of militia in Melut.

al-Azhari, Isma’il - First prime minister of independent Sudan from 1954 to 1956 and president from 1965 to 1969.

Badr, Al-Sharif Ahmad Umar al-Fakki - Minister of investment. Formerly governor of Al-Jazirah State.

al-Bashir, Umar Hasan Ahmad, Lt-Gen - President and prime minister. During early career served in several regions of Sudan and fought against SPLM/A. Came to power in 1989 in a pro-Islamist coup which overthrew the democratically elected government of Al-Sadiq al-Mahdi. Was already NIF member. Supported by Hasan al-Turabi’s NIF, which continued to hold the reins of power behind the scenes. Al-Bashir retained power through several transitional governments in the early and mid-1990s, proclaimed himself president in 1993 and was elected president in 1996. Banned political parties after the 1989 coup, but reintroduced multiparty politics in January 1999.

al-Bashir, Dr Isam Ahmad - Minister of guidance and endowments.

Beja Congress - A member of the armed opposition umbrella group, the National Democratic Alliance (NDA). Signatory to the NDA’s 1995 Asmara Declaration. Shaykh Umar Muhammad Abdullah Tayyib became Beja Congress chairman in 1998. The political wing of the Beja Congress was formed in the 1960s to voice grievances against marginalisation of the region, but launched an armed struggle by the 1990s, due to frustration with lack of progress. Effectively controls a swathe of eastern Sudan centred around Karora and Hameshkoreb, has a few hundred fighters. The Beja community numbers about 2.2 million in eastern Sudan, divided into five major tribes and many smaller sub-tribes, has several languages.

Chuol, Arthur Akuen - SPLM/A commissioner for finance and economic planning.

Chuol, Gordon Kong - Jikany Nuer. Militia leader of Thourjikany Forces, based in Nasir, eastern Upper Nile with Jikany Nuer troops. Major-general in Anya Nya II in 1988, then became commander in SPLM/A and member of the SPLM/A political-military high command. Led breakaway from SPLM/A in 1991 with Riek Machar and Lam Akol. In 1997, he signed the Khartoum peace agreement with the government, when he was made a commander with the South Sudan Defence Forces (SSDF) under Riek Machar. Since 1998, backed directly by the government.

Chuol, Tito Biel - Dok Nuer. SPLM/A member before breaking away with Riek Machar in 1991. Joined SSDF in 1997, and in 2000 became member of Riek’s Sudan People’s Defense Forces (SPDF). Returned to the SSDF in 2002.

Civilian Protection Monitoring Team - US-backed team monitoring attacks against civilians or civilian property/possessions. Became operational in September 2002, following negotiations between the government and SPLM/A, which resulted in the Agreement to Protect Civilians from Military Attack.

Daf’allah, Al-Jazuli - Prime minister from April 1985 to May 1986.

Dong, Engineer Joseph Malwal - Minister of aviation. Minister of animal resources 1998-2000. Minister of survey and construction development in 2000.

Democratic Unionist Party (DUP} - Northern opposition party, founded on the Khatmiyyah religious order. Led by hereditary Khatmiyyah spiritual guide, Muhammad Uthman al-Mirghani.

Deng, Dr Achol Marial - SPLM/A commissioner for health.

Diu, James Lieh - Commander of militia based around Nimnim, western Upper Nile. Defected to join SPLM/A in January 2004.

Dual, Simon Gatwic - Lou Nuer. Government-backed militia leader in Yuai.

al-Duqayr, Jalal Yusuf Muhammad - Minister of industry.

Egeland, Jan - UN Emergency Relief Coordinator.

Equatoria Defence Forces - Militia in Equatoria, commanded by Martin Kenyi under the overall leadership of Dr Theophilus Lotti, based in Juba, recruits primarily among Acholi people.

Fartak, Ali Tamim - Minister of electricity. Commissioner of Raga Province 1992-94. Governor of Western Bahr-Ghazal State in 1994, then moved to be governor of Southern Darfur State the same year. Health minister in Southern Darfur State 1998-99. Appointed NC secretary in 1999, then minister of state at the ministry of industry and investment in 2000.

Fashoda Relief and Rehabilitation Association - Humanitarian wing of the SPLM/A-Nasir/United, led by Lam Akol, until he rejoined the SPLM/A in October 2003.

Fatah Forces - Rebel group in eastern Sudan.

Gadet, Peter (Full name: Peter Gadet Yakah) - Bul Nuer. Former Sudanese army officer, joined the SPLM/A, but left in 1991 with Riek Machar. Became commander with Paulino Matib’s pro-government militia, the SSUM/A. Fought for government against SSDF in oil-rich western Upper Nile, or Wahdah (Unity) State, then mutinied against Matib in 1999 and fought with the SSDF against the government. Rejoined SPLM/A in early 2000, fought against Riek Machar’s SPDF in 2000, but after disagreements again joined the government side in 2002. His militia forces currently based in Wang Kai in Wahdah State.

Gai, Taban Deng - Western Jikany Nuer. SPLM/A secretary for commerce, key negotiator in peace talks in Kenya. Followed Riek Machar’s breakaway faction from SPLM/A in 1991, aligned with government in 1996, and became leader of the UDSF political party. Appointed governor of Wahdah State in 1997, but expelled from his position and the state by Paulino Matib. In 2000 appointed minister of state for roads and communications, but resigned the same year after falling out with Khartoum. Joined Riek Machar’s SPDF in 2000 and rejoined the SPLM/A with Machar in 2002.

Garang, Dr John (Full name: John Garang de Mabior) - Bor Dinka, C-in-C of the SPLA and chairman of its political affiliate, the SPLM. Holding bilateral peace negotiations with Sudanese Vice-President Ali Uthman Muhammad Taha in Kenya since September 2003. A member of Anya Nya briefly at the end of the first civil war in 1972, then incorporated into the Sudanese army. Rose to the rank of colonel until he mutinied in 1983 in Bor and reorganised the existing Anya Nya insurrection into the SPLM/A from Ethiopia, demanding the abolition of shari’ah law. Has always declared himself to be working for the creation of a united, democratic, secular Sudan.

Ginye, Gabriel Tang - Commander of Nuer militia, reportedly based in Malakal.

Hamid, Ibrahim Mahmud - Minister of humanitarian affairs. Formerly governor of Kassala State.

al-Hasan, Zubayr Ahmad - Minister of finance and national economy since 2000.

Husayn, Maj-Gen Abd al-Rahim Muhammad - Minister of internal affairs. NIF member. Was serving colonel in the engineering corps in 1989 and after the coup was appointed secretary-general of the revolutionary council. In 1993, now promoted to brigadier, appointed interior minister. In 1994 became minister at the presidency. Reappointed interior minister in 1998. In 2000 he returned to the presidency as minister and adviser.

al-Hulw, Cdr Abd al-Aziz Adam - SPLM/A secretary in Nuba mountains, key negotiator at peace talks in Kenya. Commanded SPLA forces in eastern Sudan.

Igga, Cdr James Jeda Wani - Second deputy of John Garang and SPLM/A secretary-general. Appointed member of the SPLM/A high command in 1986.

al-Imam, Yasin Umar - Was vice-chairman of the NIF in 1987. Broke away from the NC in 1999 and joined Turabi’s PNC in 2000.

Inter-Governmental Authority on Development - Regional body, formed in 1996, facilitating peace talks between the Sudanese government and the SPLM/A. Member states are Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Kenya, Somalia, Sudan, Uganda. Between 1986 and 1996 was called the Inter-Governmental Authority on Drought and Development.

Isma’il, Dr Mustafa Uthman - Minister of external relations since 1998. NIF member. Secretary of the International Popular Friendship Council 1991 and member of the foreign affairs committee and subsequently appointed minister of state at the foreign ministery the same year.

Janjawid - Mounted Arab militia in Darfur aligned with the government. Said to be responsible for widespread attacks on civilians, killings, abductions and burning villages.

al-Jaz, Dr Awad Ahmad - Minister of energy and mining. NIF member. Minister of internal trade 1990, then replaced as minister for the council of ministers in 1994 and appointed minister of energy and mining.

Jiek, Peter Par - Dok Nuer. Allied to Riek Machar’s forces since the 1991 split from the SPLM/A. Militia commander with SPDF in western Upper Nile in 2000-2001, formerly SSDF commander. Rejoined SPLM/A with Riek in 2002.

Joint Military Commission - Monitors the ceasefire between the government and SPLM/A in the Nuba mountains. Also involved in the disengagement and redeployment of combatants and mine clearance. Comprises representatives from the government, SPLM/A and the international community.

Justice and Equality Movement - Rebel group in Darfur region, emerged in February 2003 calling for greater political and economic rights. Chairman is Khalil Ibrahim Muhammad, based in Europe.

Kabbashi, Abu John Samuel - SPLM/A governor of Equatoria. Was an Anya Nya II brigadier in 1983, after defecting from the government in which he had been minister of wildlife conservation and tourism since 1980. He subsequently joined the SPLM/A and was appointed its commissioner for recruitment in Western Equatoria in 1999.

al-Kasha, Abd al-Hamid Musa - Minister of external trade.

Kashol, Prof Moses Machar - Second vice-president.

al-Khatib, Sa’id - Key government negotiator at peace talks in Kenya and spokesman.

Khayr, Maj-Gen Dr Al-Tayyib Ibrahim Muhammad - National security adviser to government. NIF member. Governor of Darfur State 1991-93. Interior minister 1993-96. Information minister 1996-98. Social planning minister 1998-2000.

Kinga, George Lungwoko - Toposa. SPLM/A commissioner for industry and mining. Was minister of labour and social security 1989-92. Joined SPLM/A in 1993.

Koga, Clement Wani - Commander of Mundari militia, headquarters in Juba/Terakeka.

Kok, Dr Riek Gai, Dr - Minister of animal resources. Spokesman for the SSIM/A 1997-98. Governor of Jonglei State 1998-2000.

Kong, John - Governor of Upper Nile State.

Kong, Telga - Militia leader in eastern Upper Nile.

Kol, Michael Miea - Militia leader in northern Upper Nile.

Koni, Ismael - Commander of Murle militia, also known as Pibor forces or Forces of Peace, based in Juba, Kassengo and Pibor.

Kuol, Deng Alor - SPLM/A secretary for Bahr al-Ghazal, key negotiator in peace talks in Kenya.

Kwaje, Dr Samson - Since 1997 the SPLM/A’s spokesman in Nairobi and since April 2000 the movement’s information and cultural affairs commissioner. He was Equatoria Region finance minister in 1987.

Latjor, Benson Kuany - Militia leader in Malakal and Fangak.

Lueth, Justice Michael Makuei - SPLM/A commissioner for legal affairs and constitutional development.

Machar, Dr Riek (Full name: Riek Machar Teny Dhurgon) - Dok Nuer, currently number three in the SPLM/A after John Garang de Mabior and Salva Kiir Mayardit (both Dinka). Supporter of succession for southern Sudan, split from the SPLM/A in 1991 with Lam Akol and Gordon Kong Chuol to form the Nuer-dominated SPLM/A-Nasir faction (1991-94). In 1995, he became leader of the SSIM/A and Lam Akol took the name of SPLM/A-United for his faction in west-central Upper Nile. In April 1996 Riek signed a deal with the government, and the SSIM/A merged with the other rebel factions which signed the April 1997 Khartoum peace accord. Became c-in-c of the SSDF in 1997. Appointed chairman of the government’s Southern States Coordination Council and assistant to Al-Bashir in 1997. He also formed and became head of the United Democratic Salvation Front (UDSF) political party. Resigned from government in 2000 and recreated an army in the south, the SPDF, which he merged with the SPLM/A in January 2002.

Magaya, Maj-Gen (retd) Alison Manani - Zande. Minister of labour and administrative reform since 2000. Equatoria regional military commander 1988-91. Governor of Equatoria State 1991. Elected to parliament 1996, becoming deputy Speaker.

al-Mahdi, Mubarak Abdullah al-Fadil - Presidential assistant. Brother of Al-Sadiq al-Mahdi. Ummah Party member. MP and industry minister 1986-88. Minister of economy and foreign trade 1988-89. Interior minister 1989. NDA secretary-general 1995-2000, then returned to Sudan from exile.

al-Mahdi, Al-Sadiq al-Siddiq Abd al-Rahman - Already the chairman of the Ummah Party, he became prime minister in 1966 until his government collapsed in 1967. Was again elected prime minister in 1986 until he was overthrown in Al-Bashir’s military coup in 1989. He is a descendant of the Mahdi who led a successful rebellion against Egyptian and British forces in 1881. Spiritual leader of Muslim religious sect, Al-Ansar. Brother-in-law to Hasan al-Turabi. Joined the NDA in 1995 in Eritrea, and led a small army against government in eastern Sudan under NDA command. Left the NDA for Sudan in 2000, but refuses to take part in elections.

Mahjub, Muhammad Ahmad - Prime minister 1965-66 and 1967-69.

Majak, Benjamin - Ruweng Dinka. SPLM/A commissioner for rural development and cooperatives. Head of the SRRA during 1990s. Former commander with SPLA in Ruweng County, western Upper Nile. Aligned with Sudanese government in 2000, but later rejoined SPLM/A.

al-Majdhub, Prof Mubarak Muhammad Ali - Minister of higher education. Formerly vice-chancellor of Al-Jazirah University.

Makki, Maj Yusuf Kuwah - Chairman of SPLM/A social services commissioner. Joined SPLM/A in 1985. In 1986 appointed alternate member of the SPLM/A high command and zonal commander in southern Kordofan. Has unstintingly supported Garang throughout.

Malik, Al-Zahawi Ibrahim - Minister of information and communications.

Manibe, Kosti - SPLM/A commissioner for education.

Maor, James - Militia commander, reportedly based in Malakal.

Matib, Maj-Gen Paulino (Full name: Paulino Matib Nhial) - Bul Nuer. Leader of militia based in Bentiu, the South Sudan Unity Movement/Army (SSUM/A). Was deputy commander of the Anya Nya II in 1987 with the rank of brigadier. Armed and supported by the government, he joined Riek Machar’s breakaway SPLM/A-Nasir in 1991. Under the Khartoum peace agreement in 1997, his forces were absorbed by the SSDF, but later he turned against the SSDF for control of oil-rich western Upper Nile (Wahdah State), but lost. Backed by the government, he became a major-general in the national army in 1998 and has since then fought on its behalf, displacing civilians from around the oil fields. In 2003 he fought against pro-government Nuer factions for control of Wahdah State and lost.

Mayardit, Cdr Salva Kiir - Rek Dinka. Deputy chairman of the SPLM/A high command since 1997, second to John Garang, and leader of SPLM/A delegation at peace talks in Kenya. First joined the SPLM/A as a major in Anya Nya II, and was appointed SPLM/A deputy chief of staff for operations and security in 1986.

Militias - Pro-government armed groups. Two main branches exist, northern and southern, which are responsible to distinct but complementary command structures. The 25 southern militias are centralised under the Sudanese army, whose intelligence department oversees operational matters. Usually based close to garrison towns, they recruit locally and are personality- and ethnicity-driven. Most of the southern militias operate under the umbrella of the SSDF, many based in oil-rich western Upper Nile. Practically all major urban centres in the region double up as militia headquarters.

The Popular Defence Forces (PDF) oversee the other northern militias, or Murahilin (meaning travellers), recruited among Arab nomadic communities such as Baqqarah (Arabic for cattle herders) from western and southern Kordofan. First formed in early 1980s mainly to protect the railway between Babanusa, Aweil and Wau in Bahr al-Ghazal, usually operated independently of army. Raids in Bahr al-Ghazal peaked in the mid- and late 1980s, causing famine and widespread abuses. Activities expanded into Darfur and Nuba mountains. The Murahilin were absorbed by the PDF after Bashir took over power in 1989, but remained active under leadership of the hardline Muslim, Sultan Abd al-Baqi Ayiei, and his son, Husayn Abd al-Baqi. They were usually not paid salaries, but compensated with cash "incentives" and given opportunities to loot.

al-Mirghani, Ahmad Ali - One of the leaders of Khatmiyyah sect, deputy chairman of opposition DUP. Based in Egypt and Asmara since 1989.

al-Mirghani, Muhammad Uthman - Chairman of the DUP and hereditary spiritual guide of the Khatmiyyah - the religious order upon which DUP is based - since 1968. One of the founder members and chairman of the NDA, based in Eritrea.

Muhammad, Ali al-Hajj - NIF member. Minister of internal trade 1988. General investment corporation chairman 1992-93. Minister of Federal Administration Office 1993. NC deputy secretary-general 2000, when he split off and joined Turabi’s PNC.

Muhammad, Kamal Ali - Minister of irrigation and water resources.

Muhammad, Samiyah Ahmad - Minister of welfare and social development.

Nafi, Maj-Gen Dr Nafi Ali - Minister at the Federal Administration Office. NIF member. Minister of state at the presidency 1994. Head of the external security organisation 1995. Minister of Agriculture and Forestry 1996-99. Presidential adviser on peace affairs 1999-2000.

Nahar, Dr Ahmad Babikr - Minister of education and guidance.

National Islamic Front (NIF) - Islamist movement, established by Hasan Abdullah al-Turabi and other Islamic scholars in 1985. Originated as an Islamist student movement in the 1960s. Engineered and supported the military coup led by Brig (later Lt-Gen) Umar Hasan al-Bashir to overthrow the elected government of Prime Minister Al-Sadiq al-Mahdi in June 1989.

National Congress (NC) - Ruling party in Sudan, latest incarnation of Sudan’s Muslim Brotherhood, or NIF before the 1989 coup. Following his fall-out with Al-Bashir in 1999, Al-Turabi with some of his supporters established the rival Popular National Congress (PNC).

National Democratic Alliance (NDA) - Formed in 1995 as an umbrella of opposition and armed groups with headquarters in Asmara, Eritrea, and branch offices in Cairo, Nairobi, Washington, and London. Composed of political parties, trade unions, armed factions and other groups. Includes the DUP, SPLM/A, the General Council of the Trade Union Federations, Beja Congress, the Free Lions Association, the Sudan Liberation Army, the Arab Socialist Ba’th Party, and the Sudanese Communist Party. Chaired by Muhammad Uthman al-Mirghani, the head of DUP. NDA signed agreement in December 2003 in Saudi Arabia with Sudanese government supporting peace negotiations in Kenya with the SPLM/A and calling for a new democratic Sudan benefiting all political parties. The Ummah Party suspended its membership of the NDA on March 2000, but remains committed to the NDA’s resolutions and declarations.

Nhial, Cdr Nhial Deng - Chairman of SPLM/A external relations, information and humanitarian affairs commission and key negotiator at peace talks in Kenya. Joined SPLM/A in 1986 with rank of captain, subsequently promoted to commander and appointed SPLM/A governor of northern Bahr al-Ghazal in 1997.

Nicodemus, Kezia Layinwa - SPLM/A commissioner for women, gender and child welfare.

Numayri, Col Ja’far Muhammad - Seized power in a bloodless coup in May 1969. He then formed the Sudanese Socialist Union (SSU), under which Sudan became a one-party state, and was elected president in 1971. In 1983, he divided the south into three regions with the aim of avoiding the domination of the region by the Dinka. He introduced shari’ah law in 1983, followed by martial law in 1984. Opposition to Numayri mounted with the transformation of the Anya Nya rebel movement into the SPLM/A led by John Garang. There was also growing opposition in the north, and in April 1985, Numayri was overthrown in a bloodless coup by his own defence minister and armed forces c-in-c, Lt-Gen Abd al-Rahman Siwar al-Dhahab. Numayri then lived in exile in Egypt until 1999, when he was granted an amnesty and returned to Sudan.

al-Nur, Air Force Maj-Gen Abdullah Ali Safi al-Din - Minister of cabinet affairs. Was serving air force colonel in 1991, promoted to staff brigadier in 1996 and appointed minister of state at the ministry of federal affairs. During 1996 he was appointed minister of state at the foreign ministry. In 1997 he was appointed governor of Northern Darfur State.

al-Nur, Al-Tawm - Commander of Peace Army militia in Bahr al-Ghazal, recruits primarily from Fertit community.

Nyang, Chatyout - Militia leader of Pinylik Forces or Peace Forces, based in Adar/Longochok.

Operation Lifeline Sudan (OLS) - Established in 1989 as the UN-sponsored umbrella of organisations providing humanitarian aid from Khartoum in northern Sudan, Rumbek in southern Sudan and Lokichkio in Kenya. Made up of over 40 NGOs and a number of UN agencies. Negotiated with government and the SPLM/A to deliver humanitarian assistance to civilians in need, regardless of their location, but regularly denied access through government flight denials.
Some NGOs operate outside of the OLS umbrella, which means they do not have to seek permission from the government to fly to Sudan and do not have the OLS security back-up and flight options.

Peace Army - Also known as the Fertit Militia in Bahr al-Ghazal, recruits primarily from Fertit community, commanded by Al-Tawm al-Nur.

Popular Defence Forces (PDF) - Paramilitary units organised by the government in 1989. In 1994, PDF training camps were established for all young people of university age, political indoctrination being an important aspect. It was initially envisioned that the PDF would eventually replace the national army as the country’s main defence arm.

Popular National Congress (PNC) - formed by Hasan al-Turabi in 1999 in opposition to ruling National Congress.

Rasha’idah tribesmen of the Free Lions - Rebel movement in eastern Sudan.

Relief Association of South Sudan (RASS) - Humanitarian wing of the SPDF, led by Riek Machar.

Rizq, Hasan Uthman - Minister of youth and sports. Khartoum State minister of education 1992-95. Governor of Western Kordofan State 1995-97. Governor of Nile River State in 2000.

Sabdarat, Abd al-Basit Salih - Minister of relations with National Assembly. Minister of education 1992-96. Minister of Justice 1996-98. Adviser to government on political and legal affairs 1998-2000.

Salih, Maj-Gen Bakri Hasan Salih - Minister of defence. Head of the General Security Organisation 1991-95. Interior minister 1995-98. Minister at the presidency 1998-2000. NIF member.

al-Samani, Al-Samani al-Wasilah Shaykh - Minister of transport.

Siwar al-Dhahab, Lt-Gen Abd al-Rahman - Led bloodless coup against President Numayri in 1985. In April 1986 he organised the elections which ushered Sadiq al-Mahdi, the leader of the Ummah Party, into power.

South Sudan Coordinating Council (SSCC) - Khartoum-based body responsible for the umbrellaof southern militias aligned to the government, the SSDF. Dr Riek Gai Kok, the former governor of Jonglei State, was named as its chairman in November 2002.

South Sudan Defence Forces (SSDF) - Umbrella of government-aligned southern militias, formed in 1997 following the signing of the Khartoum peace agreement between the government, Riek Machar’s SSIM/A and five other southern factions. Most southern militias operate under its umbrella. Riek Machar was its head until he left the government in January 2000 and formed the SPDF. Paulino Matip was named its chief of staff in April 2001 at a conference in Juba. In January 2002 Machar realigned with the SPLM/A, but was not supported by all of the SSIM/SSDF/SPDF forces, some of whom still operate in western Upper Nile. There have been efforts at reconciliation between these forces and the SPLM/A, which have been unsuccessful to date.

South Sudan Independence Movement/Army (SSIM/SSIA) - Nuer-dominated militia, led by Riek Machar, who split from the SPLM/A in 1991, to form the SPLM/A-Nasir/United. In 1994 Riek became leader of the SSIM/A and Lam Akol took the name of SPLM/A-United for his faction in west-central Upper Nile. In 1995 Riek and Garang signed a ceasefire and agreed to reintegrate their forces, but in April 1996 Machar signed a deal with the government. In 1997, the SSIM/A merged with the other rebel factions which signed the April 1997 Khartoum peace accord to become the SSDF.

South Sudan Liberation Movement (SSLM) - Government-aligned militia, led by Dr Michael Wal Dwany since late 1999, based in the Akobo area, Upper Nile. In January 2000, he teamed up with John Luk Jok to set up a purely Nuer liberation movement.

South Sudan Unity Movement (SSUM/A) - Militia formed in 1998 by Maj-Gen Paulino Matip of Sudanese army, incorporating forces from Anyana II with Nuer from SSDF, based around Bentiu and Mankien in western Upper Nile.

Sudan Allied Forces (SAF) - Military wing of some of the parties in the opposition NDA. Played a major role in the opening of a new war front in the east since 1997 when. For much of 2002/2003, SAF forces were idle as their leaders initiated, but failed to carry out a merger with the SPLM/A.

Sudan Liberation Army (SLA) - Rebel group in Darfur that emerged in February 2003, calling for greater political and economic rights in a united Sudan. Its leader is Abd al-Wahid Muhammad Ahmad al-Nur. Formerly the Darfur Liberation Front, a secessionist group, its name was changed on 14 March 2003.

Sudan People’s Democratic Forces (SPDF) - Southern militia formed by Riek Machar from most forces of the SSDF in 2000. In January 2002 Machar merged SPDF with SPLM/A. Some dissenting elements reneged in 2003 and now claim to hold about 10 locations in the Bieh and Latjor areas.

Sudan People’s Liberation Movement/Army (SPLM/A) - The SPLA is the military wing of the SPLM, and is subordinate to it. John Garang is both chairman of the SPLM and c-in-c of the SPLA. It is Sudan’s largest rebel movement, highly centralised, currently engaged in bilateral peace process with the Khartoum government in Kenya, in favour of a secular, united, democratic Sudan. Secured right to self-determination for southern Sudan in Machakos protocol signed with government in July 2002. Formed in 1983 when Lt-Col John Garang of the Sudanese army was sent to quell a mutiny in Bor of 500 southern troops who were resisting orders to be relocated to the north. Garang encouraged this and other mutinies in other garrisons and set himself up as head of the rebellion against Khartoum. In 1991, split into two factions: one, SPLM/A mainstream led by Garang, who supported a united Sudan, and the other, the SPLM/A-Nasir or -United under Riek Machar, Lam Akol Ajawin and Gordon Kong Chuol, who supported succession for the south and denounced Garang as a dictator. The split followed ethnic lines with the Dinka supporting Garang and the Nuer/Shilluk moving away.
In the first years of its existence, SPLM/A received assistance from Ethiopia, Israel, and Libya. Libya later shifted its support to the Sudanese government after the overthrow of Numayri. In 1991, SPLM/A received an almost fatal blow when the government of Mengistu Haile Mariam was overthrown in Ethiopia, and it lost its most important source of military hardware. In the 1990s the SPLM/A was able to enlist the support of the new governments in Addis Ababa and Asmara, as well as of that of Yoweri Museveni in Uganda, partly in response to the Khartoum government’s support for armed opposition movements in those countries. By the latter 1990s, there was also increasing evidence that these neighbouring states were acting as conduits for US military hardware to the SPLM/A, the US having branded the Khartoum government a rogue state in 1996.

Sudan People’s Liberation Army-Bor (SPLA-Bor) - Also known as SPLM/A-Upper Nile Group, militia based in South Bor under commander Deng Kelay Riak.

Sudan People’s Liberation Movement/Army-United (SPLM/A-United) - Faction of SPLM/A, mostly Nuer, lead by Riek Machar from 1993-4, based in Nasir. Name taken by Lam Akol in 1994 for his Shilluk faction based in Tonga. SPLA-United militia forces still in existence in Nyilwak, despite Lam Akol’s realignment with SPLM/A since October 2003.

Sudan Relief Rehabilitation Commission (SRRC) - Humanitarian wing of the Sudan People’s Liberation Movement, Elijah Malok executive director. Combines Sudan Relief and Rehabilitation Association and Relief Association for South Sudan, the humanitarian wings of the SPLM/A and the SPDF respectively.

Sumbeiywo, Lt-Gen Lazarus - Kenyan. Chief mediator in ongoing peace talks in Kenya between the government and SPLM/A.

Taha, Ali Uthman Muhammad - First Vice-President since February 1998, engaged in ongoing face-to-face peace talks in Kenya with John Garang of the SPLM/A since September 2003. NIF deputy secretary-general; NIF member since his days at Al-Qadimah secondary school together with current President Umar al-Bashir. A former judge and hardline leader of the opposition during the 1986-89 democratically elected government led by Al-Sadiq al-Mahdi. Widely believed to have been a key planner of the 1989 coup against Al-Mahdi. Served as foreign minister between 1995 and 1998. Key player in the Islamisation programme in southern Sudan and Nuba Mountains.

Taha, Prof al-Zubayr Bashir - Minister of Science and Technology.

al-Tahir, Maj-Gen (retd) Al-Tijani Adam - Minister of environment and construction development since 2000. Was serving brigadier in 1989 and appointed member of the revolutionary council and political supervisor of Darfur Region. Interior minister 1990-96. Minister of civil aviation 1996-98.

Taj al-Din, Dr Ali Hasan - Presidential adviser.

Takanah, Yusuf Sulayman - Minister of international cooperation.

Tap, John Both - Commander of Canal Mouth Allied Forces, based in Dulayb Hill.

Teny, Buoth - Militia leader in Malakal and Fangak.

Thiik, Justice Ambrose Riny - Head of the SPLM/A judiciary.

Transitional Areas - Reference to the three areas of the Nuba Mountains, southern Blue Nile, and Abyei, traditionally considered part of the north, following the 1956 administrative boundaries, but currently controlled partly by the SPLM/A. According to the government, not eligible for self-determination as other parts of the south.

Tual, Reth Gai - Militia leader in eastern Upper Nile.

al-Turabi, Dr Hasan Abdullah - Mastermind behind the political and ideological development of the Islamic movement in Sudan. Former academic, Islamic scholar, embarked on political career in mid-1960s after being involved in the founding of the Muslim Brotherhood in 1954. Detained in prison 1969-77 for opposing Numayri. However, he was appointed attorney-general in 1979, then presidential foreign affairs adviser in 1983, when he backed the introduction of shari’ah law. Established the NIF in 1985 with other Islamic scholars. In 1988, the NIF joined a coalition government headed by Al-Sadiq al-Mahdi, who appointed him successively as minister of justice, minister of foreign affairs and deputy prime minister. Following the 1989 coup, when Bashir seized power, Turabi was imprisoned together with al-Mahdi and the DUP leader, Muhammad Uthman al-Mirghani. Released early in 1990 when he declared his readiness to work with the new regime. Elected as an MP in 1996, then as Speaker. In 1999 he fell out with Bashir after signing an agreement with the SPLM/A agreeing to oppose the government’s "totalitarian course" and acknowledging the right of southern Sudanese to self-determination. Dismissed from the ruling NC in early 2000, he then formed the PNC. Placed under house-arrest in 2000, released in mid-2003. Currently claiming to be have become a democrat.

Ummah Party - Opposition party led by ex-Prime Minister Al-Sadiq al-Mahdi. Led by the Islamic Ansar movement, its supporters follow the strict teachings of the Mahdi, who ruled Sudan in the 1880s.

United Democratic Salvation Front (UDSF)- Political wing of the SSDF.

Uru, Bandindi Pascal - SPLM/A commissioner for agriculture.

Urwah, Maj-Gen Al-Fatih Muhammad, Maj-Gen - Ambassador to UN. NIF member. Was colonel in Numayri’s security organisation in 1985. Appointed presidential adviser by Al-Bashir in 1989, and in 1998 as Sudan’s ambassador to the UN, a post he still holds to date.

Uthman, Dr Ahmad Bilal - Minister of health. Was minister of state for health in the government overthrown in 1989, briefly detained, then released.

Verification and Monitoring Team (VMT) - Mandated to monitor ceasefire violations in a February 2003 addendum to the Memorandum of Understanding on Cessation of Hostilities between the government and the SPLM/A.

Vraalsen, Eric Tom - UN Special Envoy for Sudan.

White Army - Locally based armed militias loyal to individual chiefs. Ready source of fighters for various groups seeking power.

Yasin, Ali Muhammad Uthman - Minister of justice since 1998. NIF member. Under secretary foreign ministry 1991. Subsequently ambassador to Britain until 1994. Permanent representative to the UN 1994-96.



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