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Former Anya Nya leader urges South Sudanese to preserve spirit of unity

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By Amoko Robert

August 29, 2011 (JUBA) – The special advisor to the president of South Sudan, Joseph Lagu Yanga has called upon its citizens to remain united to achieve peace.

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Former Anya Nya leader Joseph Lagu Yanga addressing war verteras in Juba, August 18, 2011 (ST)

In an interview with Sudan Tribune on Monday, Lagu recalled that August 18, 1955 is a memorable day for all South Sudanese soldiers, particularly those from the Equatoria corps, which fought against Khartoum.

Lagu was the leader of the Anya Nya rebellion that started in 1955.

“South Sudanese you have fought for your freedom, lets join hands to build this war-torn country, without violence,” said Lagu.

He suggested that for the international community to have respect for South Sudan, its citizens must show one another respect.

The presidential adviser called upon citizens to stand behind their president, Salva Kiir because; he has “already lead his people to the promised land.”

Lagu also expressed his concern for the issue of cattle rustling, which has recently been on the increase in South Sudan, resulting in many deaths. Much of this conflict is based along ethnic fault lines. He said that the government must promote cultural diversity through education.

Another element of governance which he said he was worried about was the plight of widows and orphans. Lagu implored the government to make provisions to support them.

(ST)

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  • 30 August 2011 07:41, by Dr. Rightway

    Were there is food there are vultures!

    Joseph Lago only became positive after the CPA and independence. Where were him during the war? Although I appreciate you mr Lago, you have done little with ur whiteheaded man, Abel Alier. Make sure you compaign hard for peace now’cause u failed on numerous occassions.
    Dr. Rightway...peace upon the peaceful...

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    • 31 August 2011 15:07, by Manyieldit

      Mzee Lagu, should stop his nonsense, when did you became a a good citizen, isn’t you who planted the seed of tribalism and division among South Sudanese by starting what was so-called "KOKORO". South Sudan was one till you divided it into three region( UNR, BEG and EQ Region) was just the trick of power from Arab. when the war of SPLA broke out he remain with north and later run for refuge in UK, now he is claiming unity and pretend to be knowing it all. let him go to Nimule and rest there.

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  • 30 August 2011 07:58, by Aleu

    Amok Robert.

    In 1955, was the beginning of rebellion against Sudan government by some tribes namely Dinka, Nuer, Shullik,Nubia Mountains, but Equatorian were not there until 1967. The Former first movement of Anyanya one should now understand that, the disagreement in his first movement itself came true. According to the hearsay, the majority from his movement were actual Equatorians people however, they were lacking of war skills as seem to be repeated in the SPLA/SPLM time and most of the time they are fearful people therefore, they Dinkas who were in his movement asked him to hand over responsibilities for the movement to Dinkas, but Joseph Lagu himself refused’’saying, the Equatorian including himself will take care unfortunately, his movement did failed in many ways, because the [Mouyjang] [the man of the man] Dinkas were not being given responsibility to be in charge and I think most of Equatorian who were in the SPLA/SPLM movement and saw how hard the Dinkas have tried will agree with me.

    The Former Anyanya One also must knowingly that, bribe is very bad, because it returns people back to worst situation for instance, if Joseph Lagu stick with the Ideas of movement’s structures for why he and his movement fighters fought against Sudan government then, I think the 2.5 million lives lost during the SPLA/SPLM would have been save but he was giving a huge million by Sudanese dictatorship who were dominated the Sudan nation. The late Kerubino Kuanyin Bol saw his leader mr, Joseph Lagu Yanga as a man of interest who dosen’t care any more about Southern Sudanese and he refused not to accepted the ordered came from Khartoum government to relocated his Southern Sudanese army to the Darfur regions as a way of disarming one by one. On July9,2011. The South Sudan gain independence because all Dinkas took fully the responsibilities and all others difficulties facing them including the death of its SPLA/SPLM chairman and now the next generations will enjoy the fruits.

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    • 30 August 2011 08:24, by MINDED.DUDE

      Aleu or asshole,
      you are an idiot.
      just shut up if you got nothing to say.
      You do not know anything about the history of sudan.
      just print out that piece of paper and wipe out your ass instead of posting rubbish against greater Equatorians.

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      • 30 August 2011 08:42, by Aleu

        Mr. Minded Dumb Amok Dor whatever your hidding maybe.

        I have the history book for Sudan and all Africa nations.There are fact in the history of Sudan only the narrow minding people learn nothing. Please ask the Former Anyanya One and he will tell you that, there were disagreement in his movement because the Dinkas were saying, they would like to take responsibilities in the movement but Joseph Lagu rejected that Idea however, today he realizing after SPLA successful until the peac agreement arrived under the Dinka leadership. Look the truth must be told because there is no one run away from the history itself.

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        • 30 August 2011 13:40, by John Gum

          Thanks Aleu

          we must teach them the sudan history,they just came from abroad after 2005 peace agreement.let them bark and still rule them forever.

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        • 31 August 2011 10:13, by Antigraft

          The so call Aleu, this is a high conspiracy by dinkas to erase equatorian out of history and begin rewriting history of South Sudan from 1983. What you sould know is that Lagu will ever be remembered in the history of this country, and will remain the founding father of this nation. When Equatorians started fighting the Arabs, the Dinkas and the Nubians were used by Arabs to fight against the rebellion, but few dinkas joined the movement. Aleu shame on you if you need to change the history of South Sudan and rewrite it to suit your dinkadiology which will soon cease.

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    • 30 August 2011 16:20, by Tambura

      @Amok form your language it is shows that you are toothless Dinka who dosn’t know the history of struggling of south Sudan. How you can say equatorian were lack of skills when they are the one show you Dinka how to fight for your right? What SPLA did for south Sudan out of that they were fighting dreaming of ruling all Sudan and that was Dr, Garang vision. Sudan People Libration Army were killing their brothers from other tribes in boarder of south Sudan Uganda and Kenya they never Librat village until we came and set on peaceful negtuation table which led to sign the peace with Arabs. SPLA came out from bush as an hero. God knows if Ganag was alive south Sudan couldn’t get independent most of his remaining still hold that vision of liberating Sudan, at least they could change their name to SSA south Sudan army. Stop giving cridet to your tribe because everybody in south Sudan fought the same war.

      Tambura

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      • 30 August 2011 22:43, by Space

        @Tambura. you and who came to nogotiate it? do you have any idea of the chief negotiators and CPA protocols signatories? Your time of tribalism and conspriacy is up. The liberatiion in South Sudan began with chiefs and the chiefs killed in 1880s and early 1990s becuase of independent hailed from Dinka and Nuer. The Lado leadership lack the vision and comptent to deliver. he only knew how to build schools and water tapes in Equatoria only. secondly, It was a regional war with different regional leaders including himself leading Equatoria region. it wasn’t well cordinated.

        However, he made a point that widows and orphans must be well catered for in terms of pension plans and policies. I like that point and we have to echoe it. that is what is lacking in the system. You don’t just send people who fought for years home without any pensions plan. There must be reason of doing that in terms of age and other disabilities. If someone is qualified to go, then his pension must begins from the time he joins the strugle. i hope there is data about that.it is time to build the nation and let not opened the old wounds which will take longer to heal. thanks

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        • 31 August 2011 16:06, by Brainy

          I really do have so much respect for all the South Sudanese, Dinka people included. As such I would accord credit where its due.

          However, there are a few uncivilized fellows who believe but never wants to hear good things about their neighbour. If this happen, they are always desperately ready to ridicule their neighbour.

          That’s why the likes of Aleu have convinced themselves that the history of the struggle in the South started with the SPLA/SPLM in 1983. Or could sometimes acknowledge the existence of Anya Nya I (the fool does not even want to know
          what it means)but ridicule Lagu’s leadership that was stolen by the tribalistic Abel Alier who later filled 90% of his cabinet with his clan who are crying foul now. And it was for this reason that Kokora came about.

          Joseph Lagu, John Garang and Salva Kiir have entered the books of the history of our country. They never fought for a tribe but the people of South Sudan.

          Please brothers, get the history right because this will help you avoid repeating it. Otherwise be ready to rot in ignorance.

          God Bless South Sudan!

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        • 4 September 2011 18:19, by Josh

          time now for zenge to fix their teeth. widow of garaaang too she has to fix her teeth.

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      • 1 September 2011 21:03, by Sir Bleak

        To Tambura let me call you the "Talkbarau" please may you tell me, who among you initiate that negotiation table, If you are not talkbarau? I have found the great nyagat who have killing the dinka travelers along the boarders during those dark days,and he is now twisting the story trying to paint himself with national pride while he is nothing but an empty gout who need nothing other than bread.
        Sir Bleak the Analyst.

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  • 31 August 2011 15:39, by AUGUSTINO DENG

    Mr Joseph Lango,

    We all know that you was a leader of Anyanya 1, but, however, you had already relinquished the right of the Southern Sudanese people to the Arabs people in Khartoum, and you decided to go to London for refuge. Shame on you.

    Second, if you are looking for a job, or a position in Salva Kiir’s office, then you needs to be straight. According to your speech, you said that Salva Kiir "has already lead his people to the promised land" As a reality, Salva Kiir never lead the people of the Southern Sudanese to the promised land as you said. If you means that Salva Kiir Miyardit has lead you to the promised land, then that is find to me, but not everybody. Many people from Southern Sudan right now are still dangling as if they are not from Southern Sudan and is Salva Kiir who made like that. Shame on him.

    In my own view, Salva Kiir, had carried the vision of the young Southern Sudanese to what is term as "a vision of corruption, or a geermindering of properties and assets for other people"

    By Augustino Deng. Jech la mer from Tharpam.

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    • 31 August 2011 16:19, by Brainy

      Mr. Deng,

      Which words Lagu used sound offensive? Is there anything he said negative or detrimental to the South Sudan?

      You must be a diasporan who cowardly left South Sudan before it evolved.

      Welcome to the new paradigm!

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      • 31 August 2011 20:19, by AUGUSTINO DENG

        Mr Brainy,

        Keep supporting your wicked-heard leader Joseph Langu,who run away because of his shallow minded. This Movement so called SPLM/SPLA needs a brave-hearded man who stand for all courses of disasters. Who is Joseph Langu? A glutton man who stand for his ownself. Shame on him and you too.

        Lastly, I am a Jech la mer(Red Army) from the SPLA/SPLM. Don’t think that I am just like your uncle Joseph Langu who leave the office for Arabs in Khartoum, and become a Taxi Driver in Uganda. What a shame is that? Mr Brainy, if you really know things properly, then the disaster which happened in Southern Sudan is under the accountability of Joseph Langu, but because your mind is a shallow one, and a boneheaded too, that is why you are not precisely know what Joseph Langu had caused to the people of Southern Sudan in general.

        Keep supporting Joseph Langu, but you will be in one hole with him not least than a year.

        By Augustino Deng. Jech la mer from Tharpam.

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        • 1 September 2011 07:07, by Cadaai ?o?

          Historian and Identity Advocacy View:

          “Good people will be guided by honesty; dishonesty will destroy those who are not trustworthy.” Proverbs 11:3 NCV.

          “Teach me to do Your will, for You are my God; Your Spirit is good. Lead me in the land of uprightness.” Psalms 143:10 NKJV.
          “Who is this to amend God creations, the one who makes an amendment, this person, I would say is against God. If this problem of mine is sent to God, I will win this case.” By John Garang de Mabior

          “But for the sake of finding the truth, the whole truth and nothing but the truth.” By Daniel Bushery Daniel

          “Dinka Twic-east is a reclusive, peaceful and principled community- it has NEVER embarked on an attack on other tribes, and it does NOT…” Source: www.sudantribune.com

          First of all, I would like to thanks my friends who have responded to other kids who are just there for speaking nonsenses. As I know in God (Nhialic) seeks, Dinka Bor people are not going to steal Dinka Twic East and Dinka Twic Mayardit (West) History of Sudan civil war and identity. No matter what they are tying to do about that.

          I don’t know if Dr. Riek Machar has good people who are advising him. Why I say so? It is because Dr. Riek Machar is being misled or being used by Dinka Bor people who are now clashing with Dinka Twic East about their attempts as they think they will steal Dinka Twic East and Dinka Twic West history and identity. So the Dinka Bor people are in desperate to do just that. But Dinka Twic East people are just take it easy one at times until they will reach their truth when the time come.

          Also, there is nothing so call Dinka Bor massacre, for that name they just try to gets credits for the event while they were not affected that much by the incident. In God (Nhialic) true stand, it was Dinka Twic East massacre because of Dinka Twic East being the tribe of Dr. John Garang de Mabior. However, if we include our brothers and sisters of Dinka in region, it calls Southeastern Dinka massacre (Those tribes are Dinka Bor, Dinka Twic East & Dinka Duk)or you can call it Eastern Dinka Massacre or Jonglei Dinka Massacre.

          "UNHCR & REFWORD Report about South Sudan’s war civil History during the movement"

          "Key South Sudan Individuals Named in This Report"

          "Note: The names are listed alphabetically by second name (underlined), unless the person is known by another name."

          "Abel Alier Kwai Respected southern politician living in Khartoum, former vice president of Sudan and head of the Southern Region during part of the autonomy period. Author of Southern Sudan: Too Many Promises Dishonored (1990). (Bor Dinka)

          Tito Biel Chuol Western Upper Nile zonal commander in SSDF in May 1999 in charge of the attack on the oil company rig at Ryer/Thar Jath, Western Upper Nile. Instrumental in securing field alliance with Cmdr. Salva Kiir Mayandit of the SPLA. Originally in the SPLA, joined the Riek Machar breakaway faction in 1991 and followed him into the government in 1997, becoming part of the SSDF, and then in 2000 part of Machar’s SPDF. In late 2002 he realigned himself with the SSDF (pro-government). (Dok Nuer)

          Kuong Danhier Gatluak Head of security of the SPDF in 1999. Joined the SPLA and defected with Riek Machar in 1991. When Riek Machar was in the government, Kuong Danhier was chief security officer for the SSDF, based in Nairobi. Joined Riek Machar when Machar defected from the government in early 2000. (Nyuong Nuer)

          Taban Deng Gai Spokesman for Machar’s SPDF forces in Nairobi, Kenya from December 2000 until June 2001, when he rejoined the SPLA. Originally joined the SPLA in the 1980s and left to join his relative by marriage, Riek Machar, when he split from the SPLA in 1991. In 1996 he joined the government with Riek Machar and became a leader of the political party they formed, the UDSF. He won an election for governor of Unity State/Western Upper Nile in December 1997 and was expelled from the governorship and the state in May 1999 by Maj. Gen. Paulino Matiep. He fled to Khartoum. He was appointed state minister for roads and communications in January 2000 by President Bashir and defected from the government in December 2000, and joined Machar’s new faction, the SPDF, until he decided to rejoin the SPLA. (Leek/Western Jikany Nuer)

          Michael Wal Duany Head of the SSLM as of late 1999 to the current time. Dr. Duany represented the Nuer intellectuals in the diaspora at the Wunlit Nuer-Dinka West Bank peace and reconciliation meeting of March 1999; formerly with the Workshop on Political Theory and Policy Analysis at Indiana University in Bloomington, Indiana, U.S. Based in Akobo, Upper Nile. (Lou Nuer)

          John Garang de Mabior Commander-in-chief of the SPLA and head of the SPLM. Member of Anyanya briefly at the end of the first civil war in 1972, and was incorporated into the Sudan army, earned a PhD in the U.S. in agricultural/environmental studies, and having attained the rank of colonel in the Sudan army, was a founder of the SPLM/A in Ethiopia in 1983. He supported a united secular Sudan against internal SPLA rivals (separatist Anyanya II) in 1983 and won out, with backing from Ethiopia’s president Haile Mengistu Meriam, continuing in control of the SPLM/A today. (Twic/Tuic [East] Dinka/Twic East County)

          Peter Gatdet Yaka Former Sudanese army officer sent to Iraq to fight against the Iranians in the Iran-Iraq war in the 1980s. He joined the SPLA and left it in 1991 with Riek Machar. He was assigned to Cmdr. Paulino Matiep’s Bul Nuer forces as an officer, and when they split off from the SSDF he became a key commander in Commander Matiep’s SSUM/A pro-government militia. He fought on the behalf of the government against the SSDF forces under Cmdr. Tito Biel in Block 5A in 1999 for control of Block 5A. He and his forces mutinied against Maj. Gen. Paulino Matiep in September 1999 and fought against the government. For several months he coordinated his activities with the SSDF (under Cmdr. Tito Biel/Peter Paar) against the government, and attacked various oil targets in Western Upper Nile/Unity State. In early 2000 he joined the SPLA. He began fighting Cmdr. Riek Machar’s SPDF forces (under Cmdr. Peter Paar, formerly his SSDF adversary in 1999) in July 2000. During this round, he was anti-government and the Machar forces were pro-government. After disagreements reportedly about military discipline with the SPLA, he rejoined the government’s militia forces in late 2002. (Bul Nuer)

          Elijah Hon Top (deceased 2000) SSDF chief of staff under the Khartoum Peace Agreement. After Riek Machar resigned unexpectedly from the government in January 2000, Cmdr. Elijah Hon Top, a Lou Nuer from Ayod, became the spokesman for the SSDF and the UDSF in Khartoum. Formerly with the SPLA and Machar’s breakaway faction in 1991, he joined the government with Machar in 1997. (Gaawar Nuer)
          Kerubino Kuanyin Bol (deceased September 1999) Anyanya officer, then incorporated into the Sudan army after 1972, he was leader of the Bor mutineers whose rebellion lead to the formation of the SPLA in Ethiopia in 1983. Jailed by Garang for conspiracy in 1987, he escaped in 1992 and in 1993 joined Riek Machar’s breakaway rebel group. By 1994 his Dinka militia was directly supplied by the Sudanese army from his home, the garrison town of Gogrial, Bahr El Ghazal. Defected to the SPLA in January 1998, and split with the SPLA later in that year and received protection from his in-law, Maj. Gen. Paulino Matiep, in Mankien. Killed by forces of Cmdr. Peter Gatdet after they mutinied from Paulino Matiep and captured the Mankien base in September 1999. (Twic/Tuic Dinka)

          Salva Kiir Mayardit A native of Bahr El Ghazal, assigned chief of staff of the SPLA in late 1999. He was commander of Bahr El Ghazal in 1999 when he strongly backed the Dinka-Nuer Peace and Reconciliation Conference at Wunlit. (Rek Dinka)

          Joseph Lagu Yanga: Founder and leader of the Sudanese rebel group Anya Nya. Sudanese Ambassador to the UN from 1990 to 1992. Joseph Lagu was born in the village of Momokwe, in the north of Madiland, in southern Sudan. He is from the Madi ethnic group. He attended military college in Omdurman and was commissioned into the Sudanese Army in 1960 (Madi) http://africanhistory.about.com/od/...

          Riek Machar Teny Dhurgon Rebel leader with the SPLA from 1984 until the 1991 split, which he helped lead. As SPLA Zonal Commander of Western Upper Nile, entered into agreement with Baggara chiefs in 1986. Led breakaway faction from SPLM/A in 1991, forming a separate southern rebel movement initially known as the SPLA-Nasir (from 1993 the SPLA-United, and from 1994-97 the SSIM/A). Despite espousing independence for the south, his faction received covert support from the government as it fought for years (1991-99) against the SPLA, resorting to increasingly bloody and ethnically motivated attacks against civilians. His SSIA rebel forces claimed all the rural land of Western Upper Nile/Unity State, except the few garrison towns and the Bul Nuer area where Paulino Matiep and Anyanya II prevailed. Signed 1996 Political Charter and 1997 Khartoum Peace Agreement with government, which in 1997 appointed him president of the Southern States Coordinating Council (SSCC) and assistant to President of Sudan Omar el Bashir. Also formed and became head of the political party United Democratic Salvation Front (UDSF) and commander-in-chief of the military arm created under the Khartoum Peace Agreement, the South Sudan Defense Force (SSDF), comprising most of the ex-rebels who had signed that agreement. His failure to stem the government’s forced displacement of civilians from Western Upper Nile/Unity State ended up turning the Nuer against his leadership and eventually led to his belated resignation from government and attempt to recreate his army in the south in 2000 as the Sudan People’s Democratic Forces (2000-02). In January 2002 signed an agreement with Dr. John Garang to merge the SPDF and the SPLA, receiving a leadership position in the SPLA. (Dok Nuer)

          Benjamin Majak In the late 1990s, head of the relief arm of the SPLA, the SRRA, based in his Dinka area of Ruweng County, Western Upper Nile, and SPLA commander in that area. With the Khartoum government since 2000. (Panaru/Ruweng Dinka)

          Paulino Matiep Nhial Bul Nuer ally of the Sudan government. He was in Anyanya but was not incorporated into the Sudan army after the 1972 peace agreement. He became a rebel again in 1975 in Bilpam, went to Ethiopia, and returned to Western Upper Nile in 1985-86 as Anyanya II. He never joined the SPLA, in part because of its 1983 attacks on Anyanya II. He remained in Anyanya II, armed and supported by the government. With then army officer Omar El Bashir (who led the 1989 coup and became Sudan’s president), he successfully recaptured Mayom garrison in Western Upper Nile in early 1989 from the SPLA. He joined Machar’s breakaway faction in 1991. His forces were incorporated into the SSDF forces after the 1997 Khartoum Peace Agreement, but he fought the SSDF forces for control of the governorship of Unity State in September 1997, and lost. In March 1998 his South Sudan Unity Movement/Army (SSUM/A) was recognized by the government, which continued to directly provide him with arms and ammunition. He was named a major general in Sudan’s army in or before 1998. In 1998-present, he fought on behalf of the government, forcibly displacing civilians from Block 5A. For a longer period he helped the government conduct displacements from Blocks 1, 2, and 4. In 2003 he was again engaged in fighting against Nuer pro-government rivals for control of the governorship of Unity State, and lost. (Bul Nuer)

          Peter Paar Jiek, SPDF commander of Western Upper Nile in 2000-01. Formerly SSDF commander under Cmdr. Tito Biel in the fighting in 1998-99 in Western Upper Nile/Unity State. He was with Machar’s forces since the split from the SPLA in 1991. He coordinated anti-government attacks with Gatdet’s forces until June 2000, when he and Gatdet began to fight each other. He and Gatdet settled the "war of the Peters" in late 2000, and with Riek Machar he rejoined the SPLA in 2001. (Dok Nuer)

          Main Rebel and Militia Forces in South Sudan Named in this Report

          Anyanya: guerrilla army of southern separatists, 1955-72.
          Anyanya II: guerrilla army of southern separatists, 1975-91.
          Sudan People’s Liberation Movement/Army (SPLM/A): dominant rebel army in Sudan, 1983-present, composed of southerners and other marginalized peoples such as the Nuba, headed by Col. John Garang de Mabior (Dinka). Program: united, secular Sudan. Headquartered in Rumbek, Bahr El Ghazal, southern Sudan.
          South Sudan Liberation Movement (SSLM): a pro-independence southern political movement based in Akobo, Eastern Upper Nile, headed and formed by Michael Wal Duany in late 1999; it signed the Khartoum Peace Agreement with the Sudanese government in 2002

          Rebel forces headed (directly or indirectly) by Cmdr. Riek Machar, 1991-2002:

          SPLM/A-Nasir faction: 1991-93, breakaway SPLA faction headed by SPLA Cmdrs. Riek Machar Teny Dhurgon (Dok Nuer), Gordon Kong Chuol (Eastern Jikany Nuer), and Lam Akol (Shilluk); although its program called for an independent south, it received government aid. Headquartered in Nasir until 1995 and thereafter in Waat and Ayod, Upper Nile.
          SPLM/A-United: 1993-94: the above faction (mostly Nuer) joined by forces from other ethnic groups in southern Sudan, headed by Cmdr. Riek Machar, based in Nasir. Later this name was used by Lam Akol for his mostly Shilluk faction (see below).
          South Sudan Independence Movement/Army (SSIM/A): 1994-97: the above faction, reformed and renamed after the Nuer reconciliation meeting at Akobo in 1994, based variously in Waat and Ayod, Upper Nile.
          South Sudan Defense Forces (SSDF): 1997-2000, the army formed under the Khartoum Peace Agreement from ex-rebel forces including SSIM/A, based in Khartoum, Juba, and Malakal, and aligned with the political party United Democratic Salvation Front (UDSF). Both were headed by Cmdr. Riek Machar until January 2000, when he left the government. On April 27, 2001 all southern forces allied with the government were unified under this name, SSDF, including the progovernment militia forces listed below.
          Sudan People’s Defense Forces/Democratic Front (SPDF): January 2000-January 2002 or when the merger with the SPLM/A was complete; the rebel group formed from most SSDF forces, based in Upper Nile.

          Some pro-government militia forces (later known as "armed groups"):
          South Sudan Unity Movement/Army (SSUM/A): formed in early 1998 by Maj Gen. Paulino Matiep of the Sudan army, incorporating his formerly Anyanya II and SSDF Bul Nuer forces, supported by the Sudan government, based in Mayom, Western Upper Nile. (Bul Nuer)
          Cmdr. Gabriel Tanginya, pro-government Nuer militia based in Fangak, later Poum, Central Upper Nile. (Lak Nuer)
          Cmdr. Gordon Kong Chuol, pro-government Nuer militia based in Nasir, Eastern Upper Nile. (eastern Jikany Nuer)
          Cmdr. Simon Gatwich Dual, pro-government Nuer militia based in Waat, Central Upper Nile. (Lou Nuer)
          SPLM/A-United: Cmdr. Lam Akol’s Shilluk forces formed in 1994, which signed the Khartoum Peace Agreement in 1997. Lam Akol claimed the name after the Riek Machar forces in 1994 took the name South Sudan Independence Movement/Army (SSIM/A). Lam Akol had been part of the original SPLM/A-United. Based in Tonga, the Shilluk capital, in Upper Nile of southern Sudan.
          For further details, consult the Glossary, Lists of Key Individuals, and the text. There are several other southern ethnic militias armed by the government, including the Murle, the Mandari, the Toposa, the Didinga, and the Fertit and other ethnic groups not named here.
          Most southerners’ names include their "proper" name first, their father’s name second, and their grandfather’s name last. For example, to refer to Cmdr. Riek Machar Teny Dhurgon as "Machar" is to refer to that commander’s father. Therefore the first and second names are used in this report.

          Nuer pro-government militia leaders:

          Simon Gatwich Dual Pro-government Nuer militia leader based in Akobo, Upper Nile. With the SPLA, he followed Machar in 1991, becoming an SSDF commander in 1997. In 1999 he began receiving direct government funding. He followed Riek Machar out of the government in 2000 and Riek Machar named him governor of Leich State (Western Upper Nile/Unity State). He went with Riek Machar into the SPLA in 2002 but may have remained in some relationship with the Sudanese government and militias. (Lou Nuer)
          Gordon Kong Chuol Pro-government Nuer militia leader based in Eastern Upper Nile. An Anyanya veteran and founder of the SPLM/A, he joined the separatist Anyanya II and fought against the SPLA from 1983-88, when he led the reconciliation of most Anyanya II with the SPLA. With Riek Machar and Lam Akol, he led the breakaway faction that split from the SPLA in 1991. The faction received military assistance from the government and in 1997 signed the Khartoum Peace Agreement with the government. He was made an SSDF (pro-government) commander in 1997 under Riek Machar, and he began to accept direct supplies from the government in 1998. From that time a government militia leader operating out of Nasir with his local Jikany Nuer troops. (Eastern Jikany Nuer).
          Gabriel Tanginya (nom de guerre) Commander of government Nuer militia based in Fangak then Pom, Upper Nile, he was associated with Cmdr. Paulino Matiep in the early Anyanya II and with him joined Cmdr. Riek Machar’s breakaway rebel forces in 1991. He became a government militia leader by accepting direct government backing in 1998-99. In early 2000 he hijacked a U.N. plane in protest of the U.N.’s alleged transport of commanders to Riek Machar’s then location in Koch, Western Upper Nile. (Lak Nuer)"

          Credited Sources:

          http://www.unhcr.org/refworld/count...

          Search term: UNHCR | Refworld | Sudan, Oil, and Human Rights

          http://www.unhcr.org/refworld/docid...

          REFWORLD: The leader in refugee decision support

          UNHCR: The UN Refugee Agency

          “A bend in the road is not the end of the road... unless you fail to make the turn.” Author Unknown

          Finally, South Sudanese I know you have wisodom people among you.

          You will be judge about who is rights?

          Thank you all.

          repondre message

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