Home | News    Wednesday 31 August 2011

Bor students in Uganda welcome apology of South Sudan’s VP Machar

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By Philip Thon Aleu

August 30, 2011 (KAMPALA) – Bor students in Kampala, Uganda have described the apology of South Sudan’s Vice President, for the killings of civilians - which took place while he led a rival rebel movement during the civil war - as “beginning of a new era”.

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Vice-President of South Sudan Riek Machar (AFP)

South Sudan Vice President Riek Machar Teny confirmed over the weekend that he apologised to Bor community for the 1992 ‘Bor Massacre’ in Jonglei State. The attack on Bor villages, from Duk Padiet far in the north to Cuei-Keer in the south of greater Bor area, came after the Sudan People’s Liberation Movement/Army (SPLM/A) split on exactly twenty years ago.

The attempted coup by Machar and others, known as the ‘Nassir Declaration’, failed to garner enough support to topple the SPLM/A’s powerful chairman John Garang and soon the two factions began to fight each other, resulting in the killing of hundreds of civilians in Bor and the displacement of thousands.

Ajak Alak, the chairman of Bor youth and students association (BOYSA) in Kampala, welcomed Machar’s apology with some reservations.

“Dr. Riek’s apology is a beginning of a new era of peacebuilding in our country,” said Alak adding that “the next issue is how we are going to address the effect of war and the destruction caused in Bor in 1991.”

The student leader noted that without reconciliation of people at the ”grassroots”, any apology made in Juba might be “temporary because it will not achieve the much needed long-lasting peace” in newly independent South Sudan.

A referendum in January secured South Sudan’s separation from the north as part of a 2005 peace deal. Machar rejoined the SPLM/A in 2002 and was made Vice President of South Sudan in 2005, which for six years was ruled by the SPLM as an autonomous region of Sudan as part of the peace agreement.

“We need peace, reconciliation and development in the new nation [of South Sudan] now that the war has ended", Alak said.

“There are orphans, widows and disabled people in Bor who cannot support themselves because their people were killed,” he said.

Involving traditional chiefs and political leaders from Bor, as well as the Lou Nuer who played a part in the 1991 attack, to have some sort of reconciliation process would be a good example for others in the fledgling country, he added.

The ’Bor Massacre’ is an extremely sensitive topic among Dinka Bor but Alak said that enough time had passed and people’s “senses are now normal [enough] after [the] long war” to enable it to take place.

Ayom Mawut, who taken captive by Machar’s forces from August 1991 to September 1992, also welcomed the apology but said that reconciliation had already occurred.

“By-gone is by-gone and we can stick [it] to the past,” Mawut said.

“Reconciliation has already made itself and that is why Dr. Riek is a Vice President in [the] SPLM government. We are reconciled and we are living together,” he added.

Mawut, who was trained as an SPLA soldier in Ethiopia in 1989, fell to Machar’s forces having not known the split of the movement. He said their army generals, decorated by John Garang, were detained and “lynched” in Nassir prisons.

“Dr. Riek was not supporting killing but his people were not serious. They [Machar’s close supporters] thought Dr. Riek did not want people [from other tribes]. A lot of people were killed and Dr. Riek condemned this without doing anything to bring the culprits to book,” he added.

“But we have to accept the reconciliation and move ahead with efforts to help those directly affected by the killing in Bor,” he said.

APOLOGY MADE IN THE WRONG PLACES

Some students members of the Bor youth and students association (BOYSA) in Kampala did not think their chairman should have accepted the apology as it was made in Juba and not in Bor.

Machar first made the apology to senior members of the Bor community at the house of Rebecca Garang, the wife of the SPLM/A’s former leader at her house on August 9 in the presence of Dinka Bor leaders. After much speculation he confirmed that he made the apology at a Church service on Sunday.

Nyok Malet said that to show seriousness to the matter the Vice President should travel to Bor to make his apology.

“People who suffered during the 1991 massacre are in Bor and any apology should be brought to them,” he said.

Garang and Machar reconciled in 2002 after a nine year split in the movement. The main contention between the two was that Machar insisted that the aim of the civil war should be self determination for South Sudan, while Garang’s ’New Sudan’ vision envisaged a united, secular, federal, pluralistic and democratic Sudan.

In the negotiations which led to the 2005 peace it became apparent that Sudan’s rulers would not remove Shari’a law from the North, even if they would allow South Sudan to be secular.

The agreement said that if unity had not been made attractive to South Sudan then it would be able to vote for separation in a referendum. After a bitter six years of power sharing, nearly 99% of votes cast were for independence.

Garang died weeks after becoming Sudan’s Vice President and President of South Sudan in August 2005. His successor Salva Kiir made Machar his deputy in an act of reconciliation with South Sudan’s second largest ethnic group, the Nuer.

Tribal feuds remain a major threat to the new nation. In Jonglei state, tribal conflicts over cattle and child abduction continue to take lives of civilians. Poor infrastructure also makes the movement of troops difficult.

Bor students in Kampala said that Machar’s apology should be backed up with the building of schools, health centers and roads throughout Jonglei State. They argued that building better roads would allow tribes to trade and have more contact with each other, adding that this could improve relations.

(ST)

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  • 31 August 2011 08:21, by Michael Madit Magot

    Yes! We can’t roast a willing and conscious heart as such.

    repondre message

    • 31 August 2011 08:30, by Ajok Garang

      Its not every Bor student in Uganda who welcome the apology ,however much people talk about it all the time ..his apology must go to the SPLA also becuase his intention was to overthrow the SPLA and also to Bor community who were the victim of the situations.if we can ask him why he only attack Bor and yet we have somany tribes who are supporting the SPLA ? and again the SPLA has brought us to the new Nation now and i think it is a good idea to all of us..so Riek was not right to target Bor in 1991 for the sake of overthrawing the moment .

      repondre message

      • 31 August 2011 11:20, by onlysonmabi

        Ajok it is good to forgive the person if he/she confecse of what he did, and to tell you if you don’t forgive him and Dr John did it what are you.

        repondre message

      • 31 August 2011 16:30, by Cadaai ?o?

        Historian and Identity Advocacy View:

        “Good people will be guided by honesty; dishonesty will destroy those who are not trustworthy.” Proverbs 11:3 NCV.

        “Teach me to do Your will, for You are my God; Your Spirit is good. Lead me in the land of uprightness.” Psalms 143:10 NKJV.
        “Who is this to amend God creations, the one who makes an amendment, this person, I would say is against God. If this problem of mine is sent to God, I will win this case.” By John Garang de Mabior

        “But for the sake of finding the truth, the whole truth and nothing but the truth.” By Daniel Bushery Daniel

        “Dinka Twic-east is a reclusive, peaceful and principled community- it has NEVER embarked on an attack on other tribes, and it does NOT…” Source: www.sudantribune.com

        First of all, I would like to thanks my friends who have responded to other kids who are just there for speaking nonsenses. As I know in God (Nhialic) seeks, Dinka Bor people are not going to steal Dinka Twic East and Dinka Twic Mayardit (West) History of Sudan civil war and identity. No matter what they are tying to do about that.

        I don’t know if Dr. Riek Machar has good people who are advising him. Why I say so? It is because Dr. Riek Machar is being misled or being used by Dinka Bor people who are now clashing with Dinka Twic East about their attempts as they think they will steal Dinka Twic East and Dinka Twic West history and identity. So the Dinka Bor people are in desperate to do just that. But Dinka Twic East people are just take it easy one at times until they will reach their truth when the time come.

        Also, there is nothing so call Dinka Bor massacre, for that name they just try to gets credits for the event while they were not affected that much by the incident. In God (Nhialic) true stand, it was Dinka Twic East massacre because of Dinka Twic East being the tribe of Dr. John Garang de Mabior. However, if we include our brothers and sisters of Dinka in region, it calls Southeastern Dinka massacre (Those tribes are Dinka Bor, Dinka Twic East & Dinka Duk)or you can call it Eastern Dinka Massacre or Jonglei Dinka Massacre.

        "UNHCR & REFWORD Report about South Sudan’s war civil History during the movement"

        "Key South Sudan Individuals Named in This Report"

        "Note: The names are listed alphabetically by second name (underlined), unless the person is known by another name."

        "Abel Alier Kwai Respected southern politician living in Khartoum, former vice president of Sudan and head of the Southern Region during part of the autonomy period. Author of Southern Sudan: Too Many Promises Dishonored (1990). (Bor Dinka)

        Tito Biel Chuol Western Upper Nile zonal commander in SSDF in May 1999 in charge of the attack on the oil company rig at Ryer/Thar Jath, Western Upper Nile. Instrumental in securing field alliance with Cmdr. Salva Kiir Mayandit of the SPLA. Originally in the SPLA, joined the Riek Machar breakaway faction in 1991 and followed him into the government in 1997, becoming part of the SSDF, and then in 2000 part of Machar’s SPDF. In late 2002 he realigned himself with the SSDF (pro-government). (Dok Nuer)

        Kuong Danhier Gatluak Head of security of the SPDF in 1999. Joined the SPLA and defected with Riek Machar in 1991. When Riek Machar was in the government, Kuong Danhier was chief security officer for the SSDF, based in Nairobi. Joined Riek Machar when Machar defected from the government in early 2000. (Nyuong Nuer)

        Taban Deng Gai Spokesman for Machar’s SPDF forces in Nairobi, Kenya from December 2000 until June 2001, when he rejoined the SPLA. Originally joined the SPLA in the 1980s and left to join his relative by marriage, Riek Machar, when he split from the SPLA in 1991. In 1996 he joined the government with Riek Machar and became a leader of the political party they formed, the UDSF. He won an election for governor of Unity State/Western Upper Nile in December 1997 and was expelled from the governorship and the state in May 1999 by Maj. Gen. Paulino Matiep. He fled to Khartoum. He was appointed state minister for roads and communications in January 2000 by President Bashir and defected from the government in December 2000, and joined Machar’s new faction, the SPDF, until he decided to rejoin the SPLA. (Leek/Western Jikany Nuer)

        Michael Wal Duany Head of the SSLM as of late 1999 to the current time. Dr. Duany represented the Nuer intellectuals in the diaspora at the Wunlit Nuer-Dinka West Bank peace and reconciliation meeting of March 1999; formerly with the Workshop on Political Theory and Policy Analysis at Indiana University in Bloomington, Indiana, U.S. Based in Akobo, Upper Nile. (Lou Nuer)

        John Garang de Mabior Commander-in-chief of the SPLA and head of the SPLM. Member of Anyanya briefly at the end of the first civil war in 1972, and was incorporated into the Sudan army, earned a PhD in the U.S. in agricultural/environmental studies, and having attained the rank of colonel in the Sudan army, was a founder of the SPLM/A in Ethiopia in 1983. He supported a united secular Sudan against internal SPLA rivals (separatist Anyanya II) in 1983 and won out, with backing from Ethiopia’s president Haile Mengistu Meriam, continuing in control of the SPLM/A today. (Twic/Tuic [East] Dinka/Twic East County)

        Peter Gatdet Yaka Former Sudanese army officer sent to Iraq to fight against the Iranians in the Iran-Iraq war in the 1980s. He joined the SPLA and left it in 1991 with Riek Machar. He was assigned to Cmdr. Paulino Matiep’s Bul Nuer forces as an officer, and when they split off from the SSDF he became a key commander in Commander Matiep’s SSUM/A pro-government militia. He fought on the behalf of the government against the SSDF forces under Cmdr. Tito Biel in Block 5A in 1999 for control of Block 5A. He and his forces mutinied against Maj. Gen. Paulino Matiep in September 1999 and fought against the government. For several months he coordinated his activities with the SSDF (under Cmdr. Tito Biel/Peter Paar) against the government, and attacked various oil targets in Western Upper Nile/Unity State. In early 2000 he joined the SPLA. He began fighting Cmdr. Riek Machar’s SPDF forces (under Cmdr. Peter Paar, formerly his SSDF adversary in 1999) in July 2000. During this round, he was anti-government and the Machar forces were pro-government. After disagreements reportedly about military discipline with the SPLA, he rejoined the government’s militia forces in late 2002. (Bul Nuer)

        Elijah Hon Top (deceased 2000) SSDF chief of staff under the Khartoum Peace Agreement. After Riek Machar resigned unexpectedly from the government in January 2000, Cmdr. Elijah Hon Top, a Lou Nuer from Ayod, became the spokesman for the SSDF and the UDSF in Khartoum. Formerly with the SPLA and Machar’s breakaway faction in 1991, he joined the government with Machar in 1997. (Gaawar Nuer)
        Kerubino Kuanyin Bol (deceased September 1999) Anyanya officer, then incorporated into the Sudan army after 1972, he was leader of the Bor mutineers whose rebellion lead to the formation of the SPLA in Ethiopia in 1983. Jailed by Garang for conspiracy in 1987, he escaped in 1992 and in 1993 joined Riek Machar’s breakaway rebel group. By 1994 his Dinka militia was directly supplied by the Sudanese army from his home, the garrison town of Gogrial, Bahr El Ghazal. Defected to the SPLA in January 1998, and split with the SPLA later in that year and received protection from his in-law, Maj. Gen. Paulino Matiep, in Mankien. Killed by forces of Cmdr. Peter Gatdet after they mutinied from Paulino Matiep and captured the Mankien base in September 1999. (Twic/Tuic Dinka)

        Salva Kiir Mayardit A native of Bahr El Ghazal, assigned chief of staff of the SPLA in late 1999. He was commander of Bahr El Ghazal in 1999 when he strongly backed the Dinka-Nuer Peace and Reconciliation Conference at Wunlit. (Rek Dinka)

        Joseph Lagu Yanga: Founder and leader of the Sudanese rebel group Anya Nya. Sudanese Ambassador to the UN from 1990 to 1992. Joseph Lagu was born in the village of Momokwe, in the north of Madiland, in southern Sudan. He is from the Madi ethnic group. He attended military college in Omdurman and was commissioned into the Sudanese Army in 1960 (Madi) http://africanhistory.about.com/od/...

        Riek Machar Teny Dhurgon Rebel leader with the SPLA from 1984 until the 1991 split, which he helped lead. As SPLA Zonal Commander of Western Upper Nile, entered into agreement with Baggara chiefs in 1986. Led breakaway faction from SPLM/A in 1991, forming a separate southern rebel movement initially known as the SPLA-Nasir (from 1993 the SPLA-United, and from 1994-97 the SSIM/A). Despite espousing independence for the south, his faction received covert support from the government as it fought for years (1991-99) against the SPLA, resorting to increasingly bloody and ethnically motivated attacks against civilians. His SSIA rebel forces claimed all the rural land of Western Upper Nile/Unity State, except the few garrison towns and the Bul Nuer area where Paulino Matiep and Anyanya II prevailed. Signed 1996 Political Charter and 1997 Khartoum Peace Agreement with government, which in 1997 appointed him president of the Southern States Coordinating Council (SSCC) and assistant to President of Sudan Omar el Bashir. Also formed and became head of the political party United Democratic Salvation Front (UDSF) and commander-in-chief of the military arm created under the Khartoum Peace Agreement, the South Sudan Defense Force (SSDF), comprising most of the ex-rebels who had signed that agreement. His failure to stem the government’s forced displacement of civilians from Western Upper Nile/Unity State ended up turning the Nuer against his leadership and eventually led to his belated resignation from government and attempt to recreate his army in the south in 2000 as the Sudan People’s Democratic Forces (2000-02). In January 2002 signed an agreement with Dr. John Garang to merge the SPDF and the SPLA, receiving a leadership position in the SPLA. (Dok Nuer)

        Benjamin Majak In the late 1990s, head of the relief arm of the SPLA, the SRRA, based in his Dinka area of Ruweng County, Western Upper Nile, and SPLA commander in that area. With the Khartoum government since 2000. (Panaru/Ruweng Dinka)

        Paulino Matiep Nhial Bul Nuer ally of the Sudan government. He was in Anyanya but was not incorporated into the Sudan army after the 1972 peace agreement. He became a rebel again in 1975 in Bilpam, went to Ethiopia, and returned to Western Upper Nile in 1985-86 as Anyanya II. He never joined the SPLA, in part because of its 1983 attacks on Anyanya II. He remained in Anyanya II, armed and supported by the government. With then army officer Omar El Bashir (who led the 1989 coup and became Sudan’s president), he successfully recaptured Mayom garrison in Western Upper Nile in early 1989 from the SPLA. He joined Machar’s breakaway faction in 1991. His forces were incorporated into the SSDF forces after the 1997 Khartoum Peace Agreement, but he fought the SSDF forces for control of the governorship of Unity State in September 1997, and lost. In March 1998 his South Sudan Unity Movement/Army (SSUM/A) was recognized by the government, which continued to directly provide him with arms and ammunition. He was named a major general in Sudan’s army in or before 1998. In 1998-present, he fought on behalf of the government, forcibly displacing civilians from Block 5A. For a longer period he helped the government conduct displacements from Blocks 1, 2, and 4. In 2003 he was again engaged in fighting against Nuer pro-government rivals for control of the governorship of Unity State, and lost. (Bul Nuer)

        Peter Paar Jiek, SPDF commander of Western Upper Nile in 2000-01. Formerly SSDF commander under Cmdr. Tito Biel in the fighting in 1998-99 in Western Upper Nile/Unity State. He was with Machar’s forces since the split from the SPLA in 1991. He coordinated anti-government attacks with Gatdet’s forces until June 2000, when he and Gatdet began to fight each other. He and Gatdet settled the "war of the Peters" in late 2000, and with Riek Machar he rejoined the SPLA in 2001. (Dok Nuer)

        Main Rebel and Militia Forces in South Sudan Named in this Report

        Anyanya: guerrilla army of southern separatists, 1955-72.
        Anyanya II: guerrilla army of southern separatists, 1975-91.
        Sudan People’s Liberation Movement/Army (SPLM/A): dominant rebel army in Sudan, 1983-present, composed of southerners and other marginalized peoples such as the Nuba, headed by Col. John Garang de Mabior (Dinka). Program: united, secular Sudan. Headquartered in Rumbek, Bahr El Ghazal, southern Sudan.
        South Sudan Liberation Movement (SSLM): a pro-independence southern political movement based in Akobo, Eastern Upper Nile, headed and formed by Michael Wal Duany in late 1999; it signed the Khartoum Peace Agreement with the Sudanese government in 2002

        Rebel forces headed (directly or indirectly) by Cmdr. Riek Machar, 1991-2002:

        SPLM/A-Nasir faction: 1991-93, breakaway SPLA faction headed by SPLA Cmdrs. Riek Machar Teny Dhurgon (Dok Nuer), Gordon Kong Chuol (Eastern Jikany Nuer), and Lam Akol (Shilluk); although its program called for an independent south, it received government aid. Headquartered in Nasir until 1995 and thereafter in Waat and Ayod, Upper Nile.
        SPLM/A-United: 1993-94: the above faction (mostly Nuer) joined by forces from other ethnic groups in southern Sudan, headed by Cmdr. Riek Machar, based in Nasir. Later this name was used by Lam Akol for his mostly Shilluk faction (see below).
        South Sudan Independence Movement/Army (SSIM/A): 1994-97: the above faction, reformed and renamed after the Nuer reconciliation meeting at Akobo in 1994, based variously in Waat and Ayod, Upper Nile.
        South Sudan Defense Forces (SSDF): 1997-2000, the army formed under the Khartoum Peace Agreement from ex-rebel forces including SSIM/A, based in Khartoum, Juba, and Malakal, and aligned with the political party United Democratic Salvation Front (UDSF). Both were headed by Cmdr. Riek Machar until January 2000, when he left the government. On April 27, 2001 all southern forces allied with the government were unified under this name, SSDF, including the progovernment militia forces listed below.
        Sudan People’s Defense Forces/Democratic Front (SPDF): January 2000-January 2002 or when the merger with the SPLM/A was complete; the rebel group formed from most SSDF forces, based in Upper Nile.

        Some pro-government militia forces (later known as "armed groups"):
        South Sudan Unity Movement/Army (SSUM/A): formed in early 1998 by Maj Gen. Paulino Matiep of the Sudan army, incorporating his formerly Anyanya II and SSDF Bul Nuer forces, supported by the Sudan government, based in Mayom, Western Upper Nile. (Bul Nuer)
        Cmdr. Gabriel Tanginya, pro-government Nuer militia based in Fangak, later Poum, Central Upper Nile. (Lak Nuer)
        Cmdr. Gordon Kong Chuol, pro-government Nuer militia based in Nasir, Eastern Upper Nile. (eastern Jikany Nuer)
        Cmdr. Simon Gatwich Dual, pro-government Nuer militia based in Waat, Central Upper Nile. (Lou Nuer)
        SPLM/A-United: Cmdr. Lam Akol’s Shilluk forces formed in 1994, which signed the Khartoum Peace Agreement in 1997. Lam Akol claimed the name after the Riek Machar forces in 1994 took the name South Sudan Independence Movement/Army (SSIM/A). Lam Akol had been part of the original SPLM/A-United. Based in Tonga, the Shilluk capital, in Upper Nile of southern Sudan.
        For further details, consult the Glossary, Lists of Key Individuals, and the text. There are several other southern ethnic militias armed by the government, including the Murle, the Mandari, the Toposa, the Didinga, and the Fertit and other ethnic groups not named here.
        Most southerners’ names include their "proper" name first, their father’s name second, and their grandfather’s name last. For example, to refer to Cmdr. Riek Machar Teny Dhurgon as "Machar" is to refer to that commander’s father. Therefore the first and second names are used in this report.

        Nuer pro-government militia leaders:

        Simon Gatwich Dual Pro-government Nuer militia leader based in Akobo, Upper Nile. With the SPLA, he followed Machar in 1991, becoming an SSDF commander in 1997. In 1999 he began receiving direct government funding. He followed Riek Machar out of the government in 2000 and Riek Machar named him governor of Leich State (Western Upper Nile/Unity State). He went with Riek Machar into the SPLA in 2002 but may have remained in some relationship with the Sudanese government and militias. (Lou Nuer)
        Gordon Kong Chuol Pro-government Nuer militia leader based in Eastern Upper Nile. An Anyanya veteran and founder of the SPLM/A, he joined the separatist Anyanya II and fought against the SPLA from 1983-88, when he led the reconciliation of most Anyanya II with the SPLA. With Riek Machar and Lam Akol, he led the breakaway faction that split from the SPLA in 1991. The faction received military assistance from the government and in 1997 signed the Khartoum Peace Agreement with the government. He was made an SSDF (pro-government) commander in 1997 under Riek Machar, and he began to accept direct supplies from the government in 1998. From that time a government militia leader operating out of Nasir with his local Jikany Nuer troops. (Eastern Jikany Nuer).
        Gabriel Tanginya (nom de guerre) Commander of government Nuer militia based in Fangak then Pom, Upper Nile, he was associated with Cmdr. Paulino Matiep in the early Anyanya II and with him joined Cmdr. Riek Machar’s breakaway rebel forces in 1991. He became a government militia leader by accepting direct government backing in 1998-99. In early 2000 he hijacked a U.N. plane in protest of the U.N.’s alleged transport of commanders to Riek Machar’s then location in Koch, Western Upper Nile. (Lak Nuer)"

        Credited Sources:

        http://www.unhcr.org/refworld/count...

        Search term: UNHCR | Refworld | Sudan, Oil, and Human Rights

        http://www.unhcr.org/refworld/docid...

        REFWORLD: The leader in refugee decision support

        UNHCR: The UN Refugee Agency

        “A bend in the road is not the end of the road... unless you fail to make the turn.” Author Unknown

        Finally, South Sudanese I know you have wisodom people among you.

        You will be judge about who is rights?

        Thank you all.

        repondre message

        • 1 September 2011 08:36, by gotutu

          TO CAADAI
          YOU ARE WASTING YOUR TIME TO WRITE THAT HISTORY WHICH IS BEYOND COMMANT.
          YOUR ABNORMAL ARTICLE SHOWS THAT YOU ARE ACIBEEL FROM TWICE EAST CPOUNTY OF TRAITORS , YOU WILL DIED LIKE YOUR KINSMEN AKUOT ATEM AND AROK THON .
          SHAME ON TWICE PEOPLE WHO ARE RUNNING AFTER FOOD

          repondre message

      • 31 August 2011 17:17, by JohnGarangFreedom

        Dinka Twi East Civil Group message to H.E President Kiir Mayardit.

        The following message our brother book.

        It is title: "Dr. John Garang de Mabior: The undiscovered Stories About Man Behind South Sudanese’ Freedom. Author: Garang de Faith & Truth.

        "We the people of Twic Dinka East Youth are not part of this protest, if there is any Dinka Twic east persons in there. We know that, he/she might be ill, crazy or being the slave or follower of Dinka Bor ideal of messes, bad characteristics whom they were born with as an indication of qualify public ethical virtues. To assure you Mr. President, as our history has been shown it, the people known as Twi Dinka East are not evils doing people, because they often know how to handle things professional. Acting like child is not theirs behaviors.

        Second, in last few months the Tuic Dinka East people are fighting with Dinka Bor indirectly for Twi ancestor identity whom they claim that the Dinka Twic East is sub-tribe of Dinka Bor instead of us being the major sub-tribe of Dinka as whole. So war is now going on. That was one of the elements allow them to deceive Dr. Riek Machar to make unorganized apology so that they will get credit and history as they planing. But we the people of Dinka Twi are not going to be deceived or being take like fool. That’s thing will not happen in our watches.

        Third, as Twic East County we have this people already in high positions of South Sudan government:

        (1) Atem de Garang in higher position
        (2) Lual Achuek Deng still there
        (3) Majak Agoot in deputy position were he has seniority
        (4) Atem Yak Atem
        (5) We believe Nyandeng will be there
        (6) Malok as well will be in another high position in government
        (7) Aguer Manyang
        (8) Jurkuch de Barach
        (9) Bior da Ajang
        (10) Chol de piowei
        (12) And many more in your administration positions and some are coming.

        We the Dinka Twi/Twic East people are so proud of your excellent job well done Mr. President.

        Garang background links to earliest SPLM/A top five leaders

        “It is not flesh and blood but the heart which makes us fathers and sons.” Johann Schiller
        “Always continue the climb. It is possible for you to do whatever you choose, if you first get to know who you are and are willing to work with a power that is greater than ourselves to do it.”
        By Ella Wheeler Wilcox

        The following is the descriptions about the new discovery in regards to Late Dr. John Garang links to the others earliest five leaders of the Sudan People Liberation Movement/Army (SPLM/A) top five military Commanders, particularly when it comes to their backgrounds related to tribe’s identifications. And I have no idea if they were knew it back then or not, that they were all from Dinka or Jieng tribe. However, I think Dr. Garang was so sure about Late Cdr. Kerubino Kuanyin Bol and late Cdr. Arok Thon Arok that they were from two branches of Dinka Twic East and Dinka Twic West (Mayardit), and at the same I believe he knew that Dr. Kiir was from Dinka Twic, but I am not so sure Dr. Garang knows that Dr. Kiir was related to him through the roots of the other Dinka or Jieng Twic/Tuic West (Mayardit).
        Anyway in my view, when it comes to his knowledge about late Cdr. William Nyuon Bany and Cdr. Salva Kiir Mayardit relationship to him through sub-tribes of Dinka (Jieng) Twic East and Dinka Twic West. I think that time he didn’t even aware of these intriguing links, except, he may have known them then as those two guys were having Jieng’s (Dinka) backgrounds only up to that point, in whatsoever. By the way, the bottom-line is this; they were all having the same traits or bonds of kinship through Dinka tribe backgrounds. So ahead are all the top five commanders of the Sudan People Liberation Movement/Army (SPLM/A) leadership in earliest days of the movement; they were having the unbelievable story related to their backgrounds in which the majority of South Sudanese (Sudanese) people didn’t even have knowledge during their lifetimes or in another hand when all of them were still alive.
        However, for me to be short and brief about the explanations, they were all closes and related in blood kinships through two branches of Jieng tribe called Dinka Tuic East (Jonglei State) and of course, the other Dinka Tuic Mayardit of the West Nile River (Warrap State.) So here are those leaders by their names and positions they were holding when they were all together under one well-known umbrella of the Sudan People Liberation Movement/Army (SPLM/A) movement in 1980s and the earliest years of the 1990s:
        • Chairman of the SPLM/A, C-in-C late Dr. John Garang de Mabior;
        • Deputy Chairman of the SPLM/A, late Cdr. Kerubino Kuanyin de Bol;
        • Lt. Commander of the SPLM/A, late William Nyuon de Bany;
        • Lt. Commander of the SPLM/A, Salva Kiir de Mayardit;
        • Lt. Commander of the SPLM/A, late Arok Thon da Arok.

        First of all, ladies and gentlemen, you may not believe what I have discovered about these earliest top five commanders of the Sudan People Liberation Movement/Army (SPLM/A) leaderships’ backgrounds, it is an intriguing and fascinating story you couldn’t even believe I think, but the truth of matter is; they were all blooded linked together under two sub-tribes of the Dinka tribe called Twic East and Twic West (Mayardit). As a story goes and at the same time what the names had shown it to you above, these two sub-tribes are related to one another through many characteristics such as: intelligence, calm, leadership, honesty, tolerant, good behaviors (attitudes) people, dignity, accountability, hospitality, cares, tactic, unselfish, patience, stands for truth, use of more diplomats than violent, integrity, commitment (perseverance), trustworthy, fairness when it comes to human being life, respect, they are also fantastic when it comes to the logistical way of distributing things in a fair and balance way (manner) to everybody, plus many other values and beliefs of their own principled (disciplined) culture, etc.
        Back to the topic, would you believe this fascinating story or wouldn’t you? Please takes a deep breath my friend if you don’t believe this story; the story is factually 100 percentages true story I am talking about here. And I know some of you out there may be pessimistic or being certain kind of doubts if I may add that on top, especially when it comes to me being concentrated on two Commanders like late Commander William Nyuon Bany plus our currently President of the republic of South Sudan, Dr. Salva Kiir Mayardit. Who is also holding the position of the First Vice president of the republic of Sudan.
        By not overdue the explanations, I am going to put their links together below under an individual chain of descriptions, here are those links: As we all may have had known already that, late Dr. John Garang de Mabior and late Arok Thon Arok are from Dinka (Jieng) Tuic (Twic) East tribe in Jonglei state (formerly known as the Upper Nile region before the separations of the country into two nations/states) in South Sudan.
        However, before hand, you don’t have to be confused my friend about this tribe (Dinka or Jieng Twic/Tuic East) identity correction between this claims and the original misleading issues of their identity misidentification during the movement (Civil war times in Sudan) and/or after the British Empire has given Sudanese’ independence in 1956. That was the time, whereas the Jieng Twic East tribe identity became like parts of Jieng Bor tribe rather than being considered as a stand alone and/or an independent branch tribe within the Dinka tribe of South Sudan or Sudan before present times. In which to me at that particular days, it was an erroneous or unfortunate misidentification of Jieng Tuïc East tribe identity back then, but this correction is being done at present moment. It is an appropriate times for everybody to be called upon to respect and totally adore to corrections of this tribe identity’s roots and aligned it with their truly tribe of the Dinka Twic East.
        All this information must not be taken simply like this is an Author views alone, which is not. It must be accepted that through a mutual respectful way and integrity, this correction is also adherents to Dinka Twic East’s historians, scholars, class act colleagues, intellectuals, Twic East County people, and everyone else who have a Jieng Twic (Tuic) East people with deep and acquainted roots in history of the Dinka Twic East traits.
        So I am here to represent the interests (views) of an entire community of the Dinka Twic East people who are daring to correct their own and truly identity. It is one of the priority goals (components) God (Nhialic) Himself given me to conquer it over the rest of my life on earth. Because Dr. Garang didn’t have time back then at the time of civil war unrest in Sudan, and of course, his immediate or unfortunate death before he would have been able to corrects this identity is a main reason why I was given a green-light by Creator to do so to my fellow tribe mates. Again, it was one of the reasons why God (Nhialic) Himself allows me to do it to my people of the Jieng Twic East, just simple as that.
        Furthermore, this issue is one of the main core missions God (Nhialic) wants me to strengthen for His people of the Dinka Twic/Tuic East community. And you are advised to respect and being adored by their requests for the well being or mutual respect based on rights of truth acceptance under the morale code of ethics (moral philosophy) and class acts.
        By the way, if you didn’t even know that there was another main branch of Dinka (Jieng) so-called Twic (Tuic) East after Sudan gained its independence in 1956; please it is time for you out there to correct this tribe’s identity. And if you still don’t believe me about this correction of mine regarding to the Dinka Twic East identity. With due respects of your opinions or thoughts, I don’t think there will be any other places on earth where you will get a better truth or evidence than what I had been explained inside this book. There is no way even God (Nhialic) Himself knows it, plus the majority of people in South Sudan know that the Dinka Twic East is an independent tribe in Jieng (Dinka). The Dinka Twic East has its own language (Dialect), and at the same time these people are having their own distinguishing characteristics (Traits) from other Dinka (Jieng) Bor in which sometimes most people miss associated with.
        And to people who may not know about the earliest SPLM/A Deputy chairman, who is also back then or late Commander Kerubino Kuanyin Bol, if you didn’t know this guy background; starting from today you have to remember that, he is from Dinka Twic Mayardit of the West Nile River (White Nile) side, currently located in Warrap State, South Sudan. It is the first place where most of the Clans who made up the Jieng Tuic (Twic) East tribe of the Jonglei State, South Sudan came from some centuries ago. That is where the majority of the clans came to the existing land of the Dinka Twic East people inhabited as of today at the east bank of the River Nile (White Nile/Toc) basin. In their own mother tongue, they call the River Nile as “Toc.”
        Over either sides of the River Nile (White Nile) where Dinka Twic East and Dinka Twic West (Mayardit), both cousin tribes now each has its own Adiang Clan (Wut), in places where the Dinka Twic East and the Dinka Twic West people had been occupied respectively for centuries since both tribes separated from each other through the unknown reason(s).
        Alright, what about Dr. Salva Kiir Mayardit? Who is currently owned the position of the Presidency of the republic of South Sudan. And at the same he is holding the position of the First Vice President of the republic of Sudan. If you don’t know about him, Dr. Kiir is from the Dinka tribe of Rek in Warrap State, South Sudan. However, what way he is being linked to the other two branches of the Dinka Twic East (Jonglei State) and the Dinka Twic West (Warrap State)? Well, that is a very interesting question to ask; of course, Kiir mother is from Dinka Twic West (Mayardit) now located in Warrap State (Formerly known as Bhar el Ghazal region). I think that is a quick and simply answer concerning where President Salva Kiir Mayardit has a chained relationship or links with the others top four of the Sudan People Liberation Movement/Army (SPLM/A) earliest leadership body.
        Anyway, apart from individualism explanations, these leaders were all linked to these two branches of the Dinka Twic East and Dinka Twic West (Mayardit). Again, briefly, they were all Dinka (Jieng) guys.
        Finally, what about the background of late Commander William Nyuon Bany? Where to go to question as well, he also has roots from the Jieng (Dinka) tribe; especially the part of the Dinka sub-tribe where his roots or chains being linked to, is Dinka Twic East of the Jonglei State, South Sudan. It is the same sub-tribe of Jieng where both late Dr. John Garang de Mabior and late Arok Thon Arok respectively are from. But in what way? Well, the following explanations would be a little quite intriguing why he got a related root from Dinka’s branch so-call the Dinka Twic East? For instance, in the earliest years of the twenty-centuries, there was a big flood over the Dinka or Jieng Twic (Tuic) East land in Jonglei State (obviously known as the Upper Nile region during pre-eras of Sudan’s separations into two states or countries) in South Sudan. The disaster was caused by the big flood as people call it as “Amol thith (Run de Paw??r) in Dinka/Jieng Twic (Tuic) East tribe and Nuer or Naath is being called Pilual” in their mother tongue (Tho? de Twic/Tuïc East). That means it was the year of calamity of flood in Dinka Twic East’s land. As I had been told, the flood was a devastating disaster that did take a lot of people lives; livestock and everything else have been uncountable in those days. Did I say everything? If I did, I do mean anything people of the Jieng Tuïc East lives were depending on as valuable and basic needs for life were wipeout. It is one of the biggest disasters that had over passed the Dinka Twic East land; I think it should be aligned with the disaster of the Nov 15, 1991 in their land.
        So over that period, most of the Jieng (Dinka) Tuic East people did migrate to many places like Nuer’s land sub-tribes like Lou, Gaweer, Jikany East, Fangak, etc., and some people even went as far as other sub-tribes of the Jieng lands such as: Jieng Abiliang in Upper Nile State (back then known as the Upper Nile region), Jieng Padang (Padeng) at the moment located in Jonglei State (back then as well known as the Upper Nile region) within the same location where the Jieng Tuic East currently residing too, some people even went to nearby bordering tribes of Jieng like Jieng Duk (Dukkeen) (Nyarweng, Hol, etc.) within the same Jonglei State. Of course, in those days of the flood in their land; few went to Jieng Bor’s land located within the same Jonglei State, South Sudan at that particular juncture of flood.
        That means according to the elders’ narrations about this calamity time in Dinka Twic East people history, as a result of that calamity some people didn’t even bother themselves of coming back to the Dinka Twic East’s land after the flood (Amol/Abor) had even subdued back into the Nile River (Toc). But the majority of their demographics or populations did return to their ancestors’ land of the Jieng Tuic East after the devastating flood (Amol de Paweer) had seceded. Except that the small percentages of the population didn’t try their level bests though to come back, that percentage of families who didn’t return to Twic (Tuic) East land after all were the one including the relatives of the late commander William Nyuon Bany. It turns out that his family was among the groups of people or families who hadn’t even tried to come back to the Dinka Twic East’s land when the flood (Amol or Abor) has totally ended, and people started to immigrate back to their home cooking land of the Dinka (Jieng) Twic/Tuic East.
        The way I have studied this guy (William Nyuon) in my natural psychological knowledge through his video tapes (DVD), he is really Dinka Twic East. In those video tapes (DVD), he has demonstrated the Dinka Twic East people characteristics, as the story has been showing it that, the Dinka Twic East people are intelligent people, natural leadership characterized people, tolerant, and calm, perseverance (commitment) when it comes to truth base causes, hospitality, honesty, fair character about human being life, non-violent, and pro-more points of views toward diplomatic ways than fighting (aggression) solutions. For instance, if Dinka or Jieng Twic/Tuic East person has decided to do something, and he/she believes that it is the right thing to do. Often, there would be no frequently of retreats or backs down from the course otherwise, until the person achieves the pursuing goal (s). By the way, in their lives, they dislike these terms like gossiping, jealousy; greedy, selfish, jealousy, provocative behaviors, violent behaviors, etc. In opposite, they are trustworthy people, honest, good attitudes, guru of accountability, calm, they always don’t like to be the first problem causer between two or among people (group), and many more. Furthermore, one of their good characteristics had been shown so far during the times of the movement in regard to (Sudanese) South Sudanese’s freedom struggles’ days; specifically, by their own beloving son, hero of South Sudanese, (Sudanese) and of course, the freedom father of South Sudanese (Sudanese), late Dr. John Garang de Mabior."

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        • 1 September 2011 08:47, by gotutu

          WHAT IS WRONG WITH THIS WRONG PEOPLE FROM TWICE.
          YOU CALL YOURSELF FREEDOM OF GARANG.
          IT IS SHAME ON YOU AND YOUR COMMUNITY.
          THE LATEST WAR WAS FOUGHT WHILE ALL COWARD TWICE PEOPLE WENT TO UGANDA AND KAKUMA
          REMEMBER THAT YOU HAD PEOPLE WHO WERE TOO COWARD DURING THE WAR, AND THE EXAMPLE IS AJAK DENG REENG FROM ADHIOK WHO SAID HE WAS HANDSOME SO HE DON,T WANT TO GO FOR WAR.
          ARE THESE THE PEOPLE WHO CLAIM TO BE THE LIBERATORS?
          SHAME ON YOU AND YOUR GARANG

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      • 31 August 2011 17:42, by JohnGarangFreedom

        Dinka Twi East Civil Group

        According to our analysis,its show that the apology of Dr. Riek Machar is deluted otherwise it is only directed to Dinka Bor alone and not Dinka Twic East or Dinka Duk, why? Because Dr. Riek Machar was being setup by Dinka Bor people who are trying to gains popularity concerning civil war ideal (History) over Dinka Twi East. So now they are trying through indirect way to gains that popularity or wrong way in that matter. In which in our views as Dinka Twi East, it will not happen in our watches. We the people of Dinka Twi/Twic East are respectful people but if you try to do unethical thing again us, we will deal with it right way.

        Second, you Dr. Riek Machar needs to be careful. Why? Because you are being pushed to wrong direction by Dinka Bor whom we the people of Dinka Twi East known very well when it comes to their tricky way of lifestyles.

        Third, we consider that apology of yours as direct to Dinka Bor only and not Dinka Twi East people. We are waiting to hear from you as direct apology to Dinka Twi/Tiwc East. And that apology will go direct to people in Twic East County who have faced lots of diversities of the 1991. The majority of people in Juba were not affected by the incident. We either call that incident Dinka Twic East massacre or Southeastern, Eastern, Jonglei Dinka massacre

        Thank you all, God bless.

        "Integrity, intelligence, honesty, calm, leadership, patience, and dignity are always our few blessing characters our God (Nhialic) bless our Dinka Twic East people." By Makol Makeer de Garang

        Message by Dinka Twic East Civil Group

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        • 1 September 2011 08:57, by gotutu

          TO JOHN GARANGFREEDOM
          GENTLEMAN YOU ARE CONFUSE ATALL.
          DR RIEK MADE HIS APOLOOGY IN THE HOUSE OF NYANDENG IN FIRST PLACE.
          IS NYANDENG FROM BOR OR FROM TWICE .
          THOSE WHO CALLED HIM WERE:
          DENG DAU
          NYANDENG GARANG
          MALOK ALENG
          SECOND TO IT HE MADE THE FINAL APOLOGY IN THE CHURCH WHICH IS RAN BY DIT BUL.
          THEY YOUR GREEDY LEADERS WHO ARE RUNNING AFTER FOOD WHO TOLD HIM TO APOLOGISED.

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      • 31 August 2011 20:44, by Dut Monybor

        You are right indeed Ajok Garang but we have to forgive him for what he has done .

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    • 31 August 2011 08:45, by HONEY

      As much as i appreciate the apology, am still not sure whether mr machar is accepting the atrocities he committed. And if so, shouldn’t he be under arrest for crimes against humanity or is it okay to committ mass murders in south sudan and say sorry 20 years later?

      What this situation communicates to other rebel leaders is to simply take human life and later on join SPLM. am ashamed of our government and our justice system.

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    • 31 August 2011 09:17, by Jeti

      Cadaai?o?---I’ve found out that you are a mad, illiterate, stupid, brainless person who always likes going wrong direction when people are going right direction. I urge you to stop commenting ’cos this site does not suit you.

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      • 31 August 2011 10:09, by monyjang chol

        JETI AMOOK!!!.
        YOU ARE STUPID CUNT TO INSULT CADAAI? O? AND THE WHOLE OF TWIC EAST DINKA. WHAT DO YOU MEAN LIKE TWIC EAST GOING DIRECTION??...YOU BRAINLESS THIEVES FROM MADINGBOR SHOULD SHUT THE FUCK AND LEAVE TWIC DINKA ALONE WITH THEIR IDENTITY OR OTHERWISE YOU SHOULD DUMP THE NAME BOR AND EMBRACE THE NAME OF TWIC FOR THE WHOLE OF DINKA IN JONGLEI WHICH I DOUBT YU MAY NOT BE HAPPY.DONT FORCE YOURN DISGRACE NAME OF BOR ON TWIC EAST DINKA AND THERE WILL BE PEACE.ENFORCING THE DAMN NAME OF BOR ON DINKA TWIC EAST WILL RESULT IN BLOODY CHAOS MARK MY WORDS. WE DINKA TWIC ARE NOT COWARD BUT OUR PRINCIPLE OF ’KONKOOCH’ WHICH YU CALL ’KONAMADANG’ IN YOUR DAMN BOR LANGUAGE IS GUIDING US RIGHT NOW AND WE WILL RESPOND TO YOUR PROVOCATIVES BEHAVIOURS SOON NOT LATER.
        DEATH TO THIEVES OF MADINGBOR WHO SELL THEIR CHILDREN TO MURLE!!!!.

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        • 31 August 2011 11:14, by gotutu

          MONYJONG CHOL-AMOOK

          IN HISTORY OF DINKA BOR THERE IS NO CLAN CALLED TWICE .
          THOSE NAME CAME FROM A MAGICIAN CALLED ATWINY ARIAM .
          FOR HIS POWER OF MAGIC ACIBEEL BELIEVED IN HIM AND THEY CHANGE THEIR NAME TO DINKA TWICE WHICH WAS NOT KNOWN BY ANY BODY.
          YOUR DICTATOR JOHN GARANG WHO KILLED MANY INTELLECTUALS FROM SOUTH SUDAN WAS CALLING HIMSELF BOR BUT NOT TWICE WITH WRONG TONGUES.

          DEATH TO MONYJONG CHOL-AMOOK

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          • 31 August 2011 12:18, by thokpiny de Deng de Thokpiny

            i advice you gentleman to consider the legacy of Dr.John Garang regardless of where you come from .Try to learn how to make comment on this media.

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            • 31 August 2011 13:18, by gotutu

              TO THOKPINY
              WHICH LEGACY ARE YOU MEANING?
              IS IT A LEGACY OF KILLING HIS BROTHER MAJER GAI AYUEL?
              IS IT A LEGACY OF COMMONIST?
              IS IT A LEGACY OF DICTATORSHIP WHICH CAUSED DR RIEK MACHAR BROKE AWAY.
              RIEK WAS ADVISED HIM ON SELF-DETERMINATION AND HE COULD NOT AGREED BUT EVENTUALLY HE AGREE

              SHAME ON TWICE PEOPLE WHO ARE RUNNING AFTER FOOD

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              • 31 August 2011 13:29, by monyjang chol

                GUTAMOOK!!

                GO TO HELL WITH MAJER GAI THE TRAITOR.DR JOHN GARANG NEVER KILLED MAJER GAI BUT SOME GUYZ FROM BAR EL GAZAL SUCH AS MARIAL AND SALVATORE KIIR KUETHPING LUAL.
                GO TO SCHOOL TO GET BETTER EDUCATION LIKE MAJER GAI INSTEAD OF TALKING SHIT ABOUT THAT WISE MAN ALL THE TIME.
                I DO RESPECT MAJER GAI BUT YU STUPID GUTAMOOK IS DESTROYING HIS IMAGE.
                SHUT THE FUCK UP YU LOW LIFE CUNT!!!!.

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                • 31 August 2011 13:42, by gotutu

                  TO MONYJANG CHOL-AMOOK.
                  MAJER WAS KILLED ACCORDING TO THE ORDERS OF JOHN GARANG WITH THE ADVISES FROM BOTH NYANDENG AND MALOK(GUET)
                  WHICH SCHOOL DO YOU WANT ME TO GO TO?
                  LATER WENT YOU REACH TO THE LEVEL I AM NOW SAY HALELUYA TO GOD.
                  I KNOW IT IS ATAGE OF WAR FOR AGREEDY YOUNG BOY LIKE YOU TO GO BEYOND SECVONDARY SCHOOL.
                  IT WAS ONE CHANCE GIVEN TO TWICE PEOPLE THROUGH DR GARANG BY GOD BUT ITS FOR ALL.
                  GO TO SCHOOL BECAUSE GOD CARES FOR POOR LIKE YOU.

                  YOU ARE DEAD.
                  HALAH YA HARAMEK

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                • 31 August 2011 16:32, by Cadaai ?o?

                  Historian and Identity Advocacy View:

                  “Good people will be guided by honesty; dishonesty will destroy those who are not trustworthy.” Proverbs 11:3 NCV.

                  “Teach me to do Your will, for You are my God; Your Spirit is good. Lead me in the land of uprightness.” Psalms 143:10 NKJV.
                  “Who is this to amend God creations, the one who makes an amendment, this person, I would say is against God. If this problem of mine is sent to God, I will win this case.” By John Garang de Mabior

                  “But for the sake of finding the truth, the whole truth and nothing but the truth.” By Daniel Bushery Daniel

                  “Dinka Twic-east is a reclusive, peaceful and principled community- it has NEVER embarked on an attack on other tribes, and it does NOT…” Source: www.sudantribune.com

                  First of all, I would like to thanks my friends who have responded to other kids who are just there for speaking nonsenses. As I know in God (Nhialic) seeks, Dinka Bor people are not going to steal Dinka Twic East and Dinka Twic Mayardit (West) History of Sudan civil war and identity. No matter what they are tying to do about that.

                  I don’t know if Dr. Riek Machar has good people who are advising him. Why I say so? It is because Dr. Riek Machar is being misled or being used by Dinka Bor people who are now clashing with Dinka Twic East about their attempts as they think they will steal Dinka Twic East and Dinka Twic West history and identity. So the Dinka Bor people are in desperate to do just that. But Dinka Twic East people are just take it easy one at times until they will reach their truth when the time come.

                  Also, there is nothing so call Dinka Bor massacre, for that name they just try to gets credits for the event while they were not affected that much by the incident. In God (Nhialic) true stand, it was Dinka Twic East massacre because of Dinka Twic East being the tribe of Dr. John Garang de Mabior. However, if we include our brothers and sisters of Dinka in region, it calls Southeastern Dinka massacre (Those tribes are Dinka Bor, Dinka Twic East & Dinka Duk)or you can call it Eastern Dinka Massacre or Jonglei Dinka Massacre.

                  "UNHCR & REFWORD Report about South Sudan’s war civil History during the movement"

                  "Key South Sudan Individuals Named in This Report"

                  "Note: The names are listed alphabetically by second name (underlined), unless the person is known by another name."

                  "Abel Alier Kwai Respected southern politician living in Khartoum, former vice president of Sudan and head of the Southern Region during part of the autonomy period. Author of Southern Sudan: Too Many Promises Dishonored (1990). (Bor Dinka)

                  Tito Biel Chuol Western Upper Nile zonal commander in SSDF in May 1999 in charge of the attack on the oil company rig at Ryer/Thar Jath, Western Upper Nile. Instrumental in securing field alliance with Cmdr. Salva Kiir Mayandit of the SPLA. Originally in the SPLA, joined the Riek Machar breakaway faction in 1991 and followed him into the government in 1997, becoming part of the SSDF, and then in 2000 part of Machar’s SPDF. In late 2002 he realigned himself with the SSDF (pro-government). (Dok Nuer)

                  Kuong Danhier Gatluak Head of security of the SPDF in 1999. Joined the SPLA and defected with Riek Machar in 1991. When Riek Machar was in the government, Kuong Danhier was chief security officer for the SSDF, based in Nairobi. Joined Riek Machar when Machar defected from the government in early 2000. (Nyuong Nuer)

                  Taban Deng Gai Spokesman for Machar’s SPDF forces in Nairobi, Kenya from December 2000 until June 2001, when he rejoined the SPLA. Originally joined the SPLA in the 1980s and left to join his relative by marriage, Riek Machar, when he split from the SPLA in 1991. In 1996 he joined the government with Riek Machar and became a leader of the political party they formed, the UDSF. He won an election for governor of Unity State/Western Upper Nile in December 1997 and was expelled from the governorship and the state in May 1999 by Maj. Gen. Paulino Matiep. He fled to Khartoum. He was appointed state minister for roads and communications in January 2000 by President Bashir and defected from the government in December 2000, and joined Machar’s new faction, the SPDF, until he decided to rejoin the SPLA. (Leek/Western Jikany Nuer)

                  Michael Wal Duany Head of the SSLM as of late 1999 to the current time. Dr. Duany represented the Nuer intellectuals in the diaspora at the Wunlit Nuer-Dinka West Bank peace and reconciliation meeting of March 1999; formerly with the Workshop on Political Theory and Policy Analysis at Indiana University in Bloomington, Indiana, U.S. Based in Akobo, Upper Nile. (Lou Nuer)

                  John Garang de Mabior Commander-in-chief of the SPLA and head of the SPLM. Member of Anyanya briefly at the end of the first civil war in 1972, and was incorporated into the Sudan army, earned a PhD in the U.S. in agricultural/environmental studies, and having attained the rank of colonel in the Sudan army, was a founder of the SPLM/A in Ethiopia in 1983. He supported a united secular Sudan against internal SPLA rivals (separatist Anyanya II) in 1983 and won out, with backing from Ethiopia’s president Haile Mengistu Meriam, continuing in control of the SPLM/A today. (Twic/Tuic [East] Dinka/Twic East County)

                  Peter Gatdet Yaka Former Sudanese army officer sent to Iraq to fight against the Iranians in the Iran-Iraq war in the 1980s. He joined the SPLA and left it in 1991 with Riek Machar. He was assigned to Cmdr. Paulino Matiep’s Bul Nuer forces as an officer, and when they split off from the SSDF he became a key commander in Commander Matiep’s SSUM/A pro-government militia. He fought on the behalf of the government against the SSDF forces under Cmdr. Tito Biel in Block 5A in 1999 for control of Block 5A. He and his forces mutinied against Maj. Gen. Paulino Matiep in September 1999 and fought against the government. For several months he coordinated his activities with the SSDF (under Cmdr. Tito Biel/Peter Paar) against the government, and attacked various oil targets in Western Upper Nile/Unity State. In early 2000 he joined the SPLA. He began fighting Cmdr. Riek Machar’s SPDF forces (under Cmdr. Peter Paar, formerly his SSDF adversary in 1999) in July 2000. During this round, he was anti-government and the Machar forces were pro-government. After disagreements reportedly about military discipline with the SPLA, he rejoined the government’s militia forces in late 2002. (Bul Nuer)

                  Elijah Hon Top (deceased 2000) SSDF chief of staff under the Khartoum Peace Agreement. After Riek Machar resigned unexpectedly from the government in January 2000, Cmdr. Elijah Hon Top, a Lou Nuer from Ayod, became the spokesman for the SSDF and the UDSF in Khartoum. Formerly with the SPLA and Machar’s breakaway faction in 1991, he joined the government with Machar in 1997. (Gaawar Nuer)
                  Kerubino Kuanyin Bol (deceased September 1999) Anyanya officer, then incorporated into the Sudan army after 1972, he was leader of the Bor mutineers whose rebellion lead to the formation of the SPLA in Ethiopia in 1983. Jailed by Garang for conspiracy in 1987, he escaped in 1992 and in 1993 joined Riek Machar’s breakaway rebel group. By 1994 his Dinka militia was directly supplied by the Sudanese army from his home, the garrison town of Gogrial, Bahr El Ghazal. Defected to the SPLA in January 1998, and split with the SPLA later in that year and received protection from his in-law, Maj. Gen. Paulino Matiep, in Mankien. Killed by forces of Cmdr. Peter Gatdet after they mutinied from Paulino Matiep and captured the Mankien base in September 1999. (Twic/Tuic Dinka)

                  Salva Kiir Mayardit A native of Bahr El Ghazal, assigned chief of staff of the SPLA in late 1999. He was commander of Bahr El Ghazal in 1999 when he strongly backed the Dinka-Nuer Peace and Reconciliation Conference at Wunlit. (Rek Dinka)

                  Joseph Lagu Yanga: Founder and leader of the Sudanese rebel group Anya Nya. Sudanese Ambassador to the UN from 1990 to 1992. Joseph Lagu was born in the village of Momokwe, in the north of Madiland, in southern Sudan. He is from the Madi ethnic group. He attended military college in Omdurman and was commissioned into the Sudanese Army in 1960 (Madi) http://africanhistory.about.com/od/...

                  Riek Machar Teny Dhurgon Rebel leader with the SPLA from 1984 until the 1991 split, which he helped lead. As SPLA Zonal Commander of Western Upper Nile, entered into agreement with Baggara chiefs in 1986. Led breakaway faction from SPLM/A in 1991, forming a separate southern rebel movement initially known as the SPLA-Nasir (from 1993 the SPLA-United, and from 1994-97 the SSIM/A). Despite espousing independence for the south, his faction received covert support from the government as it fought for years (1991-99) against the SPLA, resorting to increasingly bloody and ethnically motivated attacks against civilians. His SSIA rebel forces claimed all the rural land of Western Upper Nile/Unity State, except the few garrison towns and the Bul Nuer area where Paulino Matiep and Anyanya II prevailed. Signed 1996 Political Charter and 1997 Khartoum Peace Agreement with government, which in 1997 appointed him president of the Southern States Coordinating Council (SSCC) and assistant to President of Sudan Omar el Bashir. Also formed and became head of the political party United Democratic Salvation Front (UDSF) and commander-in-chief of the military arm created under the Khartoum Peace Agreement, the South Sudan Defense Force (SSDF), comprising most of the ex-rebels who had signed that agreement. His failure to stem the government’s forced displacement of civilians from Western Upper Nile/Unity State ended up turning the Nuer against his leadership and eventually led to his belated resignation from government and attempt to recreate his army in the south in 2000 as the Sudan People’s Democratic Forces (2000-02). In January 2002 signed an agreement with Dr. John Garang to merge the SPDF and the SPLA, receiving a leadership position in the SPLA. (Dok Nuer)

                  Benjamin Majak In the late 1990s, head of the relief arm of the SPLA, the SRRA, based in his Dinka area of Ruweng County, Western Upper Nile, and SPLA commander in that area. With the Khartoum government since 2000. (Panaru/Ruweng Dinka)

                  Paulino Matiep Nhial Bul Nuer ally of the Sudan government. He was in Anyanya but was not incorporated into the Sudan army after the 1972 peace agreement. He became a rebel again in 1975 in Bilpam, went to Ethiopia, and returned to Western Upper Nile in 1985-86 as Anyanya II. He never joined the SPLA, in part because of its 1983 attacks on Anyanya II. He remained in Anyanya II, armed and supported by the government. With then army officer Omar El Bashir (who led the 1989 coup and became Sudan’s president), he successfully recaptured Mayom garrison in Western Upper Nile in early 1989 from the SPLA. He joined Machar’s breakaway faction in 1991. His forces were incorporated into the SSDF forces after the 1997 Khartoum Peace Agreement, but he fought the SSDF forces for control of the governorship of Unity State in September 1997, and lost. In March 1998 his South Sudan Unity Movement/Army (SSUM/A) was recognized by the government, which continued to directly provide him with arms and ammunition. He was named a major general in Sudan’s army in or before 1998. In 1998-present, he fought on behalf of the government, forcibly displacing civilians from Block 5A. For a longer period he helped the government conduct displacements from Blocks 1, 2, and 4. In 2003 he was again engaged in fighting against Nuer pro-government rivals for control of the governorship of Unity State, and lost. (Bul Nuer)

                  Peter Paar Jiek, SPDF commander of Western Upper Nile in 2000-01. Formerly SSDF commander under Cmdr. Tito Biel in the fighting in 1998-99 in Western Upper Nile/Unity State. He was with Machar’s forces since the split from the SPLA in 1991. He coordinated anti-government attacks with Gatdet’s forces until June 2000, when he and Gatdet began to fight each other. He and Gatdet settled the "war of the Peters" in late 2000, and with Riek Machar he rejoined the SPLA in 2001. (Dok Nuer)

                  Main Rebel and Militia Forces in South Sudan Named in this Report

                  Anyanya: guerrilla army of southern separatists, 1955-72.
                  Anyanya II: guerrilla army of southern separatists, 1975-91.
                  Sudan People’s Liberation Movement/Army (SPLM/A): dominant rebel army in Sudan, 1983-present, composed of southerners and other marginalized peoples such as the Nuba, headed by Col. John Garang de Mabior (Dinka). Program: united, secular Sudan. Headquartered in Rumbek, Bahr El Ghazal, southern Sudan.
                  South Sudan Liberation Movement (SSLM): a pro-independence southern political movement based in Akobo, Eastern Upper Nile, headed and formed by Michael Wal Duany in late 1999; it signed the Khartoum Peace Agreement with the Sudanese government in 2002

                  Rebel forces headed (directly or indirectly) by Cmdr. Riek Machar, 1991-2002:

                  SPLM/A-Nasir faction: 1991-93, breakaway SPLA faction headed by SPLA Cmdrs. Riek Machar Teny Dhurgon (Dok Nuer), Gordon Kong Chuol (Eastern Jikany Nuer), and Lam Akol (Shilluk); although its program called for an independent south, it received government aid. Headquartered in Nasir until 1995 and thereafter in Waat and Ayod, Upper Nile.
                  SPLM/A-United: 1993-94: the above faction (mostly Nuer) joined by forces from other ethnic groups in southern Sudan, headed by Cmdr. Riek Machar, based in Nasir. Later this name was used by Lam Akol for his mostly Shilluk faction (see below).
                  South Sudan Independence Movement/Army (SSIM/A): 1994-97: the above faction, reformed and renamed after the Nuer reconciliation meeting at Akobo in 1994, based variously in Waat and Ayod, Upper Nile.
                  South Sudan Defense Forces (SSDF): 1997-2000, the army formed under the Khartoum Peace Agreement from ex-rebel forces including SSIM/A, based in Khartoum, Juba, and Malakal, and aligned with the political party United Democratic Salvation Front (UDSF). Both were headed by Cmdr. Riek Machar until January 2000, when he left the government. On April 27, 2001 all southern forces allied with the government were unified under this name, SSDF, including the progovernment militia forces listed below.
                  Sudan People’s Defense Forces/Democratic Front (SPDF): January 2000-January 2002 or when the merger with the SPLM/A was complete; the rebel group formed from most SSDF forces, based in Upper Nile.

                  Some pro-government militia forces (later known as "armed groups"):
                  South Sudan Unity Movement/Army (SSUM/A): formed in early 1998 by Maj Gen. Paulino Matiep of the Sudan army, incorporating his formerly Anyanya II and SSDF Bul Nuer forces, supported by the Sudan government, based in Mayom, Western Upper Nile. (Bul Nuer)
                  Cmdr. Gabriel Tanginya, pro-government Nuer militia based in Fangak, later Poum, Central Upper Nile. (Lak Nuer)
                  Cmdr. Gordon Kong Chuol, pro-government Nuer militia based in Nasir, Eastern Upper Nile. (eastern Jikany Nuer)
                  Cmdr. Simon Gatwich Dual, pro-government Nuer militia based in Waat, Central Upper Nile. (Lou Nuer)
                  SPLM/A-United: Cmdr. Lam Akol’s Shilluk forces formed in 1994, which signed the Khartoum Peace Agreement in 1997. Lam Akol claimed the name after the Riek Machar forces in 1994 took the name South Sudan Independence Movement/Army (SSIM/A). Lam Akol had been part of the original SPLM/A-United. Based in Tonga, the Shilluk capital, in Upper Nile of southern Sudan.
                  For further details, consult the Glossary, Lists of Key Individuals, and the text. There are several other southern ethnic militias armed by the government, including the Murle, the Mandari, the Toposa, the Didinga, and the Fertit and other ethnic groups not named here.
                  Most southerners’ names include their "proper" name first, their father’s name second, and their grandfather’s name last. For example, to refer to Cmdr. Riek Machar Teny Dhurgon as "Machar" is to refer to that commander’s father. Therefore the first and second names are used in this report.

                  Nuer pro-government militia leaders:

                  Simon Gatwich Dual Pro-government Nuer militia leader based in Akobo, Upper Nile. With the SPLA, he followed Machar in 1991, becoming an SSDF commander in 1997. In 1999 he began receiving direct government funding. He followed Riek Machar out of the government in 2000 and Riek Machar named him governor of Leich State (Western Upper Nile/Unity State). He went with Riek Machar into the SPLA in 2002 but may have remained in some relationship with the Sudanese government and militias. (Lou Nuer)
                  Gordon Kong Chuol Pro-government Nuer militia leader based in Eastern Upper Nile. An Anyanya veteran and founder of the SPLM/A, he joined the separatist Anyanya II and fought against the SPLA from 1983-88, when he led the reconciliation of most Anyanya II with the SPLA. With Riek Machar and Lam Akol, he led the breakaway faction that split from the SPLA in 1991. The faction received military assistance from the government and in 1997 signed the Khartoum Peace Agreement with the government. He was made an SSDF (pro-government) commander in 1997 under Riek Machar, and he began to accept direct supplies from the government in 1998. From that time a government militia leader operating out of Nasir with his local Jikany Nuer troops. (Eastern Jikany Nuer).
                  Gabriel Tanginya (nom de guerre) Commander of government Nuer militia based in Fangak then Pom, Upper Nile, he was associated with Cmdr. Paulino Matiep in the early Anyanya II and with him joined Cmdr. Riek Machar’s breakaway rebel forces in 1991. He became a government militia leader by accepting direct government backing in 1998-99. In early 2000 he hijacked a U.N. plane in protest of the U.N.’s alleged transport of commanders to Riek Machar’s then location in Koch, Western Upper Nile. (Lak Nuer)"

                  Credited Sources:

                  http://www.unhcr.org/refworld/count...

                  Search term: UNHCR | Refworld | Sudan, Oil, and Human Rights

                  http://www.unhcr.org/refworld/docid...

                  REFWORLD: The leader in refugee decision support

                  UNHCR: The UN Refugee Agency

                  “A bend in the road is not the end of the road... unless you fail to make the turn.” Author Unknown

                  Finally, South Sudanese I know you have wisodom people among you.

                  You will be judge about who is rights?

                  Thank you all.

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          • 31 August 2011 13:14, by monyjang chol

            GOTUTU OR GUTAMOK YIN YE MENH DA ALIOK YE PIIR NE CAM DE AGUEK!!!. JIENG TWIC ACIE ACIBEEL KU KA CIE CUER YE MITHKEN XOC MURLE/BEER. JIENG TWIC A GIC RAAN EBEN AGUT CI NUER A GIC JIENG TWIC, AYIN YA MENH THIN WAAN PIOC NYUETH AGUEK YEN KA KUC TWIC.YIN BI DIT DE PIOU NOK MENH DE JOO AMOOK!!!!.

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            • 31 August 2011 13:27, by gotutu

              TO MONJANG CHOL-AMOOK
              YOU CALLED YOUR HOPLESS PEOPLE FROM TWICE TO TRANSLATE TWISTED MOTHER TONGUE OF TWICE PEOPLE WHO CLAIM NOT TO BE FROM BOR.
              LET ME REMIND YOU THAT THIS WEB DOES NOT BELONG TO DINKA.
              GO AND TEACH YOUR MOTHER TONGUE IN THE CHURCH.
              TO MAKE IT GOOD I AND REST OF THE READERS COULD NOT UNDERSTAND WHAT YOU ARE MEANING.
              SHAME ON TWICE PEOPLE WHO ARE RUNNING AFTER FOOD .

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      • 31 August 2011 11:12, by Dr. Pan Yam

        The 1991 Machar’s rebellion affected not just only controversial name “Bor”. It affected parts of Bar el Gahal , SPLM/A where he defected from, and Nuer people that he used because Nyagat Machar did not actually used his own people as many people know.

        I think Riek’s apology was not planned before arrival at the event organized by the southeastern Dinkas-Bor, Twic, and Duk. The motivation for this apology was about how nice people had welcomed him and put aside what he had done in the past. He reminds himself of a wrongdoing and makes the apology as he became emotional otherwise he was pressure to make an apology. In other hand, Riek’s apology might have been motivated by the “smell of food”. The upcoming election let him used the apology to clean his past in order to run after Dr. Kiir’s leadership.

        As an INDIVIDUAL I DO NOT ACCEPT DR. RIEK’S APOLOGY. I do accept him as my leader (v.p) right now and work as a citizen but his apology to make the next move came in a wrongful way. I would be more than happy to see Riek announce his apology not reported by other people. And it would be even much better for him to make it as a story from Nuer that he used and then stretch it to the Dinka territory start from communities of: Duk, Twic (East), Bor, all the way to parts Bar el Gahal, etc.

        Note: Be remind that almost all Sudanese media are bias, as we all comment please make note that it might turn out differently. Our tribal differences is always leading us to one sided questioning then analyzed that as a whole but I hope to see better from Nyagat Riek then just these reports like an essay.

        Dr. Pan Yam

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    • 31 August 2011 09:46, by Makuach M DENG

      I think Machar needs to present himself in person to the Bor People instead of using places of worship and special dinners for his apology. Mr. Riek you need to go to Bor-town and travel on the road upto duk passing on the skeletons of your actions, talking to the right people and your apology will be either implemented or rejected forever.Indeed, I agree with last part of this article, although some people will take me wrongly it is appropriate for him to lead the development of this devastated greater Bor Counties as a payback otherwise there is no way we can let people understand your apology. ICC hearing is eminent at this time for him and his fellow colleague in arms to be brought to justice. There are some people claiming that "Bor Massachre caused hundreds of live if not thousands", if you can imagine from Duk through Twic upto Bor South. Every step you make was a human carcas. Some Families are not existing at the momement among Greater Bor community. How many people would that be? think over 0.2 millions. In Addition, who is responsible for the loss of life between 1991-1992? is it not Machar because he burnt everthing, raided livestock and nothing was left for civilian survival. Machar’s ambition (Self-determination) was not bad but because of his narrowed mind he have created history that the world will never forget. The United Nation knows how much they have used on South Sudanese since 1991 to date. The Dinka Bor people are almost in every city of the world because of Nasir declaration. People (Nuer & all-Dinka)have already reconcilled and living in harmony everywhere in the world but Machar remains questionable. Therefore, Machar’s apology will not need to be tacticle but he have to be more open and be ready for the questioning before forgiveness.

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      • 31 August 2011 16:31, by Cadaai ?o?

        Historian and Identity Advocacy View:

        “Good people will be guided by honesty; dishonesty will destroy those who are not trustworthy.” Proverbs 11:3 NCV.

        “Teach me to do Your will, for You are my God; Your Spirit is good. Lead me in the land of uprightness.” Psalms 143:10 NKJV.
        “Who is this to amend God creations, the one who makes an amendment, this person, I would say is against God. If this problem of mine is sent to God, I will win this case.” By John Garang de Mabior

        “But for the sake of finding the truth, the whole truth and nothing but the truth.” By Daniel Bushery Daniel

        “Dinka Twic-east is a reclusive, peaceful and principled community- it has NEVER embarked on an attack on other tribes, and it does NOT…” Source: www.sudantribune.com

        First of all, I would like to thanks my friends who have responded to other kids who are just there for speaking nonsenses. As I know in God (Nhialic) seeks, Dinka Bor people are not going to steal Dinka Twic East and Dinka Twic Mayardit (West) History of Sudan civil war and identity. No matter what they are tying to do about that.

        I don’t know if Dr. Riek Machar has good people who are advising him. Why I say so? It is because Dr. Riek Machar is being misled or being used by Dinka Bor people who are now clashing with Dinka Twic East about their attempts as they think they will steal Dinka Twic East and Dinka Twic West history and identity. So the Dinka Bor people are in desperate to do just that. But Dinka Twic East people are just take it easy one at times until they will reach their truth when the time come.

        Also, there is nothing so call Dinka Bor massacre, for that name they just try to gets credits for the event while they were not affected that much by the incident. In God (Nhialic) true stand, it was Dinka Twic East massacre because of Dinka Twic East being the tribe of Dr. John Garang de Mabior. However, if we include our brothers and sisters of Dinka in region, it calls Southeastern Dinka massacre (Those tribes are Dinka Bor, Dinka Twic East & Dinka Duk)or you can call it Eastern Dinka Massacre or Jonglei Dinka Massacre.

        "UNHCR & REFWORD Report about South Sudan’s war civil History during the movement"

        "Key South Sudan Individuals Named in This Report"

        "Note: The names are listed alphabetically by second name (underlined), unless the person is known by another name."

        "Abel Alier Kwai Respected southern politician living in Khartoum, former vice president of Sudan and head of the Southern Region during part of the autonomy period. Author of Southern Sudan: Too Many Promises Dishonored (1990). (Bor Dinka)

        Tito Biel Chuol Western Upper Nile zonal commander in SSDF in May 1999 in charge of the attack on the oil company rig at Ryer/Thar Jath, Western Upper Nile. Instrumental in securing field alliance with Cmdr. Salva Kiir Mayandit of the SPLA. Originally in the SPLA, joined the Riek Machar breakaway faction in 1991 and followed him into the government in 1997, becoming part of the SSDF, and then in 2000 part of Machar’s SPDF. In late 2002 he realigned himself with the SSDF (pro-government). (Dok Nuer)

        Kuong Danhier Gatluak Head of security of the SPDF in 1999. Joined the SPLA and defected with Riek Machar in 1991. When Riek Machar was in the government, Kuong Danhier was chief security officer for the SSDF, based in Nairobi. Joined Riek Machar when Machar defected from the government in early 2000. (Nyuong Nuer)

        Taban Deng Gai Spokesman for Machar’s SPDF forces in Nairobi, Kenya from December 2000 until June 2001, when he rejoined the SPLA. Originally joined the SPLA in the 1980s and left to join his relative by marriage, Riek Machar, when he split from the SPLA in 1991. In 1996 he joined the government with Riek Machar and became a leader of the political party they formed, the UDSF. He won an election for governor of Unity State/Western Upper Nile in December 1997 and was expelled from the governorship and the state in May 1999 by Maj. Gen. Paulino Matiep. He fled to Khartoum. He was appointed state minister for roads and communications in January 2000 by President Bashir and defected from the government in December 2000, and joined Machar’s new faction, the SPDF, until he decided to rejoin the SPLA. (Leek/Western Jikany Nuer)

        Michael Wal Duany Head of the SSLM as of late 1999 to the current time. Dr. Duany represented the Nuer intellectuals in the diaspora at the Wunlit Nuer-Dinka West Bank peace and reconciliation meeting of March 1999; formerly with the Workshop on Political Theory and Policy Analysis at Indiana University in Bloomington, Indiana, U.S. Based in Akobo, Upper Nile. (Lou Nuer)

        John Garang de Mabior Commander-in-chief of the SPLA and head of the SPLM. Member of Anyanya briefly at the end of the first civil war in 1972, and was incorporated into the Sudan army, earned a PhD in the U.S. in agricultural/environmental studies, and having attained the rank of colonel in the Sudan army, was a founder of the SPLM/A in Ethiopia in 1983. He supported a united secular Sudan against internal SPLA rivals (separatist Anyanya II) in 1983 and won out, with backing from Ethiopia’s president Haile Mengistu Meriam, continuing in control of the SPLM/A today. (Twic/Tuic [East] Dinka/Twic East County)

        Peter Gatdet Yaka Former Sudanese army officer sent to Iraq to fight against the Iranians in the Iran-Iraq war in the 1980s. He joined the SPLA and left it in 1991 with Riek Machar. He was assigned to Cmdr. Paulino Matiep’s Bul Nuer forces as an officer, and when they split off from the SSDF he became a key commander in Commander Matiep’s SSUM/A pro-government militia. He fought on the behalf of the government against the SSDF forces under Cmdr. Tito Biel in Block 5A in 1999 for control of Block 5A. He and his forces mutinied against Maj. Gen. Paulino Matiep in September 1999 and fought against the government. For several months he coordinated his activities with the SSDF (under Cmdr. Tito Biel/Peter Paar) against the government, and attacked various oil targets in Western Upper Nile/Unity State. In early 2000 he joined the SPLA. He began fighting Cmdr. Riek Machar’s SPDF forces (under Cmdr. Peter Paar, formerly his SSDF adversary in 1999) in July 2000. During this round, he was anti-government and the Machar forces were pro-government. After disagreements reportedly about military discipline with the SPLA, he rejoined the government’s militia forces in late 2002. (Bul Nuer)

        Elijah Hon Top (deceased 2000) SSDF chief of staff under the Khartoum Peace Agreement. After Riek Machar resigned unexpectedly from the government in January 2000, Cmdr. Elijah Hon Top, a Lou Nuer from Ayod, became the spokesman for the SSDF and the UDSF in Khartoum. Formerly with the SPLA and Machar’s breakaway faction in 1991, he joined the government with Machar in 1997. (Gaawar Nuer)
        Kerubino Kuanyin Bol (deceased September 1999) Anyanya officer, then incorporated into the Sudan army after 1972, he was leader of the Bor mutineers whose rebellion lead to the formation of the SPLA in Ethiopia in 1983. Jailed by Garang for conspiracy in 1987, he escaped in 1992 and in 1993 joined Riek Machar’s breakaway rebel group. By 1994 his Dinka militia was directly supplied by the Sudanese army from his home, the garrison town of Gogrial, Bahr El Ghazal. Defected to the SPLA in January 1998, and split with the SPLA later in that year and received protection from his in-law, Maj. Gen. Paulino Matiep, in Mankien. Killed by forces of Cmdr. Peter Gatdet after they mutinied from Paulino Matiep and captured the Mankien base in September 1999. (Twic/Tuic Dinka)

        Salva Kiir Mayardit A native of Bahr El Ghazal, assigned chief of staff of the SPLA in late 1999. He was commander of Bahr El Ghazal in 1999 when he strongly backed the Dinka-Nuer Peace and Reconciliation Conference at Wunlit. (Rek Dinka)

        Joseph Lagu Yanga: Founder and leader of the Sudanese rebel group Anya Nya. Sudanese Ambassador to the UN from 1990 to 1992. Joseph Lagu was born in the village of Momokwe, in the north of Madiland, in southern Sudan. He is from the Madi ethnic group. He attended military college in Omdurman and was commissioned into the Sudanese Army in 1960 (Madi) http://africanhistory.about.com/od/...

        Riek Machar Teny Dhurgon Rebel leader with the SPLA from 1984 until the 1991 split, which he helped lead. As SPLA Zonal Commander of Western Upper Nile, entered into agreement with Baggara chiefs in 1986. Led breakaway faction from SPLM/A in 1991, forming a separate southern rebel movement initially known as the SPLA-Nasir (from 1993 the SPLA-United, and from 1994-97 the SSIM/A). Despite espousing independence for the south, his faction received covert support from the government as it fought for years (1991-99) against the SPLA, resorting to increasingly bloody and ethnically motivated attacks against civilians. His SSIA rebel forces claimed all the rural land of Western Upper Nile/Unity State, except the few garrison towns and the Bul Nuer area where Paulino Matiep and Anyanya II prevailed. Signed 1996 Political Charter and 1997 Khartoum Peace Agreement with government, which in 1997 appointed him president of the Southern States Coordinating Council (SSCC) and assistant to President of Sudan Omar el Bashir. Also formed and became head of the political party United Democratic Salvation Front (UDSF) and commander-in-chief of the military arm created under the Khartoum Peace Agreement, the South Sudan Defense Force (SSDF), comprising most of the ex-rebels who had signed that agreement. His failure to stem the government’s forced displacement of civilians from Western Upper Nile/Unity State ended up turning the Nuer against his leadership and eventually led to his belated resignation from government and attempt to recreate his army in the south in 2000 as the Sudan People’s Democratic Forces (2000-02). In January 2002 signed an agreement with Dr. John Garang to merge the SPDF and the SPLA, receiving a leadership position in the SPLA. (Dok Nuer)

        Benjamin Majak In the late 1990s, head of the relief arm of the SPLA, the SRRA, based in his Dinka area of Ruweng County, Western Upper Nile, and SPLA commander in that area. With the Khartoum government since 2000. (Panaru/Ruweng Dinka)

        Paulino Matiep Nhial Bul Nuer ally of the Sudan government. He was in Anyanya but was not incorporated into the Sudan army after the 1972 peace agreement. He became a rebel again in 1975 in Bilpam, went to Ethiopia, and returned to Western Upper Nile in 1985-86 as Anyanya II. He never joined the SPLA, in part because of its 1983 attacks on Anyanya II. He remained in Anyanya II, armed and supported by the government. With then army officer Omar El Bashir (who led the 1989 coup and became Sudan’s president), he successfully recaptured Mayom garrison in Western Upper Nile in early 1989 from the SPLA. He joined Machar’s breakaway faction in 1991. His forces were incorporated into the SSDF forces after the 1997 Khartoum Peace Agreement, but he fought the SSDF forces for control of the governorship of Unity State in September 1997, and lost. In March 1998 his South Sudan Unity Movement/Army (SSUM/A) was recognized by the government, which continued to directly provide him with arms and ammunition. He was named a major general in Sudan’s army in or before 1998. In 1998-present, he fought on behalf of the government, forcibly displacing civilians from Block 5A. For a longer period he helped the government conduct displacements from Blocks 1, 2, and 4. In 2003 he was again engaged in fighting against Nuer pro-government rivals for control of the governorship of Unity State, and lost. (Bul Nuer)

        Peter Paar Jiek, SPDF commander of Western Upper Nile in 2000-01. Formerly SSDF commander under Cmdr. Tito Biel in the fighting in 1998-99 in Western Upper Nile/Unity State. He was with Machar’s forces since the split from the SPLA in 1991. He coordinated anti-government attacks with Gatdet’s forces until June 2000, when he and Gatdet began to fight each other. He and Gatdet settled the "war of the Peters" in late 2000, and with Riek Machar he rejoined the SPLA in 2001. (Dok Nuer)

        Main Rebel and Militia Forces in South Sudan Named in this Report

        Anyanya: guerrilla army of southern separatists, 1955-72.
        Anyanya II: guerrilla army of southern separatists, 1975-91.
        Sudan People’s Liberation Movement/Army (SPLM/A): dominant rebel army in Sudan, 1983-present, composed of southerners and other marginalized peoples such as the Nuba, headed by Col. John Garang de Mabior (Dinka). Program: united, secular Sudan. Headquartered in Rumbek, Bahr El Ghazal, southern Sudan.
        South Sudan Liberation Movement (SSLM): a pro-independence southern political movement based in Akobo, Eastern Upper Nile, headed and formed by Michael Wal Duany in late 1999; it signed the Khartoum Peace Agreement with the Sudanese government in 2002

        Rebel forces headed (directly or indirectly) by Cmdr. Riek Machar, 1991-2002:

        SPLM/A-Nasir faction: 1991-93, breakaway SPLA faction headed by SPLA Cmdrs. Riek Machar Teny Dhurgon (Dok Nuer), Gordon Kong Chuol (Eastern Jikany Nuer), and Lam Akol (Shilluk); although its program called for an independent south, it received government aid. Headquartered in Nasir until 1995 and thereafter in Waat and Ayod, Upper Nile.
        SPLM/A-United: 1993-94: the above faction (mostly Nuer) joined by forces from other ethnic groups in southern Sudan, headed by Cmdr. Riek Machar, based in Nasir. Later this name was used by Lam Akol for his mostly Shilluk faction (see below).
        South Sudan Independence Movement/Army (SSIM/A): 1994-97: the above faction, reformed and renamed after the Nuer reconciliation meeting at Akobo in 1994, based variously in Waat and Ayod, Upper Nile.
        South Sudan Defense Forces (SSDF): 1997-2000, the army formed under the Khartoum Peace Agreement from ex-rebel forces including SSIM/A, based in Khartoum, Juba, and Malakal, and aligned with the political party United Democratic Salvation Front (UDSF). Both were headed by Cmdr. Riek Machar until January 2000, when he left the government. On April 27, 2001 all southern forces allied with the government were unified under this name, SSDF, including the progovernment militia forces listed below.
        Sudan People’s Defense Forces/Democratic Front (SPDF): January 2000-January 2002 or when the merger with the SPLM/A was complete; the rebel group formed from most SSDF forces, based in Upper Nile.

        Some pro-government militia forces (later known as "armed groups"):
        South Sudan Unity Movement/Army (SSUM/A): formed in early 1998 by Maj Gen. Paulino Matiep of the Sudan army, incorporating his formerly Anyanya II and SSDF Bul Nuer forces, supported by the Sudan government, based in Mayom, Western Upper Nile. (Bul Nuer)
        Cmdr. Gabriel Tanginya, pro-government Nuer militia based in Fangak, later Poum, Central Upper Nile. (Lak Nuer)
        Cmdr. Gordon Kong Chuol, pro-government Nuer militia based in Nasir, Eastern Upper Nile. (eastern Jikany Nuer)
        Cmdr. Simon Gatwich Dual, pro-government Nuer militia based in Waat, Central Upper Nile. (Lou Nuer)
        SPLM/A-United: Cmdr. Lam Akol’s Shilluk forces formed in 1994, which signed the Khartoum Peace Agreement in 1997. Lam Akol claimed the name after the Riek Machar forces in 1994 took the name South Sudan Independence Movement/Army (SSIM/A). Lam Akol had been part of the original SPLM/A-United. Based in Tonga, the Shilluk capital, in Upper Nile of southern Sudan.
        For further details, consult the Glossary, Lists of Key Individuals, and the text. There are several other southern ethnic militias armed by the government, including the Murle, the Mandari, the Toposa, the Didinga, and the Fertit and other ethnic groups not named here.
        Most southerners’ names include their "proper" name first, their father’s name second, and their grandfather’s name last. For example, to refer to Cmdr. Riek Machar Teny Dhurgon as "Machar" is to refer to that commander’s father. Therefore the first and second names are used in this report.

        Nuer pro-government militia leaders:

        Simon Gatwich Dual Pro-government Nuer militia leader based in Akobo, Upper Nile. With the SPLA, he followed Machar in 1991, becoming an SSDF commander in 1997. In 1999 he began receiving direct government funding. He followed Riek Machar out of the government in 2000 and Riek Machar named him governor of Leich State (Western Upper Nile/Unity State). He went with Riek Machar into the SPLA in 2002 but may have remained in some relationship with the Sudanese government and militias. (Lou Nuer)
        Gordon Kong Chuol Pro-government Nuer militia leader based in Eastern Upper Nile. An Anyanya veteran and founder of the SPLM/A, he joined the separatist Anyanya II and fought against the SPLA from 1983-88, when he led the reconciliation of most Anyanya II with the SPLA. With Riek Machar and Lam Akol, he led the breakaway faction that split from the SPLA in 1991. The faction received military assistance from the government and in 1997 signed the Khartoum Peace Agreement with the government. He was made an SSDF (pro-government) commander in 1997 under Riek Machar, and he began to accept direct supplies from the government in 1998. From that time a government militia leader operating out of Nasir with his local Jikany Nuer troops. (Eastern Jikany Nuer).
        Gabriel Tanginya (nom de guerre) Commander of government Nuer militia based in Fangak then Pom, Upper Nile, he was associated with Cmdr. Paulino Matiep in the early Anyanya II and with him joined Cmdr. Riek Machar’s breakaway rebel forces in 1991. He became a government militia leader by accepting direct government backing in 1998-99. In early 2000 he hijacked a U.N. plane in protest of the U.N.’s alleged transport of commanders to Riek Machar’s then location in Koch, Western Upper Nile. (Lak Nuer)"

        Credited Sources:

        http://www.unhcr.org/refworld/count...

        Search term: UNHCR | Refworld | Sudan, Oil, and Human Rights

        http://www.unhcr.org/refworld/docid...

        REFWORLD: The leader in refugee decision support

        UNHCR: The UN Refugee Agency

        “A bend in the road is not the end of the road... unless you fail to make the turn.” Author Unknown

        Finally, South Sudanese I know you have wisodom people among you.

        You will be judge about who is rights?

        Thank you all.

        repondre message

    • 31 August 2011 10:42, by Dinka Dominated SPLA/M

      People that Vice president Riek Machar teny dhurgon is very smart indeed, he might have been be cheated by his loyalst who committed the torrible crime.

      the reconcilation was already made and it is good for him to acknowlege his responsiblity which is good for him.

      I will foregive him if he want to Bor Dinkas and to the SPLA/M to tell them that he is sorry for what he did and everythings will be fine,

      We like him that is why we late him be our persident and he can be a president if he keep that attitudes.

      About this so called Cadaai?o?
      He is not A Dinka Bor boy but some one who has hidding agenda who is trying to bring conflic between one Dinkas Bor. he might be Gatwech or madit aka Dakin who is hiding under the names of divide Dinka Bor people.

      I am not form Bor Dinkas but i share a blood with them since my mum comes from there.
      And if this little parasite called himself Cadaai?o? is from Dinka Bor? than nobody is going to be deem because it happen every year but because Bor Dinkas are very strong people, they overcomes it,
      How many times dose Kongor tryed to told the all Twice to be called kongor payam but it didn’t work so just to remain Bor Dinkas about this, donot to take any individual who is about to bring shame to Bor Dinkas seriously, they will fail and Dinka Bor will remain Dinka Bor.

      becarful Awan Chan is watching with no doubt.

      repondre message

      • 31 August 2011 16:32, by Cadaai ?o?

        Historian and Identity Advocacy View:

        “Good people will be guided by honesty; dishonesty will destroy those who are not trustworthy.” Proverbs 11:3 NCV.

        “Teach me to do Your will, for You are my God; Your Spirit is good. Lead me in the land of uprightness.” Psalms 143:10 NKJV.
        “Who is this to amend God creations, the one who makes an amendment, this person, I would say is against God. If this problem of mine is sent to God, I will win this case.” By John Garang de Mabior

        “But for the sake of finding the truth, the whole truth and nothing but the truth.” By Daniel Bushery Daniel

        “Dinka Twic-east is a reclusive, peaceful and principled community- it has NEVER embarked on an attack on other tribes, and it does NOT…” Source: www.sudantribune.com

        First of all, I would like to thanks my friends who have responded to other kids who are just there for speaking nonsenses. As I know in God (Nhialic) seeks, Dinka Bor people are not going to steal Dinka Twic East and Dinka Twic Mayardit (West) History of Sudan civil war and identity. No matter what they are tying to do about that.

        I don’t know if Dr. Riek Machar has good people who are advising him. Why I say so? It is because Dr. Riek Machar is being misled or being used by Dinka Bor people who are now clashing with Dinka Twic East about their attempts as they think they will steal Dinka Twic East and Dinka Twic West history and identity. So the Dinka Bor people are in desperate to do just that. But Dinka Twic East people are just take it easy one at times until they will reach their truth when the time come.

        Also, there is nothing so call Dinka Bor massacre, for that name they just try to gets credits for the event while they were not affected that much by the incident. In God (Nhialic) true stand, it was Dinka Twic East massacre because of Dinka Twic East being the tribe of Dr. John Garang de Mabior. However, if we include our brothers and sisters of Dinka in region, it calls Southeastern Dinka massacre (Those tribes are Dinka Bor, Dinka Twic East & Dinka Duk)or you can call it Eastern Dinka Massacre or Jonglei Dinka Massacre.

        "UNHCR & REFWORD Report about South Sudan’s war civil History during the movement"

        "Key South Sudan Individuals Named in This Report"

        "Note: The names are listed alphabetically by second name (underlined), unless the person is known by another name."

        "Abel Alier Kwai Respected southern politician living in Khartoum, former vice president of Sudan and head of the Southern Region during part of the autonomy period. Author of Southern Sudan: Too Many Promises Dishonored (1990). (Bor Dinka)

        Tito Biel Chuol Western Upper Nile zonal commander in SSDF in May 1999 in charge of the attack on the oil company rig at Ryer/Thar Jath, Western Upper Nile. Instrumental in securing field alliance with Cmdr. Salva Kiir Mayandit of the SPLA. Originally in the SPLA, joined the Riek Machar breakaway faction in 1991 and followed him into the government in 1997, becoming part of the SSDF, and then in 2000 part of Machar’s SPDF. In late 2002 he realigned himself with the SSDF (pro-government). (Dok Nuer)

        Kuong Danhier Gatluak Head of security of the SPDF in 1999. Joined the SPLA and defected with Riek Machar in 1991. When Riek Machar was in the government, Kuong Danhier was chief security officer for the SSDF, based in Nairobi. Joined Riek Machar when Machar defected from the government in early 2000. (Nyuong Nuer)

        Taban Deng Gai Spokesman for Machar’s SPDF forces in Nairobi, Kenya from December 2000 until June 2001, when he rejoined the SPLA. Originally joined the SPLA in the 1980s and left to join his relative by marriage, Riek Machar, when he split from the SPLA in 1991. In 1996 he joined the government with Riek Machar and became a leader of the political party they formed, the UDSF. He won an election for governor of Unity State/Western Upper Nile in December 1997 and was expelled from the governorship and the state in May 1999 by Maj. Gen. Paulino Matiep. He fled to Khartoum. He was appointed state minister for roads and communications in January 2000 by President Bashir and defected from the government in December 2000, and joined Machar’s new faction, the SPDF, until he decided to rejoin the SPLA. (Leek/Western Jikany Nuer)

        Michael Wal Duany Head of the SSLM as of late 1999 to the current time. Dr. Duany represented the Nuer intellectuals in the diaspora at the Wunlit Nuer-Dinka West Bank peace and reconciliation meeting of March 1999; formerly with the Workshop on Political Theory and Policy Analysis at Indiana University in Bloomington, Indiana, U.S. Based in Akobo, Upper Nile. (Lou Nuer)

        John Garang de Mabior Commander-in-chief of the SPLA and head of the SPLM. Member of Anyanya briefly at the end of the first civil war in 1972, and was incorporated into the Sudan army, earned a PhD in the U.S. in agricultural/environmental studies, and having attained the rank of colonel in the Sudan army, was a founder of the SPLM/A in Ethiopia in 1983. He supported a united secular Sudan against internal SPLA rivals (separatist Anyanya II) in 1983 and won out, with backing from Ethiopia’s president Haile Mengistu Meriam, continuing in control of the SPLM/A today. (Twic/Tuic [East] Dinka/Twic East County)

        Peter Gatdet Yaka Former Sudanese army officer sent to Iraq to fight against the Iranians in the Iran-Iraq war in the 1980s. He joined the SPLA and left it in 1991 with Riek Machar. He was assigned to Cmdr. Paulino Matiep’s Bul Nuer forces as an officer, and when they split off from the SSDF he became a key commander in Commander Matiep’s SSUM/A pro-government militia. He fought on the behalf of the government against the SSDF forces under Cmdr. Tito Biel in Block 5A in 1999 for control of Block 5A. He and his forces mutinied against Maj. Gen. Paulino Matiep in September 1999 and fought against the government. For several months he coordinated his activities with the SSDF (under Cmdr. Tito Biel/Peter Paar) against the government, and attacked various oil targets in Western Upper Nile/Unity State. In early 2000 he joined the SPLA. He began fighting Cmdr. Riek Machar’s SPDF forces (under Cmdr. Peter Paar, formerly his SSDF adversary in 1999) in July 2000. During this round, he was anti-government and the Machar forces were pro-government. After disagreements reportedly about military discipline with the SPLA, he rejoined the government’s militia forces in late 2002. (Bul Nuer)

        Elijah Hon Top (deceased 2000) SSDF chief of staff under the Khartoum Peace Agreement. After Riek Machar resigned unexpectedly from the government in January 2000, Cmdr. Elijah Hon Top, a Lou Nuer from Ayod, became the spokesman for the SSDF and the UDSF in Khartoum. Formerly with the SPLA and Machar’s breakaway faction in 1991, he joined the government with Machar in 1997. (Gaawar Nuer)
        Kerubino Kuanyin Bol (deceased September 1999) Anyanya officer, then incorporated into the Sudan army after 1972, he was leader of the Bor mutineers whose rebellion lead to the formation of the SPLA in Ethiopia in 1983. Jailed by Garang for conspiracy in 1987, he escaped in 1992 and in 1993 joined Riek Machar’s breakaway rebel group. By 1994 his Dinka militia was directly supplied by the Sudanese army from his home, the garrison town of Gogrial, Bahr El Ghazal. Defected to the SPLA in January 1998, and split with the SPLA later in that year and received protection from his in-law, Maj. Gen. Paulino Matiep, in Mankien. Killed by forces of Cmdr. Peter Gatdet after they mutinied from Paulino Matiep and captured the Mankien base in September 1999. (Twic/Tuic Dinka)

        Salva Kiir Mayardit A native of Bahr El Ghazal, assigned chief of staff of the SPLA in late 1999. He was commander of Bahr El Ghazal in 1999 when he strongly backed the Dinka-Nuer Peace and Reconciliation Conference at Wunlit. (Rek Dinka)

        Joseph Lagu Yanga: Founder and leader of the Sudanese rebel group Anya Nya. Sudanese Ambassador to the UN from 1990 to 1992. Joseph Lagu was born in the village of Momokwe, in the north of Madiland, in southern Sudan. He is from the Madi ethnic group. He attended military college in Omdurman and was commissioned into the Sudanese Army in 1960 (Madi) http://africanhistory.about.com/od/...

        Riek Machar Teny Dhurgon Rebel leader with the SPLA from 1984 until the 1991 split, which he helped lead. As SPLA Zonal Commander of Western Upper Nile, entered into agreement with Baggara chiefs in 1986. Led breakaway faction from SPLM/A in 1991, forming a separate southern rebel movement initially known as the SPLA-Nasir (from 1993 the SPLA-United, and from 1994-97 the SSIM/A). Despite espousing independence for the south, his faction received covert support from the government as it fought for years (1991-99) against the SPLA, resorting to increasingly bloody and ethnically motivated attacks against civilians. His SSIA rebel forces claimed all the rural land of Western Upper Nile/Unity State, except the few garrison towns and the Bul Nuer area where Paulino Matiep and Anyanya II prevailed. Signed 1996 Political Charter and 1997 Khartoum Peace Agreement with government, which in 1997 appointed him president of the Southern States Coordinating Council (SSCC) and assistant to President of Sudan Omar el Bashir. Also formed and became head of the political party United Democratic Salvation Front (UDSF) and commander-in-chief of the military arm created under the Khartoum Peace Agreement, the South Sudan Defense Force (SSDF), comprising most of the ex-rebels who had signed that agreement. His failure to stem the government’s forced displacement of civilians from Western Upper Nile/Unity State ended up turning the Nuer against his leadership and eventually led to his belated resignation from government and attempt to recreate his army in the south in 2000 as the Sudan People’s Democratic Forces (2000-02). In January 2002 signed an agreement with Dr. John Garang to merge the SPDF and the SPLA, receiving a leadership position in the SPLA. (Dok Nuer)

        Benjamin Majak In the late 1990s, head of the relief arm of the SPLA, the SRRA, based in his Dinka area of Ruweng County, Western Upper Nile, and SPLA commander in that area. With the Khartoum government since 2000. (Panaru/Ruweng Dinka)

        Paulino Matiep Nhial Bul Nuer ally of the Sudan government. He was in Anyanya but was not incorporated into the Sudan army after the 1972 peace agreement. He became a rebel again in 1975 in Bilpam, went to Ethiopia, and returned to Western Upper Nile in 1985-86 as Anyanya II. He never joined the SPLA, in part because of its 1983 attacks on Anyanya II. He remained in Anyanya II, armed and supported by the government. With then army officer Omar El Bashir (who led the 1989 coup and became Sudan’s president), he successfully recaptured Mayom garrison in Western Upper Nile in early 1989 from the SPLA. He joined Machar’s breakaway faction in 1991. His forces were incorporated into the SSDF forces after the 1997 Khartoum Peace Agreement, but he fought the SSDF forces for control of the governorship of Unity State in September 1997, and lost. In March 1998 his South Sudan Unity Movement/Army (SSUM/A) was recognized by the government, which continued to directly provide him with arms and ammunition. He was named a major general in Sudan’s army in or before 1998. In 1998-present, he fought on behalf of the government, forcibly displacing civilians from Block 5A. For a longer period he helped the government conduct displacements from Blocks 1, 2, and 4. In 2003 he was again engaged in fighting against Nuer pro-government rivals for control of the governorship of Unity State, and lost. (Bul Nuer)

        Peter Paar Jiek, SPDF commander of Western Upper Nile in 2000-01. Formerly SSDF commander under Cmdr. Tito Biel in the fighting in 1998-99 in Western Upper Nile/Unity State. He was with Machar’s forces since the split from the SPLA in 1991. He coordinated anti-government attacks with Gatdet’s forces until June 2000, when he and Gatdet began to fight each other. He and Gatdet settled the "war of the Peters" in late 2000, and with Riek Machar he rejoined the SPLA in 2001. (Dok Nuer)

        Main Rebel and Militia Forces in South Sudan Named in this Report

        Anyanya: guerrilla army of southern separatists, 1955-72.
        Anyanya II: guerrilla army of southern separatists, 1975-91.
        Sudan People’s Liberation Movement/Army (SPLM/A): dominant rebel army in Sudan, 1983-present, composed of southerners and other marginalized peoples such as the Nuba, headed by Col. John Garang de Mabior (Dinka). Program: united, secular Sudan. Headquartered in Rumbek, Bahr El Ghazal, southern Sudan.
        South Sudan Liberation Movement (SSLM): a pro-independence southern political movement based in Akobo, Eastern Upper Nile, headed and formed by Michael Wal Duany in late 1999; it signed the Khartoum Peace Agreement with the Sudanese government in 2002

        Rebel forces headed (directly or indirectly) by Cmdr. Riek Machar, 1991-2002:

        SPLM/A-Nasir faction: 1991-93, breakaway SPLA faction headed by SPLA Cmdrs. Riek Machar Teny Dhurgon (Dok Nuer), Gordon Kong Chuol (Eastern Jikany Nuer), and Lam Akol (Shilluk); although its program called for an independent south, it received government aid. Headquartered in Nasir until 1995 and thereafter in Waat and Ayod, Upper Nile.
        SPLM/A-United: 1993-94: the above faction (mostly Nuer) joined by forces from other ethnic groups in southern Sudan, headed by Cmdr. Riek Machar, based in Nasir. Later this name was used by Lam Akol for his mostly Shilluk faction (see below).
        South Sudan Independence Movement/Army (SSIM/A): 1994-97: the above faction, reformed and renamed after the Nuer reconciliation meeting at Akobo in 1994, based variously in Waat and Ayod, Upper Nile.
        South Sudan Defense Forces (SSDF): 1997-2000, the army formed under the Khartoum Peace Agreement from ex-rebel forces including SSIM/A, based in Khartoum, Juba, and Malakal, and aligned with the political party United Democratic Salvation Front (UDSF). Both were headed by Cmdr. Riek Machar until January 2000, when he left the government. On April 27, 2001 all southern forces allied with the government were unified under this name, SSDF, including the progovernment militia forces listed below.
        Sudan People’s Defense Forces/Democratic Front (SPDF): January 2000-January 2002 or when the merger with the SPLM/A was complete; the rebel group formed from most SSDF forces, based in Upper Nile.

        Some pro-government militia forces (later known as "armed groups"):
        South Sudan Unity Movement/Army (SSUM/A): formed in early 1998 by Maj Gen. Paulino Matiep of the Sudan army, incorporating his formerly Anyanya II and SSDF Bul Nuer forces, supported by the Sudan government, based in Mayom, Western Upper Nile. (Bul Nuer)
        Cmdr. Gabriel Tanginya, pro-government Nuer militia based in Fangak, later Poum, Central Upper Nile. (Lak Nuer)
        Cmdr. Gordon Kong Chuol, pro-government Nuer militia based in Nasir, Eastern Upper Nile. (eastern Jikany Nuer)
        Cmdr. Simon Gatwich Dual, pro-government Nuer militia based in Waat, Central Upper Nile. (Lou Nuer)
        SPLM/A-United: Cmdr. Lam Akol’s Shilluk forces formed in 1994, which signed the Khartoum Peace Agreement in 1997. Lam Akol claimed the name after the Riek Machar forces in 1994 took the name South Sudan Independence Movement/Army (SSIM/A). Lam Akol had been part of the original SPLM/A-United. Based in Tonga, the Shilluk capital, in Upper Nile of southern Sudan.
        For further details, consult the Glossary, Lists of Key Individuals, and the text. There are several other southern ethnic militias armed by the government, including the Murle, the Mandari, the Toposa, the Didinga, and the Fertit and other ethnic groups not named here.
        Most southerners’ names include their "proper" name first, their father’s name second, and their grandfather’s name last. For example, to refer to Cmdr. Riek Machar Teny Dhurgon as "Machar" is to refer to that commander’s father. Therefore the first and second names are used in this report.

        Nuer pro-government militia leaders:

        Simon Gatwich Dual Pro-government Nuer militia leader based in Akobo, Upper Nile. With the SPLA, he followed Machar in 1991, becoming an SSDF commander in 1997. In 1999 he began receiving direct government funding. He followed Riek Machar out of the government in 2000 and Riek Machar named him governor of Leich State (Western Upper Nile/Unity State). He went with Riek Machar into the SPLA in 2002 but may have remained in some relationship with the Sudanese government and militias. (Lou Nuer)
        Gordon Kong Chuol Pro-government Nuer militia leader based in Eastern Upper Nile. An Anyanya veteran and founder of the SPLM/A, he joined the separatist Anyanya II and fought against the SPLA from 1983-88, when he led the reconciliation of most Anyanya II with the SPLA. With Riek Machar and Lam Akol, he led the breakaway faction that split from the SPLA in 1991. The faction received military assistance from the government and in 1997 signed the Khartoum Peace Agreement with the government. He was made an SSDF (pro-government) commander in 1997 under Riek Machar, and he began to accept direct supplies from the government in 1998. From that time a government militia leader operating out of Nasir with his local Jikany Nuer troops. (Eastern Jikany Nuer).
        Gabriel Tanginya (nom de guerre) Commander of government Nuer militia based in Fangak then Pom, Upper Nile, he was associated with Cmdr. Paulino Matiep in the early Anyanya II and with him joined Cmdr. Riek Machar’s breakaway rebel forces in 1991. He became a government militia leader by accepting direct government backing in 1998-99. In early 2000 he hijacked a U.N. plane in protest of the U.N.’s alleged transport of commanders to Riek Machar’s then location in Koch, Western Upper Nile. (Lak Nuer)"

        Credited Sources:

        http://www.unhcr.org/refworld/count...

        Search term: UNHCR | Refworld | Sudan, Oil, and Human Rights

        http://www.unhcr.org/refworld/docid...

        REFWORLD: The leader in refugee decision support

        UNHCR: The UN Refugee Agency

        “A bend in the road is not the end of the road... unless you fail to make the turn.” Author Unknown

        Finally, South Sudanese I know you have wisodom people among you.

        You will be judge about who is rights?

        Thank you all.

        repondre message

        • 1 September 2011 03:06, by Jimmy A. Makur

          Hi Guys,

          You can be careful about these two guys by the names Monyjang Chol and Cadaai?. They are people with their hiding agendas. You can see from their writing as they also bring up some issues which are not related to the articles.

          I don’t think any really MonyJang can be gainst the progress of this country!

          I know we can be different in opinions, but not to the extend of denying the crimes commited from 1991-1999 and all massacres carried out in every Dinka territories.

          On the other hand, I hardly believe Mr Cadai? when he said that nothing so called ’’ Bor Massacre’’ while Dr Riek Machar recognised it as massacre and that’s why he made an apology.

          Remember that knowing the Bor Dinka dialect doesn’t mean one should come from that area. There are alot of people in Rumbek who can read Bible and write in Bor dialect, but they are not from Bor Dinka.

          I guess Mr Cadaai? is aremy of peace within and that’s why he always come up with an issues not even close to the topic disucuss in the forum.

          By Jimmy Abraham Makur.

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          • 1 September 2011 05:41, by Cadaai ?o?

            Jimme

            Historian and Identity Advocacy View:

            I don’t deny the massacre itself, but the name given as "Bor Massacre" is totally wrong title please. Why? Because Dinka Twic and Dinka Duk are not Dinka Bor. That’s why its call Southeastern, Eastern or Jonglei Dinka Massacre. Or if I consider the most affected tribe was Dinka Twic East, which is it should be call Dinka Twi/Twic East Massacre.

            repondre message

            • 1 September 2011 15:10, by Jimmy A. Makur

              To Cadaai?

              Well I don’t know about your inner problems in Bor or Dinka Twic East/West. Even Dr Garang de Man whose one of you claimed to be from his village on this site, called himself Dinka Bor where he met people in any corner in South Sudan.

              I guess you guys are confused between Church politics and the really politics. I am advise to you, is to refrain from tribal minded people and act as nationalise. You the future of this nation.

              You can fight for your uncle Dr Garang de Mabior to be from Twic East Dinka, but should to tell your advocacy group to learn the history if you to participate on nation issues. I mean to let you guys know that Dr President Kirr Mayardit is not from Twic in Warrap State, he is from Awan Chan!

              Thanks

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          • 1 September 2011 09:06, by gotutu

            TO JIMMY

            YOU ARE RIGHT
            I WROTE A MASSAGE TO THIS MONJANG CHOL-
            THAT SHOULD COMMANT BECAUSE HE IS WELL KNOWN FOR HIS CONFUSING MIND.

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    • 31 August 2011 11:54, by WendeMajok

      Who is fooling who here?

      Apology is made not on political based groups but to the right people who felt the hurt, even if Riek Machar Teny Dhurgon reconciled with Dr. John Garang in 2002, it doesn’t make any sense to someone like me because Garang might have his own political view of bring Riek back to the movement or to keep him in the system till the right time to ask him comes. Also with Nyandeng and some elders, this might have been based on the political factors or campaigns season..

      Second to that, being the association leader doesn’t mean that all members in the association or in Kampala town have accepted the apology, the generalization made in this article is biased. I myself can’t forgive Riek because he would have apologized in some years back before CPA but because he has already secured VP position and wanted to prosper (he might be thinking of contesting for presidency position in the nearest future)that is why is seeking asylum....NO WAY!! If Riek knew that Duk, Twic East and Bor South Counties were going to exist, what was his reason. Garang was with him in the bush, why didn’t he assassinate him alone than coming to kill innocent communities..Shit!!!

      Mr. Chairman BOYSA, don’t accept apology at a hidden point of view....we students know how to twist the words to make sense when they don’t make any meaning. I personally understand the your reasons but wouldn’t expose you...sorry for betraying the as
      sociation.

      RIEK SHOULD APOLOGIZE IN A RIGHT PLACE AT A RIGHT WITH MEANINGFUL/GENUINE APOLOGY.

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    • 1 September 2011 03:56, by kaci-banno

      If Bor community welcome Dr. Reik apology and who is going to apologizes for Dr. Garang wrong deeds during the last 21 years? Dr. Garang Killed many intellectaul leaders during the movement simply because they rejected some of his suggestion and Current governor Kaul Manyang Killed many people after Nasir declaration including sons of Barga’zal, what are you talking about? does Dr. Reik is the only murder? To me seems like some of the leaders among SPLM push Dr. Riek to apologize so that he will loose public trust for their own interest. I really expect from the SPLM as a ruling party to organise a big event which he apologize publicly about whatever happened during the years of struggle including Nasir declaration faction instead of individaul apology.
      SPLM has to stop such a confusion

      By: Kaci-banno

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  • 31 August 2011 08:22, by MINDED.DUDE

    Damn,another news from Bor Dinka,
    If i were you [v.p], i will never make any apology to Dinka.
    Dinka bor need to make apology the following communities:

    Toposa
    Didinga
    Latuko
    mundari
    murle
    Nuer-who had been massacred in chukudum,Lotukei and other dinka positions areas.

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    • 31 August 2011 08:30, by Dhalaluaak

      all these tribes you have were machinations used by the jallaba to kill every DINKA they came across.For instance,the TOPOSA shot and red army boys in MAGOS IN 1992 AT NIGHT FOR NO REASONS SAME AS THE RESTS AND YOU TOO ABU GORGOSH,TANIA AMONG OTHER THINGS YOU HAVE BEEN LURED WITH.

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      • 31 August 2011 10:46, by choldit

        You must be kiding my dear. Those tribes mentioned about as ones who Dinka can apologise to has fought numerous fights with us. You and I know very well that they are the backbone of this nation.

        What can you say if I say we need to apologise to the Gajaak for the massacres Dr. Garang carried out in their area in 1980s? Don’t you think this appology comes at a cost to Bor too. We must stop looking at only one way traffice and think what it means to Machar and the Nuer in general.

        The most disadvantaged at the movement are the Gajaak or Jikang in general becoze they were the first to lost loved ones at the hand of this movement but we are the first to be comforted by the Govt of South Sudan instead.

        So, put yourself together and consider others!!!

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    • 31 August 2011 08:43, by Ajok Garang

      Minddude.....without the Dinka i don’t think at this time there would be new Nation called the ROSS .all the tribes you mentioned were used by Bashiir and the whole Arabs to undermine the SPLA and Moment ...majority of all these tribes didnot know why we ran to the bush only today they have known the clear reason ..and even now just go to any university or village and ask anyone of them the reason why we were fighting the Khartoum govermment ,i think non of them will tell you why we wage awar of Liberation. most of these citizens were not conscripted in to the SPLA because of their Dual citizenship and fear.example ADF equatria defence forces of Konyi around Juba distrupted the capture of torit ..in Uganda all these tribes were not recongnised wether they are sudanese or not beacuse they go and collaborate with the foreigners against Dinka and yet some of them are south Sudanese ..in 1993 when the moment was about to collapse only left Nimule and Pargok all these tribes collaborated with Arabs to kill any Dinka when the SPLA dies but now its a different story ..

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    • 31 August 2011 09:06, by Jeti

      Mind Dude---you are just a fool, idiot, primitive who doesn’t know anything. And thank God you are not Dr. Machar and you will never be him. Dr. Riek Machar is now clean after the apology and he can be sleeping freely without any nightmares.

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    • 31 August 2011 10:10, by Sobat

      I think, Bor community should think twice before celebrating Riek’s apology. During 1991 split I was in Torit and traveled to Kajokeji, Kaya, Morobo, Maridi and Yambio.

      Nuer officers and soldiers stationed in these areas were murdered in cold blood by Dinka officers, accept in Yambio, because James Oth had huge numbers of Nuer soldiers in his force. I was lucky because I had no Nuer mark in my forehead.

      Governor Kuol Manyang murdered many Nuer too and General Marial now in prison killed many Nuer soldiers in Thorobaar, General Gaberial Jok now the division 7 SPLA commander murdered Nuer too - by then he was in-charge of SPLA artillery unit in a place between Mororbo and Kajokeji, just to mention few, because there were many of Dinka generals who murdered Nuer officers.

      So please don’t think that Dinka were the only one murdered during 1991 in Nassir,in fact Dinka were lucky because it happened only in Nassir. But Nuer were murdered in most towns in Greater Equatoria region. So Nuer serving in SPLA in Equatoria region were murdered in mass too.

      Equatorian and those few Dinka who witness the killing can testified on what happened to Nuer officers stationed in Equatoria. So everyone, including the Dinka have also committed a murder.

      Now it’s a time we focus on reconciliation and stop engaging ourselves in finger pointing.

      repondre message

      • 31 August 2011 13:32, by Gabriel KK

        We are not only celebrating for Riak’s APOLOGY but we are celebrating for his future journey to ICC. where he will face the court.

        repondre message

      • 31 August 2011 16:34, by Cadaai ?o?

        Historian and Identity Advocacy View:

        “Good people will be guided by honesty; dishonesty will destroy those who are not trustworthy.” Proverbs 11:3 NCV.

        “Teach me to do Your will, for You are my God; Your Spirit is good. Lead me in the land of uprightness.” Psalms 143:10 NKJV.
        “Who is this to amend God creations, the one who makes an amendment, this person, I would say is against God. If this problem of mine is sent to God, I will win this case.” By John Garang de Mabior

        “But for the sake of finding the truth, the whole truth and nothing but the truth.” By Daniel Bushery Daniel

        “Dinka Twic-east is a reclusive, peaceful and principled community- it has NEVER embarked on an attack on other tribes, and it does NOT…” Source: www.sudantribune.com

        First of all, I would like to thanks my friends who have responded to other kids who are just there for speaking nonsenses. As I know in God (Nhialic) seeks, Dinka Bor people are not going to steal Dinka Twic East and Dinka Twic Mayardit (West) History of Sudan civil war and identity. No matter what they are tying to do about that.

        I don’t know if Dr. Riek Machar has good people who are advising him. Why I say so? It is because Dr. Riek Machar is being misled or being used by Dinka Bor people who are now clashing with Dinka Twic East about their attempts as they think they will steal Dinka Twic East and Dinka Twic West history and identity. So the Dinka Bor people are in desperate to do just that. But Dinka Twic East people are just take it easy one at times until they will reach their truth when the time come.

        Also, there is nothing so call Dinka Bor massacre, for that name they just try to gets credits for the event while they were not affected that much by the incident. In God (Nhialic) true stand, it was Dinka Twic East massacre because of Dinka Twic East being the tribe of Dr. John Garang de Mabior. However, if we include our brothers and sisters of Dinka in region, it calls Southeastern Dinka massacre (Those tribes are Dinka Bor, Dinka Twic East & Dinka Duk)or you can call it Eastern Dinka Massacre or Jonglei Dinka Massacre.

        "UNHCR & REFWORD Report about South Sudan’s war civil History during the movement"

        "Key South Sudan Individuals Named in This Report"

        "Note: The names are listed alphabetically by second name (underlined), unless the person is known by another name."

        "Abel Alier Kwai Respected southern politician living in Khartoum, former vice president of Sudan and head of the Southern Region during part of the autonomy period. Author of Southern Sudan: Too Many Promises Dishonored (1990). (Bor Dinka)

        Tito Biel Chuol Western Upper Nile zonal commander in SSDF in May 1999 in charge of the attack on the oil company rig at Ryer/Thar Jath, Western Upper Nile. Instrumental in securing field alliance with Cmdr. Salva Kiir Mayandit of the SPLA. Originally in the SPLA, joined the Riek Machar breakaway faction in 1991 and followed him into the government in 1997, becoming part of the SSDF, and then in 2000 part of Machar’s SPDF. In late 2002 he realigned himself with the SSDF (pro-government). (Dok Nuer)

        Kuong Danhier Gatluak Head of security of the SPDF in 1999. Joined the SPLA and defected with Riek Machar in 1991. When Riek Machar was in the government, Kuong Danhier was chief security officer for the SSDF, based in Nairobi. Joined Riek Machar when Machar defected from the government in early 2000. (Nyuong Nuer)

        Taban Deng Gai Spokesman for Machar’s SPDF forces in Nairobi, Kenya from December 2000 until June 2001, when he rejoined the SPLA. Originally joined the SPLA in the 1980s and left to join his relative by marriage, Riek Machar, when he split from the SPLA in 1991. In 1996 he joined the government with Riek Machar and became a leader of the political party they formed, the UDSF. He won an election for governor of Unity State/Western Upper Nile in December 1997 and was expelled from the governorship and the state in May 1999 by Maj. Gen. Paulino Matiep. He fled to Khartoum. He was appointed state minister for roads and communications in January 2000 by President Bashir and defected from the government in December 2000, and joined Machar’s new faction, the SPDF, until he decided to rejoin the SPLA. (Leek/Western Jikany Nuer)

        Michael Wal Duany Head of the SSLM as of late 1999 to the current time. Dr. Duany represented the Nuer intellectuals in the diaspora at the Wunlit Nuer-Dinka West Bank peace and reconciliation meeting of March 1999; formerly with the Workshop on Political Theory and Policy Analysis at Indiana University in Bloomington, Indiana, U.S. Based in Akobo, Upper Nile. (Lou Nuer)

        John Garang de Mabior Commander-in-chief of the SPLA and head of the SPLM. Member of Anyanya briefly at the end of the first civil war in 1972, and was incorporated into the Sudan army, earned a PhD in the U.S. in agricultural/environmental studies, and having attained the rank of colonel in the Sudan army, was a founder of the SPLM/A in Ethiopia in 1983. He supported a united secular Sudan against internal SPLA rivals (separatist Anyanya II) in 1983 and won out, with backing from Ethiopia’s president Haile Mengistu Meriam, continuing in control of the SPLM/A today. (Twic/Tuic [East] Dinka/Twic East County)

        Peter Gatdet Yaka Former Sudanese army officer sent to Iraq to fight against the Iranians in the Iran-Iraq war in the 1980s. He joined the SPLA and left it in 1991 with Riek Machar. He was assigned to Cmdr. Paulino Matiep’s Bul Nuer forces as an officer, and when they split off from the SSDF he became a key commander in Commander Matiep’s SSUM/A pro-government militia. He fought on the behalf of the government against the SSDF forces under Cmdr. Tito Biel in Block 5A in 1999 for control of Block 5A. He and his forces mutinied against Maj. Gen. Paulino Matiep in September 1999 and fought against the government. For several months he coordinated his activities with the SSDF (under Cmdr. Tito Biel/Peter Paar) against the government, and attacked various oil targets in Western Upper Nile/Unity State. In early 2000 he joined the SPLA. He began fighting Cmdr. Riek Machar’s SPDF forces (under Cmdr. Peter Paar, formerly his SSDF adversary in 1999) in July 2000. During this round, he was anti-government and the Machar forces were pro-government. After disagreements reportedly about military discipline with the SPLA, he rejoined the government’s militia forces in late 2002. (Bul Nuer)

        Elijah Hon Top (deceased 2000) SSDF chief of staff under the Khartoum Peace Agreement. After Riek Machar resigned unexpectedly from the government in January 2000, Cmdr. Elijah Hon Top, a Lou Nuer from Ayod, became the spokesman for the SSDF and the UDSF in Khartoum. Formerly with the SPLA and Machar’s breakaway faction in 1991, he joined the government with Machar in 1997. (Gaawar Nuer)
        Kerubino Kuanyin Bol (deceased September 1999) Anyanya officer, then incorporated into the Sudan army after 1972, he was leader of the Bor mutineers whose rebellion lead to the formation of the SPLA in Ethiopia in 1983. Jailed by Garang for conspiracy in 1987, he escaped in 1992 and in 1993 joined Riek Machar’s breakaway rebel group. By 1994 his Dinka militia was directly supplied by the Sudanese army from his home, the garrison town of Gogrial, Bahr El Ghazal. Defected to the SPLA in January 1998, and split with the SPLA later in that year and received protection from his in-law, Maj. Gen. Paulino Matiep, in Mankien. Killed by forces of Cmdr. Peter Gatdet after they mutinied from Paulino Matiep and captured the Mankien base in September 1999. (Twic/Tuic Dinka)

        Salva Kiir Mayardit A native of Bahr El Ghazal, assigned chief of staff of the SPLA in late 1999. He was commander of Bahr El Ghazal in 1999 when he strongly backed the Dinka-Nuer Peace and Reconciliation Conference at Wunlit. (Rek Dinka)

        Joseph Lagu Yanga: Founder and leader of the Sudanese rebel group Anya Nya. Sudanese Ambassador to the UN from 1990 to 1992. Joseph Lagu was born in the village of Momokwe, in the north of Madiland, in southern Sudan. He is from the Madi ethnic group. He attended military college in Omdurman and was commissioned into the Sudanese Army in 1960 (Madi) http://africanhistory.about.com/od/...

        Riek Machar Teny Dhurgon Rebel leader with the SPLA from 1984 until the 1991 split, which he helped lead. As SPLA Zonal Commander of Western Upper Nile, entered into agreement with Baggara chiefs in 1986. Led breakaway faction from SPLM/A in 1991, forming a separate southern rebel movement initially known as the SPLA-Nasir (from 1993 the SPLA-United, and from 1994-97 the SSIM/A). Despite espousing independence for the south, his faction received covert support from the government as it fought for years (1991-99) against the SPLA, resorting to increasingly bloody and ethnically motivated attacks against civilians. His SSIA rebel forces claimed all the rural land of Western Upper Nile/Unity State, except the few garrison towns and the Bul Nuer area where Paulino Matiep and Anyanya II prevailed. Signed 1996 Political Charter and 1997 Khartoum Peace Agreement with government, which in 1997 appointed him president of the Southern States Coordinating Council (SSCC) and assistant to President of Sudan Omar el Bashir. Also formed and became head of the political party United Democratic Salvation Front (UDSF) and commander-in-chief of the military arm created under the Khartoum Peace Agreement, the South Sudan Defense Force (SSDF), comprising most of the ex-rebels who had signed that agreement. His failure to stem the government’s forced displacement of civilians from Western Upper Nile/Unity State ended up turning the Nuer against his leadership and eventually led to his belated resignation from government and attempt to recreate his army in the south in 2000 as the Sudan People’s Democratic Forces (2000-02). In January 2002 signed an agreement with Dr. John Garang to merge the SPDF and the SPLA, receiving a leadership position in the SPLA. (Dok Nuer)

        Benjamin Majak In the late 1990s, head of the relief arm of the SPLA, the SRRA, based in his Dinka area of Ruweng County, Western Upper Nile, and SPLA commander in that area. With the Khartoum government since 2000. (Panaru/Ruweng Dinka)

        Paulino Matiep Nhial Bul Nuer ally of the Sudan government. He was in Anyanya but was not incorporated into the Sudan army after the 1972 peace agreement. He became a rebel again in 1975 in Bilpam, went to Ethiopia, and returned to Western Upper Nile in 1985-86 as Anyanya II. He never joined the SPLA, in part because of its 1983 attacks on Anyanya II. He remained in Anyanya II, armed and supported by the government. With then army officer Omar El Bashir (who led the 1989 coup and became Sudan’s president), he successfully recaptured Mayom garrison in Western Upper Nile in early 1989 from the SPLA. He joined Machar’s breakaway faction in 1991. His forces were incorporated into the SSDF forces after the 1997 Khartoum Peace Agreement, but he fought the SSDF forces for control of the governorship of Unity State in September 1997, and lost. In March 1998 his South Sudan Unity Movement/Army (SSUM/A) was recognized by the government, which continued to directly provide him with arms and ammunition. He was named a major general in Sudan’s army in or before 1998. In 1998-present, he fought on behalf of the government, forcibly displacing civilians from Block 5A. For a longer period he helped the government conduct displacements from Blocks 1, 2, and 4. In 2003 he was again engaged in fighting against Nuer pro-government rivals for control of the governorship of Unity State, and lost. (Bul Nuer)

        Peter Paar Jiek, SPDF commander of Western Upper Nile in 2000-01. Formerly SSDF commander under Cmdr. Tito Biel in the fighting in 1998-99 in Western Upper Nile/Unity State. He was with Machar’s forces since the split from the SPLA in 1991. He coordinated anti-government attacks with Gatdet’s forces until June 2000, when he and Gatdet began to fight each other. He and Gatdet settled the "war of the Peters" in late 2000, and with Riek Machar he rejoined the SPLA in 2001. (Dok Nuer)

        Main Rebel and Militia Forces in South Sudan Named in this Report

        Anyanya: guerrilla army of southern separatists, 1955-72.
        Anyanya II: guerrilla army of southern separatists, 1975-91.
        Sudan People’s Liberation Movement/Army (SPLM/A): dominant rebel army in Sudan, 1983-present, composed of southerners and other marginalized peoples such as the Nuba, headed by Col. John Garang de Mabior (Dinka). Program: united, secular Sudan. Headquartered in Rumbek, Bahr El Ghazal, southern Sudan.
        South Sudan Liberation Movement (SSLM): a pro-independence southern political movement based in Akobo, Eastern Upper Nile, headed and formed by Michael Wal Duany in late 1999; it signed the Khartoum Peace Agreement with the Sudanese government in 2002

        Rebel forces headed (directly or indirectly) by Cmdr. Riek Machar, 1991-2002:

        SPLM/A-Nasir faction: 1991-93, breakaway SPLA faction headed by SPLA Cmdrs. Riek Machar Teny Dhurgon (Dok Nuer), Gordon Kong Chuol (Eastern Jikany Nuer), and Lam Akol (Shilluk); although its program called for an independent south, it received government aid. Headquartered in Nasir until 1995 and thereafter in Waat and Ayod, Upper Nile.
        SPLM/A-United: 1993-94: the above faction (mostly Nuer) joined by forces from other ethnic groups in southern Sudan, headed by Cmdr. Riek Machar, based in Nasir. Later this name was used by Lam Akol for his mostly Shilluk faction (see below).
        South Sudan Independence Movement/Army (SSIM/A): 1994-97: the above faction, reformed and renamed after the Nuer reconciliation meeting at Akobo in 1994, based variously in Waat and Ayod, Upper Nile.
        South Sudan Defense Forces (SSDF): 1997-2000, the army formed under the Khartoum Peace Agreement from ex-rebel forces including SSIM/A, based in Khartoum, Juba, and Malakal, and aligned with the political party United Democratic Salvation Front (UDSF). Both were headed by Cmdr. Riek Machar until January 2000, when he left the government. On April 27, 2001 all southern forces allied with the government were unified under this name, SSDF, including the progovernment militia forces listed below.
        Sudan People’s Defense Forces/Democratic Front (SPDF): January 2000-January 2002 or when the merger with the SPLM/A was complete; the rebel group formed from most SSDF forces, based in Upper Nile.

        Some pro-government militia forces (later known as "armed groups"):
        South Sudan Unity Movement/Army (SSUM/A): formed in early 1998 by Maj Gen. Paulino Matiep of the Sudan army, incorporating his formerly Anyanya II and SSDF Bul Nuer forces, supported by the Sudan government, based in Mayom, Western Upper Nile. (Bul Nuer)
        Cmdr. Gabriel Tanginya, pro-government Nuer militia based in Fangak, later Poum, Central Upper Nile. (Lak Nuer)
        Cmdr. Gordon Kong Chuol, pro-government Nuer militia based in Nasir, Eastern Upper Nile. (eastern Jikany Nuer)
        Cmdr. Simon Gatwich Dual, pro-government Nuer militia based in Waat, Central Upper Nile. (Lou Nuer)
        SPLM/A-United: Cmdr. Lam Akol’s Shilluk forces formed in 1994, which signed the Khartoum Peace Agreement in 1997. Lam Akol claimed the name after the Riek Machar forces in 1994 took the name South Sudan Independence Movement/Army (SSIM/A). Lam Akol had been part of the original SPLM/A-United. Based in Tonga, the Shilluk capital, in Upper Nile of southern Sudan.
        For further details, consult the Glossary, Lists of Key Individuals, and the text. There are several other southern ethnic militias armed by the government, including the Murle, the Mandari, the Toposa, the Didinga, and the Fertit and other ethnic groups not named here.
        Most southerners’ names include their "proper" name first, their father’s name second, and their grandfather’s name last. For example, to refer to Cmdr. Riek Machar Teny Dhurgon as "Machar" is to refer to that commander’s father. Therefore the first and second names are used in this report.

        Nuer pro-government militia leaders:

        Simon Gatwich Dual Pro-government Nuer militia leader based in Akobo, Upper Nile. With the SPLA, he followed Machar in 1991, becoming an SSDF commander in 1997. In 1999 he began receiving direct government funding. He followed Riek Machar out of the government in 2000 and Riek Machar named him governor of Leich State (Western Upper Nile/Unity State). He went with Riek Machar into the SPLA in 2002 but may have remained in some relationship with the Sudanese government and militias. (Lou Nuer)
        Gordon Kong Chuol Pro-government Nuer militia leader based in Eastern Upper Nile. An Anyanya veteran and founder of the SPLM/A, he joined the separatist Anyanya II and fought against the SPLA from 1983-88, when he led the reconciliation of most Anyanya II with the SPLA. With Riek Machar and Lam Akol, he led the breakaway faction that split from the SPLA in 1991. The faction received military assistance from the government and in 1997 signed the Khartoum Peace Agreement with the government. He was made an SSDF (pro-government) commander in 1997 under Riek Machar, and he began to accept direct supplies from the government in 1998. From that time a government militia leader operating out of Nasir with his local Jikany Nuer troops. (Eastern Jikany Nuer).
        Gabriel Tanginya (nom de guerre) Commander of government Nuer militia based in Fangak then Pom, Upper Nile, he was associated with Cmdr. Paulino Matiep in the early Anyanya II and with him joined Cmdr. Riek Machar’s breakaway rebel forces in 1991. He became a government militia leader by accepting direct government backing in 1998-99. In early 2000 he hijacked a U.N. plane in protest of the U.N.’s alleged transport of commanders to Riek Machar’s then location in Koch, Western Upper Nile. (Lak Nuer)"

        Credited Sources:

        http://www.unhcr.org/refworld/count...

        Search term: UNHCR | Refworld | Sudan, Oil, and Human Rights

        http://www.unhcr.org/refworld/docid...

        REFWORLD: The leader in refugee decision support

        UNHCR: The UN Refugee Agency

        “A bend in the road is not the end of the road... unless you fail to make the turn.” Author Unknown

        Finally, South Sudanese I know you have wisodom people among you.

        You will be judge about who is rights?

        Thank you all.

        repondre message

    • 31 August 2011 13:24, by Gabriel KK

      Hi Minded Dude,
      Please stop spreading stupid ideas, you have to defferentiate between Khartoum Government, SPLA and the Dinka Bor. otherwise your comments are nothing but destroying the image of your librators. the Equatorians have to apologise and give a good reason for turning their guns against the movement during the struggle. you are now enjoying the freedom brought to you by the Dinkas and still you don’t want to appreciate them for their struggle against the enemy when you were in hiding. the only tribes that fought the war along Dinkas were Azande and Bari. shame on you Dude.

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    • 31 August 2011 15:44, by Cuei Rooi

      An apology to bor community is not bad from their enemies.but the fact should be that riak macher has to go to bor and present his apology to those who were affected the most by his unwise action of 1991.if he real means business,then he should avail himself before our elders and children in our payams not just to John Garang’s family and friends.I considered that as fouls play and anybody from bor who claim acceptability is a liar.

      Dr machar is desperate for leadership which is not bad at all but he has to follow right measures for the 1991 victims to considered his apology sincere.

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  • 31 August 2011 08:27, by John Gum

    Haaaaaaahaaaaaaaaaaaaaahaaaaaaaaa,the 1991 Machar’s rebellion has not affect only Bor,or coz Bar el Gahal are keeping quiet ,especial Rumbek peoples in the cattle camp have been killed more then other areas in south-sudan by Nuer but we know how we shall response positively regardless of negative aplology.we do not need any bribes.execution is the only solution.

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  • 31 August 2011 08:32, by belle loboi

    Garang ,kuol,and Kiir need to apology as well to the Nuer community otherwise we retrieve our apology to Bor community.

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    • 31 August 2011 08:57, by John Gum

      Stupid Belle,Where is big famous_logic boy?he died last year when he was so engage by insulting Dinkas and tribes,he was given a rest by God coz u need to respect your God then your peoples u re seeing always

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  • 31 August 2011 09:17, by Deng Thiak Adut

    It is an agreed fact that Dr Riek is a smart person now than he was during the 90s and we wish to give him a fare go for his effort and great contributions to our independent. Sir,Your apology is highly regarded. For those who believe that this apology was delivered in wrong place, I disagreed with you. Dr Riek, on several and separates and occasions (I can’t remembered the exact dates) he went to Bor and he was denied entry, subjected to public humiliations, and he continues to do his best endeavour for peace to all, and ill-hearted individuals from our community are pushing their agendas contrary to peace, welfare and good governance of new State.

    I warned you to consider, what good is it to you, if Dr. Riek apology is withdrawn? What good is it to you? Look deeply into your selfish skins underneath and remembered this, he Dr Riek cannot revives the dead neither is gods ever to do. Should you wish to bring private prosecutions against him, and then go suitable constitutional Court so that he can answer these allegations? Remember, an apology goes to only his inability to control his commanders and for those facts, and surround circumstances that he had knowingly devised Nuer civilians to so involves in that heinous act, no doubt, you will failed.

    If any person in our community, who can factually prove that Dr Riek did intent, or and wilfully intended to destroy Dinka Bor, with unlawful mean, instrumentally with a written direction to what had occurred in the period, beginning 1991-1992, file your bill of indictment with your competent Court for determination.

    I do not believe that a just and wise Prosecution would be able to find such a bill of indictment, or a bill can be found but with insufficient particulars as to crimes you might imputes, or it may be too political to prosecute, or merely lacking merits for wants of prosecutions. We should accept Dr Riek apology now with our clear conscience and he will go down the history as hero and great leader, despite our denial.

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  • 31 August 2011 09:17, by Mach

    Riak’s apology in the new nation is the beginning of an injustice to the law, innocents he has victimised and the rest who have suffered as a result by executing and sentencing what he has done recklessly by such a statement called “apology” that he stated at the hour.

    Don’t worry......!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! Riak’s leadership is a dead end lane. Time is coming when a constitution and laws will lead us and not people anymore. Your flag is flying and history is sealed with your name. “Hero Dr John”

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    • 31 August 2011 09:34, by gotutu

      WE DONE STUDENT OF BOR IN UGANDA.
      THE APOLOGY OF VICE PRESIDENT IS A BEGINNING OF NEW ERA IN THE ROSS.
      IT IS AGOOD STAPE TOWELCOME HIS APOLOGY
      LONG LIVE DOCTOR RIEK MACHAR

      LONG LIVE BOR STUDENTS IN UGANDA, THE FUTURE OF THESE COUNTRY IS FOR YOUNG GENERATION WHO ARE FREE FROM TRIBALISM

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  • 31 August 2011 09:39, by gotutu

    Dear HOPLESS MONYJANY CHOL
    USELESS PEOPLE LIKE YOU ARE NOT ALLOWED TO COMMANT ON THESE ARTICLES.
    IT WAS WRITTEN BY RESPONSIBLE STUDENTS WHO ARE PREPARING TO BE FUTURE LEADERS .
    DEATH TO MONYJANY CHOL BECAUSE HE HAS BEEN CURSE BY JONGRAC.

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    • 31 August 2011 10:29, by monyjang chol

      TO GUTUTU!!!

      HALLO GUTUTU WILL YOU ACCEPT TO BE CALL MONYJANG CHOL???. IF NOT THEN WHY ARE YU AGAINST ME TO THE POINT OF CALLING DEATH ON ME BRO????. YOU ARE JONGRACH INDEED BY CALLING DEATH ON ME BUT I WILL SAY LONG LIVE TO YU. DINKA TWIC EAST ARE PEACE LOVING PEOPLE AND I SET AN EXAMPLE OF wishing yu a long live instead of calling death to yu.

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      • 31 August 2011 11:22, by gotutu

        DEAR MONYJONG CHOL-AMOOK.
        HAHAHAHAHA
        I THOUGHT THAT YOU ARE ABRAVE MAN WHO DON,T FEAR ANY THING.
        I HAVE KNOWN THAT NOW YOU ARE A YOUNG BOY WHO HAD KNOWN HOW TO WRITE COMMANT.
        LONG LIVE TO YOU BECAUSE THERE IS NO ENEMY WHO CAN KILL A YOUNG BOY LIKE YOU
        NO THANKS

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        • 31 August 2011 13:09, by monyjang chol

          GUTAMOOK!!

          YOU ARE REALLY GUTAMOOK AS DEPICTED BY YOUR NAME. HOW DARE YOU CALLED TWIC EAST DINKA ’ACIBEEL’???.TWIC EAST DONT FIT INTO THAT DAMN NAME INSTEAD OF YOU COWARDS FROM MADINGBOR WHO ONLY SURVIVE ON EATING FROGS AND LIZARD AKA ’AGUEK’
          THESE IS NOT ’CUEN DE AGUEK’ BRO. NO THANKS

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  • 31 August 2011 09:46, by Aleu

    Mr. Philip Thon Aleu.

    I want to correct you about the event year and the Month. The invasion of Bor Community took place on June,1993. I am wondering why you don’t know the exact Month and the year while, you are the Son of Bor Community. Without any doubt, Dr. Riek Macahar Teny have made a very big damaging in the SPLA/SPLM Movement especially, the whole Dinka and Nuer as well.

    I wish Nuers people should asking VP Dr. Riek Machar Teny to make apology also on the Nuer side because lost many lives very innocents just because of his poltical interest. I am also think the apology from VP Teny was too little and too late and I real know if all Dinkas will buy it such a concept made after when he become the second most powerful in the nation. Just to remind you again, the year of Nasir defection was on June,1993. It was not 1992. The defection of William Nyuon Bany and Bol Koang was also on July,1992.

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    • 31 August 2011 09:56, by Makuach M DENG

      Mr. Aleu,

      Please check yourself, you must be confused today. there is nothing like June 1993. Contact evidence based literature on Bor_Massacre and you will be content.

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    • 31 August 2011 10:39, by Dinka Dominated SPLA/M

      People that Vice president Riek Machar teny dhurgon is very smart indeed, he might have been be cheated by his loyalst who committed the torrible crime.

      the reconcilation was already made and it is good for him to acknowlege his responsiblity which is good for him.

      I will foregive him if he want to Bor Dinkas and to the SPLA/M to tell them that he is sorry for what he did and everythings will be fine,

      We like him that is why we late him be our persident and he can be a president if he keep that attitudes.

      About this so called Cadaai?o?
      He is not A Dinka Bor boy but some one who has hidding agenda who is trying to bring conflic between one Dinkas Bor. he might be Gatwech or madit aka Dakin who is hiding under the names of divide Dinka Bor people.

      I am not form Bor Dinkas but i share a blood with them since my mum comes from there.
      And if this little parasite called himself Cadaai?o? is from Dinka Bor? than nobody is going to be deem because it happen every year but because Bor Dinkas are very strong people, they overcomes it,
      How many times dose Kongor tryed to told the all Twice to be called kongor payam but it didn’t work so just to remain Bor Dinkas about this, donot to take any individual who is about to bring shame to Bor Dinkas seriously, they will fail and Dinka Bor will remain Dinka Bor.

      becarful Awan Chan is watching with no doubt.

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      • 31 August 2011 16:29, by Cadaai ?o?

        Historian and Identity Advocacy View:

        “Good people will be guided by honesty; dishonesty will destroy those who are not trustworthy.” Proverbs 11:3 NCV.

        “Teach me to do Your will, for You are my God; Your Spirit is good. Lead me in the land of uprightness.” Psalms 143:10 NKJV.
        “Who is this to amend God creations, the one who makes an amendment, this person, I would say is against God. If this problem of mine is sent to God, I will win this case.” By John Garang de Mabior

        “But for the sake of finding the truth, the whole truth and nothing but the truth.” By Daniel Bushery Daniel

        “Dinka Twic-east is a reclusive, peaceful and principled community- it has NEVER embarked on an attack on other tribes, and it does NOT…” Source: www.sudantribune.com

        First of all, I would like to thanks my friends who have responded to other kids who are just there for speaking nonsenses. As I know in God (Nhialic) seeks, Dinka Bor people are not going to steal Dinka Twic East and Dinka Twic Mayardit (West) History of Sudan civil war and identity. No matter what they are tying to do about that.

        I don’t know if Dr. Riek Machar has good people who are advising him. Why I say so? It is because Dr. Riek Machar is being misled or being used by Dinka Bor people who are now clashing with Dinka Twic East about their attempts as they think they will steal Dinka Twic East and Dinka Twic West history and identity. So the Dinka Bor people are in desperate to do just that. But Dinka Twic East people are just take it easy one at times until they will reach their truth when the time come.

        Also, there is nothing so call Dinka Bor massacre, for that name they just try to gets credits for the event while they were not affected that much by the incident. In God (Nhialic) true stand, it was Dinka Twic East massacre because of Dinka Twic East being the tribe of Dr. John Garang de Mabior. However, if we include our brothers and sisters of Dinka in region, it calls Southeastern Dinka massacre (Those tribes are Dinka Bor, Dinka Twic East & Dinka Duk)or you can call it Eastern Dinka Massacre or Jonglei Dinka Massacre.

        "UNHCR & REFWORD Report about South Sudan’s war civil History during the movement"

        "Key South Sudan Individuals Named in This Report"

        "Note: The names are listed alphabetically by second name (underlined), unless the person is known by another name."

        "Abel Alier Kwai Respected southern politician living in Khartoum, former vice president of Sudan and head of the Southern Region during part of the autonomy period. Author of Southern Sudan: Too Many Promises Dishonored (1990). (Bor Dinka)

        Tito Biel Chuol Western Upper Nile zonal commander in SSDF in May 1999 in charge of the attack on the oil company rig at Ryer/Thar Jath, Western Upper Nile. Instrumental in securing field alliance with Cmdr. Salva Kiir Mayandit of the SPLA. Originally in the SPLA, joined the Riek Machar breakaway faction in 1991 and followed him into the government in 1997, becoming part of the SSDF, and then in 2000 part of Machar’s SPDF. In late 2002 he realigned himself with the SSDF (pro-government). (Dok Nuer)

        Kuong Danhier Gatluak Head of security of the SPDF in 1999. Joined the SPLA and defected with Riek Machar in 1991. When Riek Machar was in the government, Kuong Danhier was chief security officer for the SSDF, based in Nairobi. Joined Riek Machar when Machar defected from the government in early 2000. (Nyuong Nuer)

        Taban Deng Gai Spokesman for Machar’s SPDF forces in Nairobi, Kenya from December 2000 until June 2001, when he rejoined the SPLA. Originally joined the SPLA in the 1980s and left to join his relative by marriage, Riek Machar, when he split from the SPLA in 1991. In 1996 he joined the government with Riek Machar and became a leader of the political party they formed, the UDSF. He won an election for governor of Unity State/Western Upper Nile in December 1997 and was expelled from the governorship and the state in May 1999 by Maj. Gen. Paulino Matiep. He fled to Khartoum. He was appointed state minister for roads and communications in January 2000 by President Bashir and defected from the government in December 2000, and joined Machar’s new faction, the SPDF, until he decided to rejoin the SPLA. (Leek/Western Jikany Nuer)

        Michael Wal Duany Head of the SSLM as of late 1999 to the current time. Dr. Duany represented the Nuer intellectuals in the diaspora at the Wunlit Nuer-Dinka West Bank peace and reconciliation meeting of March 1999; formerly with the Workshop on Political Theory and Policy Analysis at Indiana University in Bloomington, Indiana, U.S. Based in Akobo, Upper Nile. (Lou Nuer)

        John Garang de Mabior Commander-in-chief of the SPLA and head of the SPLM. Member of Anyanya briefly at the end of the first civil war in 1972, and was incorporated into the Sudan army, earned a PhD in the U.S. in agricultural/environmental studies, and having attained the rank of colonel in the Sudan army, was a founder of the SPLM/A in Ethiopia in 1983. He supported a united secular Sudan against internal SPLA rivals (separatist Anyanya II) in 1983 and won out, with backing from Ethiopia’s president Haile Mengistu Meriam, continuing in control of the SPLM/A today. (Twic/Tuic [East] Dinka/Twic East County)

        Peter Gatdet Yaka Former Sudanese army officer sent to Iraq to fight against the Iranians in the Iran-Iraq war in the 1980s. He joined the SPLA and left it in 1991 with Riek Machar. He was assigned to Cmdr. Paulino Matiep’s Bul Nuer forces as an officer, and when they split off from the SSDF he became a key commander in Commander Matiep’s SSUM/A pro-government militia. He fought on the behalf of the government against the SSDF forces under Cmdr. Tito Biel in Block 5A in 1999 for control of Block 5A. He and his forces mutinied against Maj. Gen. Paulino Matiep in September 1999 and fought against the government. For several months he coordinated his activities with the SSDF (under Cmdr. Tito Biel/Peter Paar) against the government, and attacked various oil targets in Western Upper Nile/Unity State. In early 2000 he joined the SPLA. He began fighting Cmdr. Riek Machar’s SPDF forces (under Cmdr. Peter Paar, formerly his SSDF adversary in 1999) in July 2000. During this round, he was anti-government and the Machar forces were pro-government. After disagreements reportedly about military discipline with the SPLA, he rejoined the government’s militia forces in late 2002. (Bul Nuer)

        Elijah Hon Top (deceased 2000) SSDF chief of staff under the Khartoum Peace Agreement. After Riek Machar resigned unexpectedly from the government in January 2000, Cmdr. Elijah Hon Top, a Lou Nuer from Ayod, became the spokesman for the SSDF and the UDSF in Khartoum. Formerly with the SPLA and Machar’s breakaway faction in 1991, he joined the government with Machar in 1997. (Gaawar Nuer)
        Kerubino Kuanyin Bol (deceased September 1999) Anyanya officer, then incorporated into the Sudan army after 1972, he was leader of the Bor mutineers whose rebellion lead to the formation of the SPLA in Ethiopia in 1983. Jailed by Garang for conspiracy in 1987, he escaped in 1992 and in 1993 joined Riek Machar’s breakaway rebel group. By 1994 his Dinka militia was directly supplied by the Sudanese army from his home, the garrison town of Gogrial, Bahr El Ghazal. Defected to the SPLA in January 1998, and split with the SPLA later in that year and received protection from his in-law, Maj. Gen. Paulino Matiep, in Mankien. Killed by forces of Cmdr. Peter Gatdet after they mutinied from Paulino Matiep and captured the Mankien base in September 1999. (Twic/Tuic Dinka)

        Salva Kiir Mayardit A native of Bahr El Ghazal, assigned chief of staff of the SPLA in late 1999. He was commander of Bahr El Ghazal in 1999 when he strongly backed the Dinka-Nuer Peace and Reconciliation Conference at Wunlit. (Rek Dinka)

        Joseph Lagu Yanga: Founder and leader of the Sudanese rebel group Anya Nya. Sudanese Ambassador to the UN from 1990 to 1992. Joseph Lagu was born in the village of Momokwe, in the north of Madiland, in southern Sudan. He is from the Madi ethnic group. He attended military college in Omdurman and was commissioned into the Sudanese Army in 1960 (Madi) http://africanhistory.about.com/od/...

        Riek Machar Teny Dhurgon Rebel leader with the SPLA from 1984 until the 1991 split, which he helped lead. As SPLA Zonal Commander of Western Upper Nile, entered into agreement with Baggara chiefs in 1986. Led breakaway faction from SPLM/A in 1991, forming a separate southern rebel movement initially known as the SPLA-Nasir (from 1993 the SPLA-United, and from 1994-97 the SSIM/A). Despite espousing independence for the south, his faction received covert support from the government as it fought for years (1991-99) against the SPLA, resorting to increasingly bloody and ethnically motivated attacks against civilians. His SSIA rebel forces claimed all the rural land of Western Upper Nile/Unity State, except the few garrison towns and the Bul Nuer area where Paulino Matiep and Anyanya II prevailed. Signed 1996 Political Charter and 1997 Khartoum Peace Agreement with government, which in 1997 appointed him president of the Southern States Coordinating Council (SSCC) and assistant to President of Sudan Omar el Bashir. Also formed and became head of the political party United Democratic Salvation Front (UDSF) and commander-in-chief of the military arm created under the Khartoum Peace Agreement, the South Sudan Defense Force (SSDF), comprising most of the ex-rebels who had signed that agreement. His failure to stem the government’s forced displacement of civilians from Western Upper Nile/Unity State ended up turning the Nuer against his leadership and eventually led to his belated resignation from government and attempt to recreate his army in the south in 2000 as the Sudan People’s Democratic Forces (2000-02). In January 2002 signed an agreement with Dr. John Garang to merge the SPDF and the SPLA, receiving a leadership position in the SPLA. (Dok Nuer)

        Benjamin Majak In the late 1990s, head of the relief arm of the SPLA, the SRRA, based in his Dinka area of Ruweng County, Western Upper Nile, and SPLA commander in that area. With the Khartoum government since 2000. (Panaru/Ruweng Dinka)

        Paulino Matiep Nhial Bul Nuer ally of the Sudan government. He was in Anyanya but was not incorporated into the Sudan army after the 1972 peace agreement. He became a rebel again in 1975 in Bilpam, went to Ethiopia, and returned to Western Upper Nile in 1985-86 as Anyanya II. He never joined the SPLA, in part because of its 1983 attacks on Anyanya II. He remained in Anyanya II, armed and supported by the government. With then army officer Omar El Bashir (who led the 1989 coup and became Sudan’s president), he successfully recaptured Mayom garrison in Western Upper Nile in early 1989 from the SPLA. He joined Machar’s breakaway faction in 1991. His forces were incorporated into the SSDF forces after the 1997 Khartoum Peace Agreement, but he fought the SSDF forces for control of the governorship of Unity State in September 1997, and lost. In March 1998 his South Sudan Unity Movement/Army (SSUM/A) was recognized by the government, which continued to directly provide him with arms and ammunition. He was named a major general in Sudan’s army in or before 1998. In 1998-present, he fought on behalf of the government, forcibly displacing civilians from Block 5A. For a longer period he helped the government conduct displacements from Blocks 1, 2, and 4. In 2003 he was again engaged in fighting against Nuer pro-government rivals for control of the governorship of Unity State, and lost. (Bul Nuer)

        Peter Paar Jiek, SPDF commander of Western Upper Nile in 2000-01. Formerly SSDF commander under Cmdr. Tito Biel in the fighting in 1998-99 in Western Upper Nile/Unity State. He was with Machar’s forces since the split from the SPLA in 1991. He coordinated anti-government attacks with Gatdet’s forces until June 2000, when he and Gatdet began to fight each other. He and Gatdet settled the "war of the Peters" in late 2000, and with Riek Machar he rejoined the SPLA in 2001. (Dok Nuer)

        Main Rebel and Militia Forces in South Sudan Named in this Report

        Anyanya: guerrilla army of southern separatists, 1955-72.
        Anyanya II: guerrilla army of southern separatists, 1975-91.
        Sudan People’s Liberation Movement/Army (SPLM/A): dominant rebel army in Sudan, 1983-present, composed of southerners and other marginalized peoples such as the Nuba, headed by Col. John Garang de Mabior (Dinka). Program: united, secular Sudan. Headquartered in Rumbek, Bahr El Ghazal, southern Sudan.
        South Sudan Liberation Movement (SSLM): a pro-independence southern political movement based in Akobo, Eastern Upper Nile, headed and formed by Michael Wal Duany in late 1999; it signed the Khartoum Peace Agreement with the Sudanese government in 2002

        Rebel forces headed (directly or indirectly) by Cmdr. Riek Machar, 1991-2002:

        SPLM/A-Nasir faction: 1991-93, breakaway SPLA faction headed by SPLA Cmdrs. Riek Machar Teny Dhurgon (Dok Nuer), Gordon Kong Chuol (Eastern Jikany Nuer), and Lam Akol (Shilluk); although its program called for an independent south, it received government aid. Headquartered in Nasir until 1995 and thereafter in Waat and Ayod, Upper Nile.
        SPLM/A-United: 1993-94: the above faction (mostly Nuer) joined by forces from other ethnic groups in southern Sudan, headed by Cmdr. Riek Machar, based in Nasir. Later this name was used by Lam Akol for his mostly Shilluk faction (see below).
        South Sudan Independence Movement/Army (SSIM/A): 1994-97: the above faction, reformed and renamed after the Nuer reconciliation meeting at Akobo in 1994, based variously in Waat and Ayod, Upper Nile.
        South Sudan Defense Forces (SSDF): 1997-2000, the army formed under the Khartoum Peace Agreement from ex-rebel forces including SSIM/A, based in Khartoum, Juba, and Malakal, and aligned with the political party United Democratic Salvation Front (UDSF). Both were headed by Cmdr. Riek Machar until January 2000, when he left the government. On April 27, 2001 all southern forces allied with the government were unified under this name, SSDF, including the progovernment militia forces listed below.
        Sudan People’s Defense Forces/Democratic Front (SPDF): January 2000-January 2002 or when the merger with the SPLM/A was complete; the rebel group formed from most SSDF forces, based in Upper Nile.

        Some pro-government militia forces (later known as "armed groups"):
        South Sudan Unity Movement/Army (SSUM/A): formed in early 1998 by Maj Gen. Paulino Matiep of the Sudan army, incorporating his formerly Anyanya II and SSDF Bul Nuer forces, supported by the Sudan government, based in Mayom, Western Upper Nile. (Bul Nuer)
        Cmdr. Gabriel Tanginya, pro-government Nuer militia based in Fangak, later Poum, Central Upper Nile. (Lak Nuer)
        Cmdr. Gordon Kong Chuol, pro-government Nuer militia based in Nasir, Eastern Upper Nile. (eastern Jikany Nuer)
        Cmdr. Simon Gatwich Dual, pro-government Nuer militia based in Waat, Central Upper Nile. (Lou Nuer)
        SPLM/A-United: Cmdr. Lam Akol’s Shilluk forces formed in 1994, which signed the Khartoum Peace Agreement in 1997. Lam Akol claimed the name after the Riek Machar forces in 1994 took the name South Sudan Independence Movement/Army (SSIM/A). Lam Akol had been part of the original SPLM/A-United. Based in Tonga, the Shilluk capital, in Upper Nile of southern Sudan.
        For further details, consult the Glossary, Lists of Key Individuals, and the text. There are several other southern ethnic militias armed by the government, including the Murle, the Mandari, the Toposa, the Didinga, and the Fertit and other ethnic groups not named here.
        Most southerners’ names include their "proper" name first, their father’s name second, and their grandfather’s name last. For example, to refer to Cmdr. Riek Machar Teny Dhurgon as "Machar" is to refer to that commander’s father. Therefore the first and second names are used in this report.

        Nuer pro-government militia leaders:

        Simon Gatwich Dual Pro-government Nuer militia leader based in Akobo, Upper Nile. With the SPLA, he followed Machar in 1991, becoming an SSDF commander in 1997. In 1999 he began receiving direct government funding. He followed Riek Machar out of the government in 2000 and Riek Machar named him governor of Leich State (Western Upper Nile/Unity State). He went with Riek Machar into the SPLA in 2002 but may have remained in some relationship with the Sudanese government and militias. (Lou Nuer)
        Gordon Kong Chuol Pro-government Nuer militia leader based in Eastern Upper Nile. An Anyanya veteran and founder of the SPLM/A, he joined the separatist Anyanya II and fought against the SPLA from 1983-88, when he led the reconciliation of most Anyanya II with the SPLA. With Riek Machar and Lam Akol, he led the breakaway faction that split from the SPLA in 1991. The faction received military assistance from the government and in 1997 signed the Khartoum Peace Agreement with the government. He was made an SSDF (pro-government) commander in 1997 under Riek Machar, and he began to accept direct supplies from the government in 1998. From that time a government militia leader operating out of Nasir with his local Jikany Nuer troops. (Eastern Jikany Nuer).
        Gabriel Tanginya (nom de guerre) Commander of government Nuer militia based in Fangak then Pom, Upper Nile, he was associated with Cmdr. Paulino Matiep in the early Anyanya II and with him joined Cmdr. Riek Machar’s breakaway rebel forces in 1991. He became a government militia leader by accepting direct government backing in 1998-99. In early 2000 he hijacked a U.N. plane in protest of the U.N.’s alleged transport of commanders to Riek Machar’s then location in Koch, Western Upper Nile. (Lak Nuer)"

        Credited Sources:

        http://www.unhcr.org/refworld/count...

        Search term: UNHCR | Refworld | Sudan, Oil, and Human Rights

        http://www.unhcr.org/refworld/docid...

        REFWORLD: The leader in refugee decision support

        UNHCR: The UN Refugee Agency

        “A bend in the road is not the end of the road... unless you fail to make the turn.” Author Unknown

        Finally, South Sudanese I know you have wisodom people among you.

        You will be judge about who is rights?

        Thank you all.

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    • 1 September 2011 09:29, by Garang Deng

      Aleu (very holy name), this is a gross mistake to forget the unforgetable day and horrible event like that in the history of Bor Community. I think you might have not been born at the time. And someone who relies on assumption might have told you like that. This in incidence took place in 1991 just after the declaration in Nassir on the 28th day of August in the same year. If someone was guessing to you, don’t rely on his/her expertise again.

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  • 31 August 2011 10:02, by Makuach M DENG

    I think Machar needs to present himself in person to the Bor People instead of using places of worship and special dinners for his apology. Mr. Riek you need to go to Bor-town and travel on the road upto duk passing on the skeletons of your actions, talking to the right people and your apology will be either implemented or rejected forever.Indeed, I agree with last part of this article, although some people will take me wrongly it is appropriate for him to lead the development of this devastated greater Bor Counties as a payback otherwise there is no way we can let people understand your apology. ICC hearing is eminent at this time for him and his fellow colleague in arms to be brought to justice. There are some people claiming that "Bor Massachre caused hundreds of live if not thousands", if you can imagine from Duk through Twic upto Bor South. Every step you make was a human carcas. Some Families are not existing at the momement among Greater Bor community. How many people would that be? think over 0.2 millions. In Addition, who is responsible for the loss of life between 1991-1992? is it not Machar because he burnt everthing, raided livestock and nothing was left for civilian survival. Machar’s ambition (Self-determination) was not bad but because of his narrowed mind he have created history that the world will never forget. The United Nation knows how much they have used on South Sudanese since 1991 to date. The Dinka Bor people are almost in every city of the world because of Nasir declaration. People (Nuer & all-Dinka)have already reconcilled and living in harmony everywhere in the world but Machar remains questionable. Therefore, Machar’s apology will not need to be tacticle but he have to be more open and be ready for the questioning before forgiveness.

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  • 31 August 2011 10:15, by monyjang chol

    MAKUACH
    THERE IS NOTHING CALL GREATER BOR IN JONGLEI BUT SOUTHEASTERN DINKA OR JIENG JONGLEI BECAUES CALLIN TWIC EAST DINKA AS DINKA BOR IS INSULT AND ABOMINATION TO THE DINKA TWIC EAST PEOPLE AND HOPE YU UNDERSTAND THAT.

    TO JETI AMOOK!!!
    YOU ARE STUPID CUNT TO INSULT CADAAI? O? AND THE WHOLE OF TWIC EAST DINKA. WHAT DO YOU MEAN LIKE TWIC EAST GOING TO THE WRONG DIRECTION??...YOU BRAINLESS THIEVES FROM MADINGBOR SHOULD SHUT THE FUCK UP AND LEAVE TWIC DINKA ALONE WITH THEIR IDENTITY OR OTHERWISE YOU SHOULD DUMP THE NAME BOR AND EMBRACE THE NAME OF TWIC FOR THE WHOLE OF DINKA IN JONGLEI WHICH I DOUBT YU MAY NOT BE HAPPY WITH.DONT FORCE YOUR DISGRACE NAME OF BOR ON TWIC EAST DINKA AND THERE WILL BE PEACE.ENFORCING THE DAMN NAME OF BOR ON DINKA TWIC EAST WILL RESULT IN BLOODY CHAOS MARK MY WORDS. WE DINKA TWIC ARE NOT COWARD BUT OUR PRINCIPLE OF ’KONKOOCH’ WHICH YU CALL ’KONAMADANG’ IN YOUR DAMN BOR LANGUAGE IS GUIDING US RIGHT NOW AND WE WILL RESPOND TO YOUR PROVOCATIVES BEHAVIOURS SOON NOT LATER.
    DEATH TO THIEVES OF MADINGBOR WHO SELL THEIR CHILDREN TO MURLE!!!!.

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    • 31 August 2011 11:39, by gotutu

      TO MONYJANG CHOL-AMOOK
      DURING THOSE YEARS OF AJANG DUOT DENG MALUAL ALEER
      THERE WAS NOTHING CALLED TWICE EAST .
      PEOPLE WERE CALLED DINKA BOR.

      LET ME TELL ALL THE READERS THAT TWICE EAST COUNTY CAME AFTER DEATH OF JOHN GARANG.
      WHEN JOHN GARANG DIED , ALL THE INTELLECTUAL FROM TWICE CAME TOGATHER AND SAID THAT THEY WANT TO CREATE A RELATIONSHIP WITH KIIR MAYARDIT.
      MALOK ALENG(FORMERLY KNOWN GUET FROM ANGAKUEI) CAME OUT WITH THE DECISION THAT THEIR COUNTY SHOULD BE CALLED TWICE EAST COUNTY TO MATCH WITH TWICE OF GOKRIAL, THE REASON IS THAT THEY THOUGHT KIIR WILL FAVOURED LATER LIKE WHAT GARANG HAS BEEN DOING TO THEM BUT THEY END UP WITH NOTHING

      THE ONLY PERSON WHO REFUSED THAT DECISION WAS CHOL BIOWEI AND THAT WAS THE REASON HE FAIL ELECTION LAST YEAR.

      THE WORD TWICE EAST IS MEANINGLESS
      SHAME ON ACIBEEL

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      • 31 August 2011 13:24, by monyjang chol

        GUTAMOOK!!!.

        YOU ARE A HOPELESS LIAR AS YOUR CULTURE OF DINKA BOR IS BASED ON LYING.
        HOW CAN YOU LIE THAT THERE WAS NO TWIC IN TIME OF AJANG DUOT AND DENG DE MALUAL??. THE WORD TWIC EXIST SINCE TIME IMMOMORIAL AND YU CAN READ THE HISTORY OF NUER EXPANSION BY EVAN AND YOU CAN GET THE NAME TWIC THERE.JOHN GARANG WAS WISE TO CREATE TWIC EAST COUNTY BEFORE HE DIES BECAUSE HE WAS USING THE NAME BOR TO GET SUPPORT FROM YU COWARD AND OTHER DINKAS IN BAR EL GAZAL.SOME DINKA TWIC ACCEPT TO USE THAT NAME BUT YOU COWARDS FROM MADINGBOR START TO INSULTS TWIC THAT THEY ARE INFERIOR TO BE CALL BOR THAT WHY MANY TWIC INTELLECTUAL WANNA USE OUR ANCESTRAL NAME OF TWIC.
        NHIALIC HIMSELF KNOW THAT TWIC DINKA IS NOT PART OF DINKA BOR WHO LOST DIGNITY OF EATING AGUEK.
        THESE IS NOT CUEN DE AGUEK MENH DE CUER AMOOK!!!. NO THANKS.

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      • 31 August 2011 16:37, by Ajok Garang

        Me i wonder where Twice west or twice north if there is Twice East ,anyone can tell me about Twice west and North of It because i need to get it right ...what is the link between Twice of Bhar El Ghazal and that of Bor ?? ..someone mentioned that it was created to link it self with twice of Mayardit which is in west and i think that is the logic behind...
        But i know we are all called Dinka Bor regardless of which direction you come from and whoever like it or not we are all Dinka Bor ..when you travel to any part of the World you will be called Dinka Bor because Twice East or South ,west are known in our local areas here .

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        • 31 August 2011 16:56, by Cadaai ?o?

          To Jok Garang

          Historian and Identity Advocacy View:

          We have Dinka Twic West in Warrap State, you got it.

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    • 31 August 2011 11:49, by Akech

      Dear friend,

      What happen to you? seen like you went to run mad! please calm down and be mindfull you will be one day leader of this community or you may be someone who fall in his individualthis why you didn’t write your name correct so that you can be known. Secondly the name Dinka Bor are not that making us to be a human being. you went to name yourself again, just do it but don’t insulted your brothers in Bor for nothing but only hatre. If you can read the article wrote by your own brother Maketh Arok, the title is greater bor youth complain for the apointment of cobinet. so would remind him not be youth leader of greater bor but leader Twic youth. please again don’t use your persnal hatre in the name of community. Thanks

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    • 31 August 2011 20:20, by Makuach M DENG

      Yaa Monjang chol

      leave this topic of bor & twic and focus on the agenda. whoever that create what is so call twic east will be asked later, not me. there are alot of questions in the formation of Goss including changes from Mading to Bor-Town, Twic to Twic_east, Uppernile to Jonglei etc. I have no problem with Twic east or whatever but my focus here is Riek’s apology. I accept the name Greater bor, whoever is against it will follow it up and i am following Riek here in this Article. I am waiting to hear Riek speaking in either Twic, Duk or Bor South county elaborating his apology. thanks you

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  • 31 August 2011 10:19, by Akech

    Dear Ajak,

    We can’t forgive this man in such a way and let not think, we should used that apology as a way for searching job or money. please be warned that forgiveness of Bor massacre in 1991 can not be made by one individual or school boys. it is community duty not students duty.
    Stay away from this darty apology late him come to Jonglei state to explain more about his apology.

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    • 31 August 2011 10:58, by Dinka Dominated SPLA/M

      People that Vice president Riek Machar teny dhurgon is very smart indeed, he might have been be cheated by his loyalst who committed the torrible crime.

      the reconcilation was already made and it is good for him to acknowlege his responsiblity which is good for him.

      I will foregive him if he want to Bor Dinkas and to the SPLA/M to tell them that he is sorry for what he did and everythings will be fine,

      We like him that is why we late him be our persident and he can be a president if he keep that attitudes.

      About this so called Cadaai?o?
      He is not A Dinka Bor boy but some one who has hidding agenda who is trying to bring conflic between one Dinkas Bor. he might be Gatwech or madit aka Dakin who is hiding under the names of divide Dinka Bor people.

      I am not form Bor Dinkas but i share a blood with them since my mum comes from there.
      And if this little parasite called himself Cadaai?o? is from Dinka Bor? than nobody is going to be deem because it happen every year but because Bor Dinkas are very strong people, they overcomes it,
      How many times dose Kongor tryed to told the all Twice to be called kongor payam but it didn’t work so just to remain Bor Dinkas about this, donot to take any individual who is about to bring shame to Bor Dinkas seriously, they will fail and Dinka Bor will remain Dinka Bor.

      becarful Awan Chan is watching with no doubt.

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      • 31 August 2011 15:42, by Dakkin

        Dinka Dominated Refugee,

        I cant blame you bcuz you are a miseriya, you know about the dinka clans are many and difrent history and identity.

        Twic can never be Bor, in Kakuma they are known as Twic and at home Panyagor.

        Don’t let yourself be fooled by those Bor, it can happen only on this Bor internet underworld!

        Anyway good coment on average from you.

        Finally i am not midit or gatwetch. Cadaai is from Twic dinka and i am Jikany nuer. My name is dakin, my identity is Jikany nuer but cadaai identity is dinka Twic east as you know.

        Cadaai is a good dinka historian, he teach about differnt dnka tribe identity example dinka Twi east , dink twi mayadit, dinka nyaweng, dinka Hol, dinka malwal, dinka aliab, dinka bor, dinka agar, dinka gok and so so if you know history and identity

        I just applaud him for beig smart and good learning

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  • 31 August 2011 11:01, by Dinkawarrior

    “The main contention between the two was that Machar insisted that the aim of the civil war should be self-determination for South Sudan, while Garang’s ’New Sudan’ vision envisaged a united, secular, federal, pluralistic and democratic Sudan”


    Guys you look like you run out of minds! Self-determination was the goal of the SPLM/A! When Martine Majier, Martine Makur, Abel Alier , Salva Kiir, William Nyuon, John Garang, Mach Bout, Majur Nhial, Herjok Akum, Daniel Wet, Bol Madut, Ngormacie, Kuol Manyany, Lual Diing, Alier Mangardit, and many others Founding Fathers called for (Gadiang convention) Riek was in British but the goal was Self-determination.

    In second around they called for (Nyinbol construction) the goal was Self-determination but Riek was not there, he was in London. How come for somebody who had no ideas what to do pretending to be a person who did something?

    Some people asked Garang why do we fight for whole Sudan? He replied to them that if you chase away your Jalaba then you stay there where your but we will going ahead to help those who don’t help themselves.

    What he was tried to tell people was that, SPLM/A was having plan (A) which was New Sudan. Plan (B) was Self-determination we enjoying now.

    Where did Riek get that message from? His selfish-intimidation oil peace deal was ended in shameful way in 1997!

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  • 31 August 2011 11:05, by Dinkawarrior

    “The main contention between the two was that Machar insisted that the aim of the civil war should be self-determination for South Sudan, while Garang’s ’New Sudan’ vision envisaged a united, secular, federal, pluralistic and democratic Sudan”


    Guys you look like you run out of minds! Self-determination was the goal of the SPLM/A! When Martine Majier, Martine Makur, Abel Alier , Salva Kiir, William Nyuon, John Garang, Mach Bout, Majur Nhial, Herjok Akum, Daniel Wet, Bol Madut, Ngormacie, Kuol Manyany, Lual Diing, Alier Mangardit, and many others Founding Fathers called for (Gadiang convention) Riek was in British but the goal was Self-determination.

    In second around they called for (Nyinbol construction) the goal was Self-determination but Riek was not there, he was in London. How come for somebody who had no ideas what to do pretending to be a person who did something?

    Some people asked Garang why do we fight for whole Sudan? He replied to them that if you chase away your Jalaba then you stay there where your but we will going ahead to help those who don’t help themselves. What he was tried to tell people was that, SPLM/A was having plan (A) which was New Sudan. Plan (B) was Self-determination we enjoying now.

    Where did Riek get that message from? His selfish-intimidation oil peace deal was ended in shameful way in 1997!

    repondre message

  • 31 August 2011 12:36, by Tambura

    When somebody apologized that’s mean they knew what they did was wrong.That happened during the war and more than 2 millions southerns lost their lives in the war even SPLA killed half of that number themselves who will apologize for that killing SPLA did in many places during the war? some of killing ordered by their leader Dr.Garang. If it was that easy to apologize and keep your post, Omar Bashir would just apologize to southerns and Darfur and ICC for killing of civilian and get away with it. Reik should step down imdiatly and be sent to jail for his crime so that can not reaped again by somebody else, he is not qualified to be vice president or hold any govemental office that’s the way it should be. Sound like killing my father and apologize that’s it. Weak up my people do the right thing, those criminals thieves corrupted uneducated generals we should not allow them to lead us anymore they are killers with blood of our people on their hands why we allow them to lead us? Nobody among them never take live some of them became alcoholic at weekend because of that. We should remove them form their office by all mean. If you can do that now don’t except service from them either, they are going to steal your money and apologize and get away with crime. God help south Sudan.

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  • 31 August 2011 14:03, by Garang Deng

    hmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmm, I don’t want to comment on this article and the intention for the apology from Dr Riek because this is what an educated and civilized person could do when something wrong happens during his/her tenure of office. But I am really disturbed with the use of the word "predecessor" by the News Centre, particularly Philip Thon Aleu. This word has been repeatedly and wrongly used by the same person from Sudan Tribune. He should use the word "successor" instead in this context. This is a gross misuse of the word which may lead to a public misleading.

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    • 31 August 2011 15:06, by Joseph Ajang Malual

      Riek’s apology is welcom, let him spread his message to the chiefs and all those victims in grass root.also he should bring developmental programs. this is how he will compansate the victims

      repondre message

  • 31 August 2011 16:28, by Cadaai ?o?

    Historian and Identity Advocacy View:

    “Good people will be guided by honesty; dishonesty will destroy those who are not trustworthy.” Proverbs 11:3 NCV.

    “Teach me to do Your will, for You are my God; Your Spirit is good. Lead me in the land of uprightness.” Psalms 143:10 NKJV.
    “Who is this to amend God creations, the one who makes an amendment, this person, I would say is against God. If this problem of mine is sent to God, I will win this case.” By John Garang de Mabior

    “But for the sake of finding the truth, the whole truth and nothing but the truth.” By Daniel Bushery Daniel

    “Dinka Twic-east is a reclusive, peaceful and principled community- it has NEVER embarked on an attack on other tribes, and it does NOT…” Source: www.sudantribune.com

    First of all, I would like to thanks my friends who have responded to other kids who are just there for speaking nonsenses. As I know in God (Nhialic) seeks, Dinka Bor people are not going to steal Dinka Twic East and Dinka Twic Mayardit (West) History of Sudan civil war and identity. No matter what they are tying to do about that.

    I don’t know if Dr. Riek Machar has good people who are advising him. Why I say so? It is because Dr. Riek Machar is being misled or being used by Dinka Bor people who are now clashing with Dinka Twic East about their attempts as they think they will steal Dinka Twic East and Dinka Twic West history and identity. So the Dinka Bor people are in desperate to do just that. But Dinka Twic East people are just take it easy one at times until they will reach their truth when the time come.

    Also, there is nothing so call Dinka Bor massacre, for that name they just try to gets credits for the event while they were not affected that much by the incident. In God (Nhialic) true stand, it was Dinka Twic East massacre because of Dinka Twic East being the tribe of Dr. John Garang de Mabior. However, if we include our brothers and sisters of Dinka in region, it calls Southeastern Dinka massacre (Those tribes are Dinka Bor, Dinka Twic East & Dinka Duk)or you can call it Eastern Dinka Massacre or Jonglei Dinka Massacre.

    "UNHCR & REFWORD Report about South Sudan’s war civil History during the movement"

    "Key South Sudan Individuals Named in This Report"

    "Note: The names are listed alphabetically by second name (underlined), unless the person is known by another name."

    "Abel Alier Kwai Respected southern politician living in Khartoum, former vice president of Sudan and head of the Southern Region during part of the autonomy period. Author of Southern Sudan: Too Many Promises Dishonored (1990). (Bor Dinka)

    Tito Biel Chuol Western Upper Nile zonal commander in SSDF in May 1999 in charge of the attack on the oil company rig at Ryer/Thar Jath, Western Upper Nile. Instrumental in securing field alliance with Cmdr. Salva Kiir Mayandit of the SPLA. Originally in the SPLA, joined the Riek Machar breakaway faction in 1991 and followed him into the government in 1997, becoming part of the SSDF, and then in 2000 part of Machar’s SPDF. In late 2002 he realigned himself with the SSDF (pro-government). (Dok Nuer)

    Kuong Danhier Gatluak Head of security of the SPDF in 1999. Joined the SPLA and defected with Riek Machar in 1991. When Riek Machar was in the government, Kuong Danhier was chief security officer for the SSDF, based in Nairobi. Joined Riek Machar when Machar defected from the government in early 2000. (Nyuong Nuer)

    Taban Deng Gai Spokesman for Machar’s SPDF forces in Nairobi, Kenya from December 2000 until June 2001, when he rejoined the SPLA. Originally joined the SPLA in the 1980s and left to join his relative by marriage, Riek Machar, when he split from the SPLA in 1991. In 1996 he joined the government with Riek Machar and became a leader of the political party they formed, the UDSF. He won an election for governor of Unity State/Western Upper Nile in December 1997 and was expelled from the governorship and the state in May 1999 by Maj. Gen. Paulino Matiep. He fled to Khartoum. He was appointed state minister for roads and communications in January 2000 by President Bashir and defected from the government in December 2000, and joined Machar’s new faction, the SPDF, until he decided to rejoin the SPLA. (Leek/Western Jikany Nuer)

    Michael Wal Duany Head of the SSLM as of late 1999 to the current time. Dr. Duany represented the Nuer intellectuals in the diaspora at the Wunlit Nuer-Dinka West Bank peace and reconciliation meeting of March 1999; formerly with the Workshop on Political Theory and Policy Analysis at Indiana University in Bloomington, Indiana, U.S. Based in Akobo, Upper Nile. (Lou Nuer)

    John Garang de Mabior Commander-in-chief of the SPLA and head of the SPLM. Member of Anyanya briefly at the end of the first civil war in 1972, and was incorporated into the Sudan army, earned a PhD in the U.S. in agricultural/environmental studies, and having attained the rank of colonel in the Sudan army, was a founder of the SPLM/A in Ethiopia in 1983. He supported a united secular Sudan against internal SPLA rivals (separatist Anyanya II) in 1983 and won out, with backing from Ethiopia’s president Haile Mengistu Meriam, continuing in control of the SPLM/A today. (Twic/Tuic [East] Dinka/Twic East County)

    Peter Gatdet Yaka Former Sudanese army officer sent to Iraq to fight against the Iranians in the Iran-Iraq war in the 1980s. He joined the SPLA and left it in 1991 with Riek Machar. He was assigned to Cmdr. Paulino Matiep’s Bul Nuer forces as an officer, and when they split off from the SSDF he became a key commander in Commander Matiep’s SSUM/A pro-government militia. He fought on the behalf of the government against the SSDF forces under Cmdr. Tito Biel in Block 5A in 1999 for control of Block 5A. He and his forces mutinied against Maj. Gen. Paulino Matiep in September 1999 and fought against the government. For several months he coordinated his activities with the SSDF (under Cmdr. Tito Biel/Peter Paar) against the government, and attacked various oil targets in Western Upper Nile/Unity State. In early 2000 he joined the SPLA. He began fighting Cmdr. Riek Machar’s SPDF forces (under Cmdr. Peter Paar, formerly his SSDF adversary in 1999) in July 2000. During this round, he was anti-government and the Machar forces were pro-government. After disagreements reportedly about military discipline with the SPLA, he rejoined the government’s militia forces in late 2002. (Bul Nuer)

    Elijah Hon Top (deceased 2000) SSDF chief of staff under the Khartoum Peace Agreement. After Riek Machar resigned unexpectedly from the government in January 2000, Cmdr. Elijah Hon Top, a Lou Nuer from Ayod, became the spokesman for the SSDF and the UDSF in Khartoum. Formerly with the SPLA and Machar’s breakaway faction in 1991, he joined the government with Machar in 1997. (Gaawar Nuer)
    Kerubino Kuanyin Bol (deceased September 1999) Anyanya officer, then incorporated into the Sudan army after 1972, he was leader of the Bor mutineers whose rebellion lead to the formation of the SPLA in Ethiopia in 1983. Jailed by Garang for conspiracy in 1987, he escaped in 1992 and in 1993 joined Riek Machar’s breakaway rebel group. By 1994 his Dinka militia was directly supplied by the Sudanese army from his home, the garrison town of Gogrial, Bahr El Ghazal. Defected to the SPLA in January 1998, and split with the SPLA later in that year and received protection from his in-law, Maj. Gen. Paulino Matiep, in Mankien. Killed by forces of Cmdr. Peter Gatdet after they mutinied from Paulino Matiep and captured the Mankien base in September 1999. (Twic/Tuic Dinka)

    Salva Kiir Mayardit A native of Bahr El Ghazal, assigned chief of staff of the SPLA in late 1999. He was commander of Bahr El Ghazal in 1999 when he strongly backed the Dinka-Nuer Peace and Reconciliation Conference at Wunlit. (Rek Dinka)

    Joseph Lagu Yanga: Founder and leader of the Sudanese rebel group Anya Nya. Sudanese Ambassador to the UN from 1990 to 1992. Joseph Lagu was born in the village of Momokwe, in the north of Madiland, in southern Sudan. He is from the Madi ethnic group. He attended military college in Omdurman and was commissioned into the Sudanese Army in 1960 (Madi) http://africanhistory.about.com/od/biography/a/Bio-Joseph-Lagu.htm

    Riek Machar Teny Dhurgon Rebel leader with the SPLA from 1984 until the 1991 split, which he helped lead. As SPLA Zonal Commander of Western Upper Nile, entered into agreement with Baggara chiefs in 1986. Led breakaway faction from SPLM/A in 1991, forming a separate southern rebel movement initially known as the SPLA-Nasir (from 1993 the SPLA-United, and from 1994-97 the SSIM/A). Despite espousing independence for the south, his faction received covert support from the government as it fought for years (1991-99) against the SPLA, resorting to increasingly bloody and ethnically motivated attacks against civilians. His SSIA rebel forces claimed all the rural land of Western Upper Nile/Unity State, except the few garrison towns and the Bul Nuer area where Paulino Matiep and Anyanya II prevailed. Signed 1996 Political Charter and 1997 Khartoum Peace Agreement with government, which in 1997 appointed him president of the Southern States Coordinating Council (SSCC) and assistant to President of Sudan Omar el Bashir. Also formed and became head of the political party United Democratic Salvation Front (UDSF) and commander-in-chief of the military arm created under the Khartoum Peace Agreement, the South Sudan Defense Force (SSDF), comprising most of the ex-rebels who had signed that agreement. His failure to stem the government’s forced displacement of civilians from Western Upper Nile/Unity State ended up turning the Nuer against his leadership and eventually led to his belated resignation from government and attempt to recreate his army in the south in 2000 as the Sudan People’s Democratic Forces (2000-02). In January 2002 signed an agreement with Dr. John Garang to merge the SPDF and the SPLA, receiving a leadership position in the SPLA. (Dok Nuer)

    Benjamin Majak In the late 1990s, head of the relief arm of the SPLA, the SRRA, based in his Dinka area of Ruweng County, Western Upper Nile, and SPLA commander in that area. With the Khartoum government since 2000. (Panaru/Ruweng Dinka)

    Paulino Matiep Nhial Bul Nuer ally of the Sudan government. He was in Anyanya but was not incorporated into the Sudan army after the 1972 peace agreement. He became a rebel again in 1975 in Bilpam, went to Ethiopia, and returned to Western Upper Nile in 1985-86 as Anyanya II. He never joined the SPLA, in part because of its 1983 attacks on Anyanya II. He remained in Anyanya II, armed and supported by the government. With then army officer Omar El Bashir (who led the 1989 coup and became Sudan’s president), he successfully recaptured Mayom garrison in Western Upper Nile in early 1989 from the SPLA. He joined Machar’s breakaway faction in 1991. His forces were incorporated into the SSDF forces after the 1997 Khartoum Peace Agreement, but he fought the SSDF forces for control of the governorship of Unity State in September 1997, and lost. In March 1998 his South Sudan Unity Movement/Army (SSUM/A) was recognized by the government, which continued to directly provide him with arms and ammunition. He was named a major general in Sudan’s army in or before 1998. In 1998-present, he fought on behalf of the government, forcibly displacing civilians from Block 5A. For a longer period he helped the government conduct displacements from Blocks 1, 2, and 4. In 2003 he was again engaged in fighting against Nuer pro-government rivals for control of the governorship of Unity State, and lost. (Bul Nuer)

    Peter Paar Jiek, SPDF commander of Western Upper Nile in 2000-01. Formerly SSDF commander under Cmdr. Tito Biel in the fighting in 1998-99 in Western Upper Nile/Unity State. He was with Machar’s forces since the split from the SPLA in 1991. He coordinated anti-government attacks with Gatdet’s forces until June 2000, when he and Gatdet began to fight each other. He and Gatdet settled the "war of the Peters" in late 2000, and with Riek Machar he rejoined the SPLA in 2001. (Dok Nuer)

    Main Rebel and Militia Forces in South Sudan Named in this Report

    Anyanya: guerrilla army of southern separatists, 1955-72.
    Anyanya II: guerrilla army of southern separatists, 1975-91.
    Sudan People’s Liberation Movement/Army (SPLM/A): dominant rebel army in Sudan, 1983-present, composed of southerners and other marginalized peoples such as the Nuba, headed by Col. John Garang de Mabior (Dinka). Program: united, secular Sudan. Headquartered in Rumbek, Bahr El Ghazal, southern Sudan.
    South Sudan Liberation Movement (SSLM): a pro-independence southern political movement based in Akobo, Eastern Upper Nile, headed and formed by Michael Wal Duany in late 1999; it signed the Khartoum Peace Agreement with the Sudanese government in 2002

    Rebel forces headed (directly or indirectly) by Cmdr. Riek Machar, 1991-2002:

    SPLM/A-Nasir faction: 1991-93, breakaway SPLA faction headed by SPLA Cmdrs. Riek Machar Teny Dhurgon (Dok Nuer), Gordon Kong Chuol (Eastern Jikany Nuer), and Lam Akol (Shilluk); although its program called for an independent south, it received government aid. Headquartered in Nasir until 1995 and thereafter in Waat and Ayod, Upper Nile.
    SPLM/A-United: 1993-94: the above faction (mostly Nuer) joined by forces from other ethnic groups in southern Sudan, headed by Cmdr. Riek Machar, based in Nasir. Later this name was used by Lam Akol for his mostly Shilluk faction (see below).
    South Sudan Independence Movement/Army (SSIM/A): 1994-97: the above faction, reformed and renamed after the Nuer reconciliation meeting at Akobo in 1994, based variously in Waat and Ayod, Upper Nile.
    South Sudan Defense Forces (SSDF): 1997-2000, the army formed under the Khartoum Peace Agreement from ex-rebel forces including SSIM/A, based in Khartoum, Juba, and Malakal, and aligned with the political party United Democratic Salvation Front (UDSF). Both were headed by Cmdr. Riek Machar until January 2000, when he left the government. On April 27, 2001 all southern forces allied with the government were unified under this name, SSDF, including the progovernment militia forces listed below.
    Sudan People’s Defense Forces/Democratic Front (SPDF): January 2000-January 2002 or when the merger with the SPLM/A was complete; the rebel group formed from most SSDF forces, based in Upper Nile.

    Some pro-government militia forces (later known as "armed groups"):
    South Sudan Unity Movement/Army (SSUM/A): formed in early 1998 by Maj Gen. Paulino Matiep of the Sudan army, incorporating his formerly Anyanya II and SSDF Bul Nuer forces, supported by the Sudan government, based in Mayom, Western Upper Nile. (Bul Nuer)
    Cmdr. Gabriel Tanginya, pro-government Nuer militia based in Fangak, later Poum, Central Upper Nile. (Lak Nuer)
    Cmdr. Gordon Kong Chuol, pro-government Nuer militia based in Nasir, Eastern Upper Nile. (eastern Jikany Nuer)
    Cmdr. Simon Gatwich Dual, pro-government Nuer militia based in Waat, Central Upper Nile. (Lou Nuer)
    SPLM/A-United: Cmdr. Lam Akol’s Shilluk forces formed in 1994, which signed the Khartoum Peace Agreement in 1997. Lam Akol claimed the name after the Riek Machar forces in 1994 took the name South Sudan Independence Movement/Army (SSIM/A). Lam Akol had been part of the original SPLM/A-United. Based in Tonga, the Shilluk capital, in Upper Nile of southern Sudan.
    For further details, consult the Glossary, Lists of Key Individuals, and the text. There are several other southern ethnic militias armed by the government, including the Murle, the Mandari, the Toposa, the Didinga, and the Fertit and other ethnic groups not named here.
    Most southerners’ names include their "proper" name first, their father’s name second, and their grandfather’s name last. For example, to refer to Cmdr. Riek Machar Teny Dhurgon as "Machar" is to refer to that commander’s father. Therefore the first and second names are used in this report.

    Nuer pro-government militia leaders:

    Simon Gatwich Dual Pro-government Nuer militia leader based in Akobo, Upper Nile. With the SPLA, he followed Machar in 1991, becoming an SSDF commander in 1997. In 1999 he began receiving direct government funding. He followed Riek Machar out of the government in 2000 and Riek Machar named him governor of Leich State (Western Upper Nile/Unity State). He went with Riek Machar into the SPLA in 2002 but may have remained in some relationship with the Sudanese government and militias. (Lou Nuer)
    Gordon Kong Chuol Pro-government Nuer militia leader based in Eastern Upper Nile. An Anyanya veteran and founder of the SPLM/A, he joined the separatist Anyanya II and fought against the SPLA from 1983-88, when he led the reconciliation of most Anyanya II with the SPLA. With Riek Machar and Lam Akol, he led the breakaway faction that split from the SPLA in 1991. The faction received military assistance from the government and in 1997 signed the Khartoum Peace Agreement with the government. He was made an SSDF (pro-government) commander in 1997 under Riek Machar, and he began to accept direct supplies from the government in 1998. From that time a government militia leader operating out of Nasir with his local Jikany Nuer troops. (Eastern Jikany Nuer).
    Gabriel Tanginya (nom de guerre) Commander of government Nuer militia based in Fangak then Pom, Upper Nile, he was associated with Cmdr. Paulino Matiep in the early Anyanya II and with him joined Cmdr. Riek Machar’s breakaway rebel forces in 1991. He became a government militia leader by accepting direct government backing in 1998-99. In early 2000 he hijacked a U.N. plane in protest of the U.N.’s alleged transport of commanders to Riek Machar’s then location in Koch, Western Upper Nile. (Lak Nuer)"

    Credited Sources:

    http://www.unhcr.org/refworld/country/sudan

    Search term: UNHCR | Refworld | Sudan, Oil, and Human Rights

    http://www.unhcr.org/refworld/docid/3fe4807d7.html

    REFWORLD: The leader in refugee decision support

    UNHCR: The UN Refugee Agency

    “A bend in the road is not the end of the road... unless you fail to make the turn.” Author Unknown

    Finally, South Sudanese I know you have wisodom people among you.

    You will be judge about who is rights?

    Thank you all.

    repondre message

    • 31 August 2011 17:16, by JohnGarangFreedom

      Dinka Twi East Civil Group message to H.E President Kiir Mayardit.

      The following message our brother book.

      It is title: "Dr. John Garang de Mabior: The undiscovered Stories About Man Behind South Sudanese’ Freedom. Author: Garang de Faith & Truth.

      "We the people of Twic Dinka East Youth are not part of this protest, if there is any Dinka Twic east persons in there. We know that, he/she might be ill, crazy or being the slave or follower of Dinka Bor ideal of messes, bad characteristics whom they were born with as an indication of qualify public ethical virtues. To assure you Mr. President, as our history has been shown it, the people known as Twi Dinka East are not evils doing people, because they often know how to handle things professional. Acting like child is not theirs behaviors.

      Second, in last few months the Tuic Dinka East people are fighting with Dinka Bor indirectly for Twi ancestor identity whom they claim that the Dinka Twic East is sub-tribe of Dinka Bor instead of us being the major sub-tribe of Dinka as whole. So war is now going on. That was one of the elements allow them to deceive Dr. Riek Machar to make unorganized apology so that they will get credit and history as they planing. But we the people of Dinka Twi are not going to be deceived or being take like fool. That’s thing will not happen in our watches.

      Third, as Twic East County we have this people already in high positions of South Sudan government:

      (1) Atem de Garang in higher position
      (2) Lual Achuek Deng still there
      (3) Majak Agoot in deputy position were he has seniority
      (4) Atem Yak Atem
      (5) We believe Nyandeng will be there
      (6) Malok as well will be in another high position in government
      (7) Aguer Manyang
      (8) Jurkuch de Barach
      (9) Bior da Ajang
      (10) Chol de piowei
      (12) And many more in your administration positions and some are coming.

      We the Dinka Twi/Twic East people are so proud of your excellent job well done Mr. President.

      Garang background links to earliest SPLM/A top five leaders

      “It is not flesh and blood but the heart which makes us fathers and sons.” Johann Schiller
      “Always continue the climb. It is possible for you to do whatever you choose, if you first get to know who you are and are willing to work with a power that is greater than ourselves to do it.”
      By Ella Wheeler Wilcox

      The following is the descriptions about the new discovery in regards to Late Dr. John Garang links to the others earliest five leaders of the Sudan People Liberation Movement/Army (SPLM/A) top five military Commanders, particularly when it comes to their backgrounds related to tribe’s identifications. And I have no idea if they were knew it back then or not, that they were all from Dinka or Jieng tribe. However, I think Dr. Garang was so sure about Late Cdr. Kerubino Kuanyin Bol and late Cdr. Arok Thon Arok that they were from two branches of Dinka Twic East and Dinka Twic West (Mayardit), and at the same I believe he knew that Dr. Kiir was from Dinka Twic, but I am not so sure Dr. Garang knows that Dr. Kiir was related to him through the roots of the other Dinka or Jieng Twic/Tuic West (Mayardit).
      Anyway in my view, when it comes to his knowledge about late Cdr. William Nyuon Bany and Cdr. Salva Kiir Mayardit relationship to him through sub-tribes of Dinka (Jieng) Twic East and Dinka Twic West. I think that time he didn’t even aware of these intriguing links, except, he may have known them then as those two guys were having Jieng’s (Dinka) backgrounds only up to that point, in whatsoever. By the way, the bottom-line is this; they were all having the same traits or bonds of kinship through Dinka tribe backgrounds. So ahead are all the top five commanders of the Sudan People Liberation Movement/Army (SPLM/A) leadership in earliest days of the movement; they were having the unbelievable story related to their backgrounds in which the majority of South Sudanese (Sudanese) people didn’t even have knowledge during their lifetimes or in another hand when all of them were still alive.
      However, for me to be short and brief about the explanations, they were all closes and related in blood kinships through two branches of Jieng tribe called Dinka Tuic East (Jonglei State) and of course, the other Dinka Tuic Mayardit of the West Nile River (Warrap State.) So here are those leaders by their names and positions they were holding when they were all together under one well-known umbrella of the Sudan People Liberation Movement/Army (SPLM/A) movement in 1980s and the earliest years of the 1990s:
      • Chairman of the SPLM/A, C-in-C late Dr. John Garang de Mabior;
      • Deputy Chairman of the SPLM/A, late Cdr. Kerubino Kuanyin de Bol;
      • Lt. Commander of the SPLM/A, late William Nyuon de Bany;
      • Lt. Commander of the SPLM/A, Salva Kiir de Mayardit;
      • Lt. Commander of the SPLM/A, late Arok Thon da Arok.

      First of all, ladies and gentlemen, you may not believe what I have discovered about these earliest top five commanders of the Sudan People Liberation Movement/Army (SPLM/A) leaderships’ backgrounds, it is an intriguing and fascinating story you couldn’t even believe I think, but the truth of matter is; they were all blooded linked together under two sub-tribes of the Dinka tribe called Twic East and Twic West (Mayardit). As a story goes and at the same time what the names had shown it to you above, these two sub-tribes are related to one another through many characteristics such as: intelligence, calm, leadership, honesty, tolerant, good behaviors (attitudes) people, dignity, accountability, hospitality, cares, tactic, unselfish, patience, stands for truth, use of more diplomats than violent, integrity, commitment (perseverance), trustworthy, fairness when it comes to human being life, respect, they are also fantastic when it comes to the logistical way of distributing things in a fair and balance way (manner) to everybody, plus many other values and beliefs of their own principled (disciplined) culture, etc.
      Back to the topic, would you believe this fascinating story or wouldn’t you? Please takes a deep breath my friend if you don’t believe this story; the story is factually 100 percentages true story I am talking about here. And I know some of you out there may be pessimistic or being certain kind of doubts if I may add that on top, especially when it comes to me being concentrated on two Commanders like late Commander William Nyuon Bany plus our currently President of the republic of South Sudan, Dr. Salva Kiir Mayardit. Who is also holding the position of the First Vice president of the republic of Sudan.
      By not overdue the explanations, I am going to put their links together below under an individual chain of descriptions, here are those links: As we all may have had known already that, late Dr. John Garang de Mabior and late Arok Thon Arok are from Dinka (Jieng) Tuic (Twic) East tribe in Jonglei state (formerly known as the Upper Nile region before the separations of the country into two nations/states) in South Sudan.
      However, before hand, you don’t have to be confused my friend about this tribe (Dinka or Jieng Twic/Tuic East) identity correction between this claims and the original misleading issues of their identity misidentification during the movement (Civil war times in Sudan) and/or after the British Empire has given Sudanese’ independence in 1956. That was the time, whereas the Jieng Twic East tribe identity became like parts of Jieng Bor tribe rather than being considered as a stand alone and/or an independent branch tribe within the Dinka tribe of South Sudan or Sudan before present times. In which to me at that particular days, it was an erroneous or unfortunate misidentification of Jieng Tuïc East tribe identity back then, but this correction is being done at present moment. It is an appropriate times for everybody to be called upon to respect and totally adore to corrections of this tribe identity’s roots and aligned it with their truly tribe of the Dinka Twic East.
      All this information must not be taken simply like this is an Author views alone, which is not. It must be accepted that through a mutual respectful way and integrity, this correction is also adherents to Dinka Twic East’s historians, scholars, class act colleagues, intellectuals, Twic East County people, and everyone else who have a Jieng Twic (Tuic) East people with deep and acquainted roots in history of the Dinka Twic East traits.
      So I am here to represent the interests (views) of an entire community of the Dinka Twic East people who are daring to correct their own and truly identity. It is one of the priority goals (components) God (Nhialic) Himself given me to conquer it over the rest of my life on earth. Because Dr. Garang didn’t have time back then at the time of civil war unrest in Sudan, and of course, his immediate or unfortunate death before he would have been able to corrects this identity is a main reason why I was given a green-light by Creator to do so to my fellow tribe mates. Again, it was one of the reasons why God (Nhialic) Himself allows me to do it to my people of the Jieng Twic East, just simple as that.
      Furthermore, this issue is one of the main core missions God (Nhialic) wants me to strengthen for His people of the Dinka Twic/Tuic East community. And you are advised to respect and being adored by their requests for the well being or mutual respect based on rights of truth acceptance under the morale code of ethics (moral philosophy) and class acts.
      By the way, if you didn’t even know that there was another main branch of Dinka (Jieng) so-called Twic (Tuic) East after Sudan gained its independence in 1956; please it is time for you out there to correct this tribe’s identity. And if you still don’t believe me about this correction of mine regarding to the Dinka Twic East identity. With due respects of your opinions or thoughts, I don’t think there will be any other places on earth where you will get a better truth or evidence than what I had been explained inside this book. There is no way even God (Nhialic) Himself knows it, plus the majority of people in South Sudan know that the Dinka Twic East is an independent tribe in Jieng (Dinka). The Dinka Twic East has its own language (Dialect), and at the same time these people are having their own distinguishing characteristics (Traits) from other Dinka (Jieng) Bor in which sometimes most people miss associated with.
      And to people who may not know about the earliest SPLM/A Deputy chairman, who is also back then or late Commander Kerubino Kuanyin Bol, if you didn’t know this guy background; starting from today you have to remember that, he is from Dinka Twic Mayardit of the West Nile River (White Nile) side, currently located in Warrap State, South Sudan. It is the first place where most of the Clans who made up the Jieng Tuic (Twic) East tribe of the Jonglei State, South Sudan came from some centuries ago. That is where the majority of the clans came to the existing land of the Dinka Twic East people inhabited as of today at the east bank of the River Nile (White Nile/Toc) basin. In their own mother tongue, they call the River Nile as “Toc.”
      Over either sides of the River Nile (White Nile) where Dinka Twic East and Dinka Twic West (Mayardit), both cousin tribes now each has its own Adiang Clan (Wut), in places where the Dinka Twic East and the Dinka Twic West people had been occupied respectively for centuries since both tribes separated from each other through the unknown reason(s).
      Alright, what about Dr. Salva Kiir Mayardit? Who is currently owned the position of the Presidency of the republic of South Sudan. And at the same he is holding the position of the First Vice President of the republic of Sudan. If you don’t know about him, Dr. Kiir is from the Dinka tribe of Rek in Warrap State, South Sudan. However, what way he is being linked to the other two branches of the Dinka Twic East (Jonglei State) and the Dinka Twic West (Warrap State)? Well, that is a very interesting question to ask; of course, Kiir mother is from Dinka Twic West (Mayardit) now located in Warrap State (Formerly known as Bhar el Ghazal region). I think that is a quick and simply answer concerning where President Salva Kiir Mayardit has a chained relationship or links with the others top four of the Sudan People Liberation Movement/Army (SPLM/A) earliest leadership body.
      Anyway, apart from individualism explanations, these leaders were all linked to these two branches of the Dinka Twic East and Dinka Twic West (Mayardit). Again, briefly, they were all Dinka (Jieng) guys.
      Finally, what about the background of late Commander William Nyuon Bany? Where to go to question as well, he also has roots from the Jieng (Dinka) tribe; especially the part of the Dinka sub-tribe where his roots or chains being linked to, is Dinka Twic East of the Jonglei State, South Sudan. It is the same sub-tribe of Jieng where both late Dr. John Garang de Mabior and late Arok Thon Arok respectively are from. But in what way? Well, the following explanations would be a little quite intriguing why he got a related root from Dinka’s branch so-call the Dinka Twic East? For instance, in the earliest years of the twenty-centuries, there was a big flood over the Dinka or Jieng Twic (Tuic) East land in Jonglei State (obviously known as the Upper Nile region during pre-eras of Sudan’s separations into two states or countries) in South Sudan. The disaster was caused by the big flood as people call it as “Amol thith (Run de Paw??r) in Dinka/Jieng Twic (Tuic) East tribe and Nuer or Naath is being called Pilual” in their mother tongue (Tho? de Twic/Tuïc East). That means it was the year of calamity of flood in Dinka Twic East’s land. As I had been told, the flood was a devastating disaster that did take a lot of people lives; livestock and everything else have been uncountable in those days. Did I say everything? If I did, I do mean anything people of the Jieng Tuïc East lives were depending on as valuable and basic needs for life were wipeout. It is one of the biggest disasters that had over passed the Dinka Twic East land; I think it should be aligned with the disaster of the Nov 15, 1991 in their land.
      So over that period, most of the Jieng (Dinka) Tuic East people did migrate to many places like Nuer’s land sub-tribes like Lou, Gaweer, Jikany East, Fangak, etc., and some people even went as far as other sub-tribes of the Jieng lands such as: Jieng Abiliang in Upper Nile State (back then known as the Upper Nile region), Jieng Padang (Padeng) at the moment located in Jonglei State (back then as well known as the Upper Nile region) within the same location where the Jieng Tuic East currently residing too, some people even went to nearby bordering tribes of Jieng like Jieng Duk (Dukkeen) (Nyarweng, Hol, etc.) within the same Jonglei State. Of course, in those days of the flood in their land; few went to Jieng Bor’s land located within the same Jonglei State, South Sudan at that particular juncture of flood.
      That means according to the elders’ narrations about this calamity time in Dinka Twic East people history, as a result of that calamity some people didn’t even bother themselves of coming back to the Dinka Twic East’s land after the flood (Amol/Abor) had even subdued back into the Nile River (Toc). But the majority of their demographics or populations did return to their ancestors’ land of the Jieng Tuic East after the devastating flood (Amol de Paweer) had seceded. Except that the small percentages of the population didn’t try their level bests though to come back, that percentage of families who didn’t return to Twic (Tuic) East land after all were the one including the relatives of the late commander William Nyuon Bany. It turns out that his family was among the groups of people or families who hadn’t even tried to come back to the Dinka Twic East’s land when the flood (Amol or Abor) has totally ended, and people started to immigrate back to their home cooking land of the Dinka (Jieng) Twic/Tuic East.
      The way I have studied this guy (William Nyuon) in my natural psychological knowledge through his video tapes (DVD), he is really Dinka Twic East. In those video tapes (DVD), he has demonstrated the Dinka Twic East people characteristics, as the story has been showing it that, the Dinka Twic East people are intelligent people, natural leadership characterized people, tolerant, and calm, perseverance (commitment) when it comes to truth base causes, hospitality, honesty, fair character about human being life, non-violent, and pro-more points of views toward diplomatic ways than fighting (aggression) solutions. For instance, if Dinka or Jieng Twic/Tuic East person has decided to do something, and he/she believes that it is the right thing to do. Often, there would be no frequently of retreats or backs down from the course otherwise, until the person achieves the pursuing goal (s). By the way, in their lives, they dislike these terms like gossiping, jealousy; greedy, selfish, jealousy, provocative behaviors, violent behaviors, etc. In opposite, they are trustworthy people, honest, good attitudes, guru of accountability, calm, they always don’t like to be the first problem causer between two or among people (group), and many more. Furthermore, one of their good characteristics had been shown so far during the times of the movement in regard to (Sudanese) South Sudanese’s freedom struggles’ days; specifically, by their own beloving son, hero of South Sudanese, (Sudanese) and of course, the freedom father of South Sudanese (Sudanese), late Dr. John Garang de Mabior."

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  • 31 August 2011 16:52, by Kim Deng

    The “New Sudan,” vision and its effects on Southern Sudanese unification

    By: Kim Deng, Bilpam, South Sudan

    The 1955 Torit mutiny marked the beginning of the 17 year old bush war that was ended by the defunct Anya Nya I and by the Anya-Nya II insurgencies from 1975-1983, were fought on the principle of the right of self-determination-meaning the establishment of an independent and sovereign State in the South. When the Addis Ababa Accord of 1972 was signed as an attempt to bring the country its first civil war [1955-1972] between the government and the rebel’s movement [SSPLM/A] to an end, there was pocket of Anya-Nya One elements who doubted about the implementation of the Accord due to lack of commitment and seriousness from government side.

    These few separatists remained in the bush despite the Accord until many other soldiers rejoined them after Akobo mutiny in 1975 spearheaded by Vincent Kuany Latjor before Bor and Ayod mutinies erupted in 1983 respectively. They became a unified force and carried the name SSLM/A or Anya-Nya II, the only well-known name for many people under the command of CDR. Vincent Kuany Latjor, whereas Bilpam became their Headquarters. There were over 7,000 troops behind SSLM/A [Anya-Nya II] and the objective of their movement was for total separation of the South from the rest of the country unlike SPLA/M with its “New Sudan,” vision.

    After the arrivals of “Newcomers,” as Anya-Nya II call them in 1983, two camps were formed within “New-arrivals/Newcomers.” Camp A was under the leadership of Lt. Col. Sammuel Gai Tut Yang, Mr. Quot Atem and CDR. William Abdalla Chuol Deng. Meanwhile, Camp B, led by Col. Dr. John Garang, CDR. Kerubino Kwanyin Bol and CDR. William Nyuony Bany. The factious between the two camps it is noteworthy mentioned and it was due to two critical following factors. 1) What should be the sole objectives of the movement and its principles? 2) Who shall lead the movement (SPLA/M?) Camp A, proposed that, the objective of the movement shall be “self-determination-meaning complete separation of the country into two independent and sovereign states juxtaposition with Egypt and the North along the Nile Valley and the movement SPLA/M shall be led by Mr. Kuot Atem follow by Lt. Col. Samuel Gai Tut ,” instead Camp B, did not only rejected that proposal, but came up with its own ideology, an ideology of “United Socialist Secular/New Sudan, and the leader of the movement shall be Lt. Col. Samuel Gai Tut Yang follow by Col. Dr. Garang.”

    It took the two camps few months before camp B rushed to use force against camp A due to fact that, the Ethiopian government which sealed a conspiracy and surreptitious deal with Garang against the separatists was acting behind the scene rather than being a mediator between the two rivals. From their last meeting CDR. Rhino William Nyuony Bany who doesn’t care about the human life pulled out his pistol and hold it with his right hand while pointing it at Lt. Col. Samuel Gai Tut and CDR. Cobra Abdallah William Chuol Deng, and said “from today onwards, anyone who appears to oppose Dr. Garang’s leadership and the objective of the movement ‘New Sudan,’ must not be silenced by talks, but bullet.” Camp A, took technical withdrawal from the area (Itang) without a fight just to avoid casualties within the town and to give camp B more time to reverse its dead-end judgments toward South Sudan issues.

    To make the matter worse, after Col. Dr. Garang’s group secured its position against Lt. Col. Samuel Gai Tut’s group, the seizure of Lt. Col. Samuel’s group by Mr. Marxist-Leninist Garang group did not satisfy Garang’s appetite, but went further and channeled his doom plan to annihilate the [Anya-Nya II] in Bilpam by force due to fact that this secessionists’ movement shared the same principles and objectives with camp A. Therefore, to secure the “New Sudan,” vision fully, “the Anya Nya II HQTRs, Bilpam must be destroyed and/or dislodged from its foundation,” Garang declared. And on other hand, Mr. Mengistu Hailemariam of Ethiopia, a man who got separatist rebels’ movements [Woyane & Shabiah] in his own backyard seemed to forget that his government had her own chestnuts roasting in the store for it, impose his socialist ideology on southern Sudanese and that mission must be fulfilled by someone who believes in that vision; “Dr. Garang must be the right person,” according to calculation of “Dergue” regime base on its interests and bipartisan issues between the two allies.

    With no regret, the Ethiopian armed forces along with few elements from Garang’s group launched an assault against the Anya-Nya II position in October 1983 which caught them by surprise. The Anya-Nya II headquarters, Bilpam was not only smashed down to ground, but many separatists’ fighters were eliminated and those who caught alive were ordered to dig out their own graves before executed them by firing-squad if they repudiate joining the former Marxist-Leninist SPLA/M. Of course, many deserters from the Anya-Nya II joined Garang’s group conditionally, amongst them; CDR. John Kulang and CDR. Kuach Kang.

    There exist relationship between the Anya-Nya II and Lt. Col. Samuel Gai Tut’s group came in existence before and after Garang’s group failed to engage Lt. Col. Gai Tut’s Group in dialogues, but in confrontations in Warfield as he [Garang] declared from his under ground rally. Thereafter, Lt. Col. Samuel Gai Tut’s group merged with Anya-Nya under his leadership since Vincent Kuany Latjor the first Anya-Nya II leader was caught alive and sent to very isolated World (prison) after his Headquarters, Bilpam was burned down to ash by the two Marxists (Mengistu & Garang). Without Ethiopian armed forces back-up, can Garang’s group alone be attempted to annihilate Anya-Nya II forces in Bilpam?

    In war, the skin of Fox is at times as necessary as that of a Lion, for cunning may succeed when force fails. Speaking from his underground rally as mentioned so far, in a message to his disciples, he declared that “the first bullet must be fired against the separatists [Anya Nya II,” as an attempt to impose his self-claimed “New Sudan,” vision on Southern Sudanese and hijacked the movement from its founders [separatists] altogether, coincidence?

    A year later, Lt. Col. Samuel Gai Tut’s group [SSLM/A [Anya Nya II] who were expelled from Ethiopia came back to engage Garang’s group through dialogues because there exists the great hope from separatists’ side in the vision of reunification of unionists [SPLA/M] and separatists [Anya-Nya II], as it had been the case against the Dergue regime of Mr. Mengistu Haile Mariam of Ethiopia by the two rebel factions (Woyane & Shabiah/separatists and unionists) who accomplished their mission in May 1991 when they waged a war against the “Dergue” regime under unified force. What if the Sudan’s rebels [Unionists & Separatists] put their differences aside since 1983 and confronted the main enemy, the Khartoum government (NIF/NCP) as a unified force? I leave the answer(s) for you.

    First, they [Anya-Nya II] camped at Mangok, Chatyier and other surrounding areas on their way toward Achua (Itang) where the talks should have been renegotiated. The SPLA/M was reluctant and not fain or serious to deal with Anya-Nya II in dialogues, but in warfare instead. While the Anya-Nya II was waiting for talks to resume once again after their arrival at Itang, the two allies, SPLA/M and Ethiopian armed forces were planning to encircle the Anya-Nya II forces in order to capture their ringleaders alive and/or eliminate/imprison them. This left Lt. Col. Samuel Gai Tut with no other option, but to order his troops to withdraw from the town which they have surrounded for more than a week after he learned that, Ethiopian government and the SPLA/M are not interested in peace talks, but war.

    CDR. Abdallah William Chuol Deng, a man who fears no man on earth, the human toll was the least of his concerns rejected Lt. Col. Gai Tut’s order and wanted the whole town to be burned down to the ground, this prompted Lt. Col. Samuel Gai Tut to order some of his soldiers to tie-up CDR. Cobra Abdallah William Chuol Deng. Lt. Col. Samuel Gai Tut did that not only to avoid heavy casualties which may result mainly on innocent people [women and children] in the town, but also to give Col. Dr. Garang’s group more time to relinquish its poor “New Sudan,” vision for the movement. Lt. Col. Samuel Gai Tut’s last word to Col. Dr. Garang and his subordinates after the talks failed in 1984. Mr. Samuel said, “Mr. Garang, you have not anchored South Sudan to your ‘New Sudan’ vision, but you have anchored your ‘New Sudan,’ vision a unified Sudan to South Sudan. In the end, my friend(s), you’ll find it will not work. It will be ghastlier than you can even imagine.”

    Mr. Marxist-Leninist Garang’s group viewed Lt. Col. Samuel Gai Tut’s group retreat as a defeat of Anya Nya II, and as such; the next step would be “to chase them until their ringleaders are eliminated and/or caught alive.” The second engagement between the Anya-Nya II and SPLA/M at the battle of Thiajak (Adura) was not a big surprise to [Anya-Nya II] and as a result of that clash, the Any-Nya II forces did not only burned down Thiajak which was under the control of SPLA forces at the time, but inflicted heavy loses on unionists’ side, killed many, scattered and pursued those who could run for their safety until they reach Mangok-Chatyier unknowingly. Yet even though, the victory was on the separatists’ side from the battle of Thiajak, a man who loves and value all human being from all walks of life regardless of ethnicities; a man whose vision has been for South Sudan independence; a man who qualified both in politics and military, and above all, the SSLM/A (Anya-Nya II) leader, Lt.Col. Samuel Gai Tut’s life was cut short in that ruthless, aimless and epic conflict between the separatists and unionists just simply because he opposed Mr. Marxist-Leninists Garang’s poor “New Sudan,” vision. This shameful death will never be forgotten for generations to come.

    After receiving the bad news, regarding Lt. Col. Samuel Gai Tut’s death, CDR. Cobra Abdallah William Chuol Deng became wild and ordered the Anya-Nya II troops to “fight like mad dogs against the unionists to the last man.” As a result, many lives were wasted from both sides in many engagements, counterattack after another. The SPLA/M activities were blocked by the Anya-Nya II forces across greater Upper Nile until Lt. Gen. Gordon Koang Chuol declared that, “there is no need for Mr. Garang’s “New Sudan,” vision to keep South Sudan hostage, but to reconcile with unionists and challenge Garang’s “New Sudan,” vision within.”

    DK. Koat Matthew played a crucial role in that strategic move, but a man of his words and fearless man, Lt. Gen. Lion Paulino Matip Nhial declined the move and said, “I’ll never unite the Anya-Nya II with Marxist-Leninist-SPLA/M under Mr. Garang’s leadership with his “New Sudan,” vision. If I do which I doubt, that will be the day when I walk with my feet upside down.” Which mean, over 80% of Anya-Nya II forces under the command of Lt. Gen. Lion Paulino Matip crossed the great Nile from East Bank to the West side, whereas Mayom became their Headquarters, meanwhile the remaining 20% under the command of Lt. Gen. Rhino Gordon Koang merged with SPLA/M, which gave Garang’s group wide-gauge windows to capture many garrisons and towns from the common enemy [NIF/NCP] included Nasir town itself. Then, what if the whole Anya-Nya II [separatists] merged with SPLA/M [unionists] and confronted the common enemy as a unified force regardless of their differences? With no doubt, Mr. Marxist-Leninist Garang’s self-claimed “New Sudan,” vision was a setback to Southern Sudanese unification since 1983 and it brings many advantages to the main enemy beyond unionists’ imagination.

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  • 31 August 2011 16:54, by Kim Deng

    The 2nd split between the Separatists and Unionists within SPLA/M in 1991

    There have been many separatists within the SPLA/M since 1983 who believed that Garang’s “New Sudan,” vision must be challenged within until their strategy yielded signal towards Garang’s “New Sudan,” vision in 1991 due to what we call “Nasir move,” the very blessing day for Southern Sudanese, the Nasir declaration of August 28, 1991 which got birth to “self-determination for South Sudan” http://www.sudantribune.com/spip.php?article27738 it divided the movement [SPLA/M] into two factions once again; the SPLA/M-Torit faction under the command of Mr. Marxist-Leninist Garang with his self-claimed “New Sudan/United Secular Sudan,” vision and the SPLM/A-Nasir faction under the leadership of Dr. Riek Machar Teny-Dhurgon with his “self-determination for South Sudan.” http://www.africa.upenn.edu.Hornet/sd_machar.html

    Dr. Riek was compelled to declare Nasir move, not only because Mr. Garang was running the movement like his own property which was acknowledged by Lt. Gen. Salva Kiir after it was already too late in 2004 when he find himself openly at odds with his superior, but due to lack of clear directions, objectives, principles and human rights for/in the movement. Therefore, if the Naath/Nuer as a community has been hungry for leadership as Jaang/Dinka always shamelessly claims it, why would Lt. Col Samuel Gai Tut select Mr. Akuot Atem who is a Dinka by tribe to be the leader of the movement in 1983 if not only the selection was rejected by Mr. Marxist-Leninist Garang? Why would CDR. William Nyuon Bany aim his Pistol at Lt. Col. Samuel Gai Tut, CDR. Copra Abdalla William Chuol Deng and their supporters just to secure another Dinkaman, Mr. Garang’s leadership?

    In the Garangist mental scheme, all the “anti-New Sudan,” who still believes in Anya-Nya II vision of secession must be eliminated. As far as Garang knew, the SPLA forces under his commands had every reason to believe that they had upper hand and that they could make it all the way to Nasir. Garang thought that the SPLM/A-Nasir faction under the command of Dr. Riek was very weak, demoralized and incapable of defending its Headquarters, Nasir let alone taking offensive operations. Shortly after Nasir Declaration of August 28, 1991 was announced, Garang declared, “the Gang of two Drs,” as he prefers to call them [Dr. Riek & Dr. Lam] “must be given their last blow.” He went further, “we will break them down soon, and it is a matter of time before we bring the separatists to the vision of no-return.” After Garang’s statements were intercepted by SPLM/A-Nasir faction, Lt. Gen. Tiger Bol Koang declared that “the very existence of the SPLM/A-Nasir faction is in danger,” and demanded that “all soldiers stand firm and fight to last drop of blood.”

    Not surprisingly, the SPLA/M-Torit faction forces under the command of CDR. Rhino William Nyuony Bany launched and assault which almost routed instantly against the Anya-Nya II position along with few soldiers who appeared to be from SPLA-Nasir faction forces, burned down villages from Nuer Genesis homeland Bentiu [Liech/Unity State] including Leer, Dr. Riek Machar’s hometown. What CDR. William Nyuon and his forces didn’t realize at first was that in the second half of September, Lt. Gen. Lion Paulino Matip already redeploying many of his troops [Anya-Nya II] to prepare for “Operation Typhoon.” Instead of accepting their fate, the Anya-Nya II fought back with a ferocity that stunned the ill-prepared Torit faction. Most of Torit faction soldiers were ground-up by the Anya-Nya II forces. The Anya-Nya II forces under the command of Lt. Gen. Lion Paulino Matip did not only inflicted heavy losses on Torit faction, but pushed back CDR. William’s forces and penetrated deep inside BEG. This campaign against CDR. William’s forces forced them to retreat from the area just when Lt. Gen. Paulino Matip sent in more reinforcements.

    But the SPLA-Torit faction forces under the command of Lt. Gen. Kuol Manyang Juuk and Lt. Gen. Salva Kiir who were deployed from the direction of Kongoor and Pochalla respectively to wipe out Dr. Riek’s force as ordered and predicted by Garang, failed miserably from their suicide attempts, instead encircled and pursued like hunting dogs chase rabbits or deer by Dr. Riek’s forces under the command of Lt. Gen. Tiger Bol Koang and CDR. Tiger Koang Banypiny. As a result, Duk Padiet, Panyagor, Kongoor, Twic East, Mading Bor and all the surrounding garrisons and towns plus some part of BEG were burned down to ashes when the “Operation Typhoon,” was launched as two Heroes [Bol Koang & Koang Banypiny] call it. Garang underestimated the SPLM/A-Nasir faction military strength, but his commanders on the ground knew they were often paying a heavier price for them than expected in terms of casualties-and that, in many areas, the Torit faction advance wasn’t moving as swiftly as they had hoped. Garang’s commanders were preoccupied with the more immediate goal: ensuring that their troops would maintain their progress as they prepared to strike Nasir faction from all directions.

    Dr. Riek ordered his troops to withdraw after reaching Jumeza in greater Equatoria. The SPLA forces under Torit faction suffered tremendous losses and their mission failed miserably to bring “the Gang of two Drs alive or dead and trash the self-determination for South Sudan into garbage bin for good,” as Garang declared earlier before the war widespread like a wildfire beyond his imagination rather than vice-versa. A staggering pace that reflected the disarray of Garang’s subordinates encountered in most of the areas under attack. Torit, Kapoeta, Yei … were on the verge of cowardice and panic mongering evacuation until the common enemy overran almost all the liberated areas without any résistance from Garang’s SPLA/M-Torit faction. Can the unionists stand their ground alone without the separatists’ support?

    Many areas including major towns: Torit, Kapoeta, Mading Bor … were recaptured and/or surrendered to the common enemy as a result of split. The remaining few garrisons and towns under the control of Torit faction were on the verge of panic of evacuation either to Uganda or Kenya refugees camps as well. Garang was blinded by his burning conviction that Torit faction had to defeat and subjugates the Nasir faction, a movement that he contemptuously dismissed as “a Gang of two Drs.” Garang himself suffered a near psychological collapse as his faction looked as though it might implode. Garang’s forces should have been crushed/break down and/or chased up to Kenya/Uganda-Sudan borders if Dr. Riek was for military option rather than reconciliation through peaceful dialogues instead. Garang’s “New Sudan,” vision did not accomplish anything, but setbacks, chaos, death, subjugation by terror and epic conflicts. It was Garang’s ambition in war that compelled Nasir faction to take immediate retaliatory-military countermeasures. The burning questions are: What prompted Garang to be the first to ignite the fire which he could not extinguish? Did Garang’s SPLA/M have the political will and muscles to confront both the main enemy (NIF/NCP) and the separatists at the same time?

    There is no connection between the Nuer vs. Dinka and Separatists’ vs. Unionists. Of course, the armed civilians from subject tribes intervened during confrontations between the unionists and separatists in those dark days, and their intervention should not justify that the war was between the two big tribes rather than reasons suitable to their own interests. There have been ups and downs between these two big rival tribes since 1800s and it still functioning as we speak; Duk Padiet which was burned down to ash twice by Mighty Nuer Warriors/Jech-in-Bor at the presence of GoSS and its army (SSAF), proved beyond the reasonable doubt that Nuer vs. Dinka still exists.

    The Nuer ethnic group has never been thirsty for leadership/ power as some folks may believe especially the Dinka, as a matter of fact the movement [SPLA/M] from its first two years, it was mainly dominated by Nuer ethnic group. The first two battalions [104 & 105] or Jamus & Tumsah almost all the troops were from Nuer tribe and if in doubts, don’t hesitate to consult someone like Lt. Gen. Salva Kiir, Lt. Gen. James Gathoth Mai, Lt. Gen. Oyiey Deng Ajack, Mr. Governor, Taban Deng Gai, S.G. Pagan Amum and Mrs. Nyandeng Mabior, but just for your information.

    Many Anya-Nya II elements that deserted conditionally joined the SPLA/M within 1983. CDR. Rhino William Nyuon Bany who is believed to be the one to bring Garang to power is a Nuer by tribe. Lt. Col. Samuel Gai Tut and his group wanted another Dinkaman, Mr. Kuot Atem to be the leader of the movement, but Garang and his group did not only rejected the offer, instead wanted Garang to lead the movement after the Dergue regime of Mr. Mengistu Hailemariam secured the “ New Sudan,” vision for them. The blessing day for Southern Sudanese, the August 28, 1991 of Nasir Declaration was not a mean to hijack the leadership from Dinka as many people may assume, but a strategic move to force Garang and his supporters to make a U-turn from “United Socialist Secular/New Sudan,” vision to self-determination for the people of Southern Sudan. Therefore, base on all the above mentioned factors, it demonstrated that, the Nuer as a community has never been hungry for leadership/power and this must refute Dinkas’ claims.

    And of course, as a result of Nasir move, Garang divorced and abandoned the alliance, called SPLA/M 1st National Convent at Chukudum in 1994 and the self-determination for South Sudan was the first agenda in that Convention. The movement changed from its former name SPLA/M as it was well-known back then to SPLM/A. Garang put self-determination for South Sudan to be the first agenda/priority whenever there is a peace talks with Khartoum government and Garang himself eventually signed for it, the self-determination for people of Southern Sudan in CPA. Garang gave up his “New Sudan,” vision, a vision he always refers as a “vision of no-return.” This raised too many unsettling questions from his allies especially the inner circle of NDA, Nuba Mountains and Blue Nile who were oblivious and betrayed at the same time by his self-observed “New Sudan,” vision until they realized that Garang shamelessly made a U-turn which left them in illusion.

    The right of self-determination has been eloquently championed and articulated nationally and internationally by the Anya Nya II movement since 1975 until SPLM/A-Nasir faction joined those Separatists thereafter the Nasir Declaration on August 28, 1991 was declared. It has a democratic and an inalienable right to all people as well as conflict resolutions. The National Democratic Alliance (NDA) an umbrella of the traditional Northern political parties, the Marxist-Leninist SPLA/M and the National Islamic Fundamentalist (NIF/NCP) regime in Khartoum were all asthmatic to concept of the right of self-determination. Thus, no matter what the so called traditional parties do, they do not have the trust and confident of the South for their deception and unilateral abrogation and dishonored of many agreements. The SPLA/M alliance with NDA was a repeat of the past, which SPLA/M should have not fail to understand its future implications for the South once the so called NDA gets the grip of the wheels of power in Khartoum.

    Then, why remain separated if the former Marxist-Leninist SPLA/M led by Garang relinquished its “New Sudan,” vision after it was forced by Nasir move to adopt the only sole objective of the movement, the self-determination for South Sudan? Leadership has never been a big concern from separatists’ political point of view since 1975 as some people shamelessly may believe, but directions, objectives, principles and human rights for/in the movement. The SPLA/M division between the separatists and unionists should not justify the merits to classify the SPLM/A and/or GoSS as a Dinka movement/gov’t just simply because the two leaders, Col. Dr. Garang and Lt. Gen. Salva Kiir hail from that ethnic group. If this is the case, as some folks claim it, Lt. Col. Samuel Gai Tut, Col. Dr. Garang plus many others should have not joined the Anya-Nya I [SSLM/A] under the leadership of Joseph Lagu, but viewed it as Madi’s movement.

    Kim Deng is a military Historian, SSAF officer from Headquarters, Bilpam and he can be reached at kdeng75@yahoo.

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    • 31 August 2011 16:58, by Cadaai ?o?

      Historian and Identity Advocacy View:

      This Kim Deng is wrong History and I believe in Dinka Twic County or land will be burned to ashes.

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  • 31 August 2011 16:57, by Kim Deng

    By Gatkuoth Lam

    July 3, 2008 Members of the Dinka Bor community around the world have turned the 28th August a day on which they propagate every year claiming that thousands of their community members were massacred in Bor town in 1991 by the then forces of the SPLM/A-Nasir faction led by Dr. Riek Machar Teny-Dhurgon.

    Dr. Machar defected with Commander Dr. Lam Akol Ajawin and Commander Gordon Koang Chol with their forces in a historic move for better change from the old SPLM/A led by the late, Dr. John Garang de Mabior, which Garang then re-named SPLM/A-Torit faction after the split. The move was declared on 28th August 1991 in Nasir town in Upper Nile region. The reasons for the split were clearly articulated by the then SPLM/A-Nasir faction leadership and were understood and still being understood by the concerned people of Southern Sudan in particular and the international community at large. Before the split, the SPLM/A had no clear objective for which the people of Southern Sudan fought and lost two million souls. There were no proper structures put in place for clear responsibilities, which would also guarantee collective decision making in strategizing for the Movements programs and executing its war against the Khartoum government. There were also gross violations of human rights by late Garangs leadership. Dr. Garang was using the Movement as his own property. I will shed some light on these issues in the next paragraphs below.

    Since the inception of the SPLM/A in 1983 until 1991, if you asked any SPLA officer what he was fighting for, he would not provide a clear answer simply because he did not know what he was fighting for or simply say he was not enlightened on the cause of war. I remember when I was in Itang in 1986 and asked a friend of mine who was also a SPLA officer what he was fighting for, he just replied I dont know but John Garang knows. And he continued to say to me I think we are fighting to liberate South Sudan territory from the Arabs who dominate us. Even those who thought to be SPLM politicians were not sure about the objective for which the war was launched. And to inquire that from Garang himself for possible correction was deadly.. Tens of thousands of SPLA soldiers lost their lives in battles while not clear about the cause they died for and the destiny they wanted to reach and achieve. This was the pre-1991 situation in the Movement.

    There were no proper structures established in the Movement although there were sufficient educated SPLM cadres who could run every necessary structure if established at the time for better strategies on policies and successful execution of the war. Dr. Garang instead established only what he called Political Military High Command in 1980s in which he installed semi-literate personalities on most senior positions in that single structure. Dr. Machar was a member of that structure, but intentionally put in the bottom of the list by Garang. The Political Military High Command was mandated by Garang himself to look into matters related to both political and military. The groups most powerful personalities lacked any political experience and could not even see what was wrong with the objective of the Movement, let alone the importance of establishing a separate structure for SPLM. The way they executed the war was not also professional and this might explain why they could not capture a single major city among the three capital cities of the three regions in the South for twenty one years until the CPA found a way out in early 2005. Worst of all, members of the Political Military High Command could not meet to decide what to do next as a collective body. Many of them did not even know their faces, they just heard of each others existence somewhere. Those who were fighting in the battle fields like Dr. Riek Machar in the early years of SPLM/A were depending on orders from Dr. John Garang without their views being put into consideration on how to effectively wage the war.

    Late Garang also conspired against his colleagues he perceived to be a threat to his leadership because of they were highly educated. He used to expose PhD holders to battle fields instead of utilizing them to formulate policies for the SPLM as a political wing.

    He ordered Dr. Peter Adwok Nyaba to attack the government forces with child-soldiers in Jokou town. Dr. Nyaba lost one of his legs in the operation and came back with few survivors of his child-soldiers.

    Garang also ordered Dr. Riek Machar Teny, another PhD holder in Strategic Planning in Industry to attack Malut in Upper Nile, which Dr. Machar captured in mid 1980s. After capturing Malut, Garang ordered Machar again to move up to Mayom in Unity state to capture it where the present President of the Republic, Omer Hassen el Beshir was the commanding officer in Mayom before he became the President in 1989. Dr. Machars forces got into very fierce battles with Beshirs forces. His forces wounded Beshir in his leg, but failed to capture the town because they could not get reinforcement.

    Late Garang also ordered Dr. Lam Akol Ajawin, another PhD holder in Petroleum Engineering to move to eastern Upper Nile to command SPLA forces in the area in 1980s.

    Gross human rights violations were committed by late Garangs forces against a number of ethnic groups in Southern Sudan, which included massacres. One of the worst massacres committed by Garang was the war he launched against the Gaajaak sub-clan of Jikany Nuer in 1985. The war was launched against the whole sub-clan simply because of an argument over fish between a villager of the sub-clan and a SPLA soldier. The villager went fishing with some of his colleagues, caught a fish and was ready to take it home. Some SPLA soldiers came to the river, and as it was common behavior among the forces at that time, wanted to take the fish by force from the villager. The villager resisted and was then shot dead by one of the SPLA soldiers. Villagers from a nearby village heard the gun shot, rushed to the scene and found their colleague dead. They immediately retaliated by killing a number of SPLA soldiers on the spot. The remnants of those soldiers ran for their lives back to Bilpam, which was the then SPLA General Headquarters on the Ethiopian border. They reported the incident at the Headquarters. The SPLM/A leadership was furious and decided that the whole sub-clan be disciplined by wiping them out of their villages. This was how the war against the Gaajaak sub-clan of the Jikany-Nuer started in 1985, resulting in untold massacres of human beings and their cattle.

    Many people who used to hear late Garangs ambitious comments on the territory occupied by the Gaajaak sub-clan before the war knew that the fish incident was used as a pretext for war against the Gaajaak. Dr. Garang used to tell his Bor intellectuals that the territory occupied by Gaajaak was in fact a Dinka Bor land. He used to explain that the Dinka Bor community was displaced from the land during the Nuer expansion from Bentiu in Western Upper Nile hundreds of years ago. Perhaps by wiping out the Gaajaak from the territory, he would have encouraged the Dinka Bor community to resettle in the land so that they border Ethiopia and resolve their current status of being landlocked in the Bors tiny territory in Jonglei. He was not happy also with the way the Nuer inhabit a huge territory without being isolated by other tribes their land which extends from Western Upper Nile bordering the Nuba Mountains in Southern Kordofan in the north across the River Nile in Upper Nile region up to the Ethiopian border in the East.

    Dr. Garang dispatched both late Kerubino Kwanyin Bol and late William Nyuon Bany to personally command that war against the Gaajaak sub-clan. For those of you with short-lived memories, late Commander Kerubino Kwanyin Bol was the Deputy Chairman of the SPLM and Deputy Commander-in-Chief of the SPLA forces. He was number two to Dr. John Garang. Late Commander William Nyuon Bany was the Chief of Staff of the SPLA forces; the post previously occupied by Comrade Salva Kiir Mayardit and currently occupied by Comrade Lt.. General Oyai Deng Ajak. You can imagine how Garang was determined to entirely wipe out the Gaajaak by letting loose those powerful military commanders to massacre the unarmed Gaajaak sub-clan. Both Kerubino and William went to the battle fields to personally command the fighting. The war resulted into untold losses where thousands of people were killed, several villages completely wiped out and burnt to ashes. However, the SPLA won some of the battles but lost the war against the community! Dr. Garang failed to get the territory back to Dinka Bor community. In that war against a sub-clan, the SPLM/A lost a highly educated son of Southern Sudan, Dr. Francis Ngor, a PhD holder after late Garang ordered him to command a force against the community and his forces were annihilated. He was captured and killed by the villagers on spot.

    The two parties finally decided to stop the fighting and came back to the peace table and forgave themselves for the sin. That crime against humanity committed by Dr. Garang against the Gaajaak community might have been forgiven but not forgotten. Of course the Gaajaak community may not file criminal cases in The Hague against those three most powerful leaders of the SPLM/A at the time because they are no longer with us on this earth. I personally ask God to forgive late Garang and his colleagues.

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    • 31 August 2011 16:58, by Cadaai ?o?

      Historian and Identity Advocacy View:

      This Kim Deng is wrong History and I believe in Dinka Twic County or land will be burned to ashes.

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    • 31 August 2011 17:00, by Kim Deng

      Similar atrocities were also committed against other ethnic groups in the South such as the Toposa, Murle, etc. by Dr. Garangs forces in the 1990s. All are documented!

      The claim by the Dinka Bor community intellectuals that the 1991 SPLM/A split resulted in the massacre of Bor by the then Nasir faction leadership was and still a propaganda campaign against personalities like Dr. Riek Machar. Of course, there was a fight over Bor town which actually resulted in the lost of, maybe, thousands of lives. This cannot be disputed! But who can the Bor personally hold responsible? The fight over the control of Bor town to my best knowledge was not ordered by the leader of the then SPLM/A-Nasir faction, Dr. Riek Machar Teny-Dhurgon. These were some of Dr. Machars military officers who felt very angry after hearing the news that Garangs forces were killing in cold blood Nuer officers who were on Garangs side in Equatoria region. Dr. Garangs forces, particularly from the Dinka ethnic group decided to kill in cold blood every Nuer officer on their side in Torit town simply because a Nuer leader has challenged Garangs leadership in Nasir town.

      These angry Nuer military officers from the SPLM/A Nasir faction mobilized some of the Nuer armed civilians who are neighbours to Dinka Bor and attacked Bor town. They had fierce battle with Garangs forces stationed in the town. After several hours of fighting they overran the town, which resulted in lost of hundreds or thousands of lives and massive displacement of Dinka Bor population up to Equatoria region. I personally feel sad about the incident. But the Dinka Bor community members should not use it as a propaganda campaign against Dr. Riek Machar for reasons best known to them. This is a pointed finger at the wrong person. They should learn the truth about the incident, what provoked it and who organized the attacks.

      The same was true with the attack on Malakal town in 1993 by the armed Nuer civilians organized by the late Wurnyang Garkek. Late Wurnyang claimed to have been possessed by Gods spirits and that the spirits directed him to help liberate the South. He successfully organized a force that was popularly known as the White Army from the Nuer civil population and ordered them to capture the capital of Upper Nile region, Malakal. They attacked the town and captured about seventy-five percent (75%) of the town. The Sudan government forces held certain positions in the outskirts of the town. Because Wurnyangs armed civilians were not trained soldiers and had no supplies of ammunitions, when they realized that they were running out of ammunitions, they started shouting in the town calling on their individual colleagues to supply them with some bullets if they had plenty. The government soldiers came to realize that these were just armed civilians and that they had run out of ammunitions. The government forces gave them a final full thrust and chased them out of the town. The town again fell under the full control of the governments forces. The government forces first thought it was Dr. Riek Machars forces attacking the town, but this turned out to be somebody else organizing and ordering the attack on Malakal town.

      To me, as a person who has been in the SPLM/A since its inception in 1983, I see the 28th August 1991, split as one of the most blessings the people of Southern Sudan have received from their creator. Of course, the split resulted into setbacks when it came to military activities against the Khartoum government, but has revolutionized the SPLM system and set a clear objective for the satisfaction and achievement of the aspirations of the people of Southern Sudan.

      The 28th August 1991 Nasir Declaration, which was code-named The Creeping Revolution under the then leadership of Dr. Riek Machar Teny-Dhurgon, called for Self-determination for the people of Southern Sudan to determine their political destiny. This is to be determined in a referendum on vote for separation or unity and to be supervised internationally in Southern Sudan. This patriotic call by the people of Southern Sudan was resisted by late Dr. Garang until the year 2002. Garang was instead calling for a United New Socialist Sudan in the 1980s (a vision he copied from Ethiopian President Mengistu Haile Mariams New Socialist Ethiopia). After Mengistu was overthrown, he then changed the vision in 1990s to a United Secular Sudan (or New Sudan as he called it). The viability of this big dream or vision was in question as many people saw and still see it as just a beautiful dream but unrealistic in its achievement and was meant to confuse the cause of the people of Southern Sudan given the complexity of the problems in the Sudan and their deep rooted origins. Subsequent American administrations in Washington DC dream of a New World Order which they now find unrealistic to achieve for the whole world. Every body can dream beautifully, but making the dream come true is the question. We need to be realistic in our visions!

      The 28th August 1991 Declaration also called for democratization of the Movement by putting its structures in place, particularly the arm of the SPLM which was treated subordinate and incorporated into the arm of the SPLA by Garangs leadership. This explains why in the old days of the Movement, Dr. Garang put the SPLA first by calling the Movement the SPLA/SPLM instead of the SPLM/SPLA. This was corrected after the 1991 historic move for better change. The Movement was also lacking its legal institutions. Garang was every thing! After being challenged reasonably by the Nasir faction leadership on these issues, he reacted by organizing and calling for the First SPLM National Convention in Chukudum in 1995. Before the Convention, and in the months leading to the time the Convention was called for, Garang felt much pressure on his leadership from within his faction and began to understand the need to establish structures for the Movement. There were voices who called for change on how the Movement was being run by one man.

      For fear that many more intellectuals and military Commanders would continue to defect to Dr. Riek Machars faction, Dr. Garang found himself toothless and could not resort to his old ways of either murdering his political and military opponents from within in cold blood or silencing them in prisons without trial. His leadership survival at that time after the split significantly depended on how Dr. Machar would handle his coup against him. If Dr. Machar were to choose to overthrow Garang militarily as the last resort by attacking his positions in Equatoria region, Garangs leadership would have come to pass in those years. Machar instead chose to engage Garang in dialogue to resolve the issues that caused the split and would only fight in self-defense if Garang attacked his positions. This helped Garang to re-organize his forces that were in the state of panic. Luckily and by chance, Garang used Machars peace talks with the Khartoum government to accuse him of collaborating with Khartoum. This also helped him to regain support from those in the region and Western world who wanted the war to continue in Southern Sudan. Dr. Machars position not to escalate fighting by removing Garang using military might in Equatoria region, where he shifted his bases and fighting force, resulted in sharp disagreements with his colleagues which also resulted in further splits within the Nasir faction. Can you see this dilemma which was not completely taken note of by Garangs faction?

      The 28th August 1991 popular Declaration prompted its leadership to strategize on how the liberation struggle could be achieved. The leadership chose the path of peace as the way forward. They engaged themselves in a series of peace talks with the present government in Khartoum in Abuja One and Abuja Two and subsequently signed the Khartoum Peace Agreement in 1997. Dr. Riek Machar incorporated other factions which also defected from late Dr. Garangs faction and became their overall leader. These factions included the Bahr El-Ghazal Group (BGG), led by late Kerubino Kwanyin Bol, the Bor Group (BG), led by late Arok Thon Arok, the Equatoria Defense Forces (EDF), led by Dr. Theophillus Ochang Lotti, and some other groups. Dr. Machar signed the famous Khartoum Peace Agreement (KPA) on behalf of all the factions that joined his Movement, the South Sudan Independence Movement (SSIM) with its military wing, the South Sudan Defense Forces (SSDF). For the first time in the history of the Sudan, the Khartoum government conceded the right of self-determination for the people of Southern Sudan in the Agreement. This was also enshrined in the National Constitution of the Sudan in 1998, which clearly articulated that this right would be exercised in an internationally supervised referendum after four years from 1997. The referendum was to be exercised in Southern Sudan in the year 2001 about seven years ago.

      Dr. Garang at the time vowed that he would not sign any agreement with the Khartoum government under President Omer Hassen El Beshir. He used to say that the Khartoum government was too deformed to be reformed and that he wanted it removed by military force. He called the Khartoum Peace Agreement a sell out despite the inclusion of the clause self-determination in it plus many more achievements including Southern Sudan retaining a separate army. The significant thing I personally feel was missing in the Khartoum Peace Agreement was the involvement of the international community, which distanced itself from the Khartoum Peace Agreement on a number of interests that I dont want to write about here. The Khartoum Peace Agreement, like any other agreements signed in Sudan, was violated by the Khartoum government in the year 2000. Dr. Machar, after championing self-determination in the Agreement, decided to resort to other strategies back in the bush to bring late Dr. John Garang to the developing peace process and indirectly revive the Khartoum Peace Agreement in a comprehensive form based on self-determination!

      On 6th January 2002, the two factions of Dr. Machar and Dr. Garang merged in Nairobi. This time with bold declaration that the two groups agreed to resolve the issues that led to the split within the SPLM/A on 28th August 1991.. The right of self-determination for the people of Southern Sudan as called for in the Nasir Declaration was officially accepted and became the official objective of the Movement to determine the future political status of the people of Southern Sudan. Democratization of the Movement and respect for human rights were re-affirmed because Garang had already adopted these principles after the 1991 split and before the merger in 2002. But the Merger Agreement recognized that more work needed to be done on these principles. The Nairobi Merger Agreement also called for a Second SPLM National Convention to be held within three months to elect the leadership of the new SPLM. Dr. Garang delayed the convening of the Convention indefinitely for fear of being defeated in the election by Dr. Machar or any other candidate. The Merger Agreement also called for serious revival and resumption of peace talks with the Khartoum government.

      As a result of the Merger Agreement between the two leaders with renewed spirit and quest for peace, just after six months from the merger, the first protocol of the CPA on self-determination for the people of Southern Sudan was signed in Machakos, Kenya in July 2002. Commander Salva Kiir Mayardit, the then Deputy Chairman for Military Affairs signed the Protocol on behalf of the SPLM/A. The road to peace became irreversible!

      On 9th January 2005, the SPLM/A and the National Congress Party-led government signed the Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA). Dr. Garang signed on behalf of the Movement while the then First Vice President of the Sudan, Ali Osman Mohamed Taha, signed on behalf of the Sudan government. If you read the CPA in comparison with the Khartoum Peace Agreement, you would be convinced that the CPA is not more than a revised text of the Khartoum Peace Agreement with the exception of the international support and the United Nations Peace Keeping Forces in the South. However, the effectiveness or not of the international support and the UN Peacekeeping forces in Southern Sudan is another thing one may evaluate.

      The clear message I want to send to those who might have been blinded by tribal sentiments and cheap propaganda against leaders who have greatly contributed or actually revolutionized our way forward as the people of Southern Sudan is that they should get realistic and honour these great leaders like Dr. Machar with utmost respect.. 28th August 1991 Declaration should not be used for negative propaganda, but instead be remembered as a blessed birth day on which a clear path for the liberation and freedom of the people of Southern Sudan was set. The road to our freedom is still long and painful! We need to get united as one people with one objective that will lead us to our desired destiny. Propagating on the so-called Dinka Bor massacres with fabricated negative stories attributed to innocent and great leaders like Dr. Riek Machar will not help the cause the Dinka Bor want to achieve in Southern Sudan or in a united Sudan.

      The author is based in southern Sudan.

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      • 31 August 2011 17:34, by Kim Deng

        Nuer occupation/invasions and their effects on other Jurs (Dinka, Anyuak, Burun…)

        The vast area appropriated by the Nuer during the nineteenth century was formerly occupied by a Dinka, Anyuak and Burun population. The fate of this population is one of the most interesting questions pertaining to Nuer expansion. How many Dinka, Anyuak, Burun… were killed by the Nuer? How many died of starvation? How many migrated to other areas? And how many were assimilated into Nuer community?

        Although Nuer territorial appropriation had virtually ceased by the early 1800s, the Nuer continued to raid/invade the Dinka for cattle, Anyuak and Burun for land until present.

        Three large-scale Nuer raids against the Southern Dinka that took place in 1914, 1916, and 1928 are of particular interest. In each of these instances the Nuer Warriors penetrated over ninety miles into Dinka territory and twice captured over five thousand head of cattle. These raids/invasions were, in many respects, comparable to the initial thrusts of the Nuer during their earlier period of territorial expansion, and document the scale of devastation wrought by Nuer aggression.

        During the closing phase of Nuer expansion, the Gaawar and Lou Nuer pushed the Ric, Ghol, and Nyarraweng Dinka south as far as Faijing in present-day Twij County. The Nuer progressively gained the upper hand in these conflicts, and in 1906 launched a large-scale raid on the Faijing settlement that forced the Dinka to withdraw about sixteen miles further south to Kongor. Then in 1908 the Gaawar Nuer attacked the Dinka at Kongor, burning their crops and settlements, killing over a hundred people and took over eighty captives mostly young girls.

        In 1908-10, the British sought to end the Nuer occupation toward Dinkaland and established control over the area. A new border between the Nuer and Dinka was established at the favor of Dinka at Duk Padiet, fifty miles north of Kongor, and the Ghol, Ric, and Nyarraweng were awarded about four thousand aquare miles of territory they had previously lost during Nuer expansion. Although a substantial portion of this grant represented an uninhabited no-man’s-land between the Nuer and the Dinka, the Nuer were also required to relinquish territory under active occupation. The Nuer undoubtedly viewed the transfer as a government-sponsored Dinka invasion.

        In February, 1910, several months before the Duk Padiet post was established, the Gaawar Nuer attacked a group of Ghol Dinka who had precipitously reoccupied Faijing, kill over two hundred individuals and captured ninety captives along with countless cattle. Less than five days later, a large party of Lou Nuer crossed the government-delineated border and overran the Ghol and Nyarraweng Dinka villages around Duk Padiet, capturing five thousands head of cattle and inflicting “severe losses” on the Dinka populace. The police post at Duk Padiet was also attacked, but the Nuer Warriors were repulsed, losing twenty-six men while killing six policemen and wounding three in the engagement.

        The Nuer Warriors raiding party pressed south to within a few hours walk of the government station at Bor, ninety miles deep into Dinka territory. In the course of these raids/invasions they captured “large numbers” of cattle, young women, and children (in addition to the five thousand cattle noted above). In the area under attack, the Bor Dinka “suffered very severely” (ibid.). After a span of less than three weeks, the Nuer Warriors successfully withdrew with their spoils.

        Elements of the Ghol and Nyarraweng Dinka who fled the Nuer advance were reportedly harried by the Twij Dinka, who “stole all the women and cattle they could lay hands on.” Two other large groups of Dinka refugees moved north into Nuer territory in an attempt to evade the Lou Nuer onslaught.

        In May 1916, the Nuer Warriors again struck deep into Dinka territory, penetrating to within twenty miles of the Bor post. At this point, a contingent of 500 Nuer tribesmen was spotted by Dinka scouts sent out to reconnoiter, and a large number of Dinka accompanied by a Sudanese army officer and some soldiers moved out to intercept them. After initial contact was made, the Nuer retreated with the soldiers and Dinka in pursuit. Employing a stratagem they were to use on other occasions, the Nuer thus drew their antagonists into an ambush. Suddenly, the Nuer Warriors were heavily reinforced and attacked in strength, slaughtering, scattering the Dinka and wiping the army detachment and kill them all to the last man.

        The following year (1917) the British launched a major punitive expedition against the Lou Nuer, resulted in heavy casualties have been inflicted on both sides. Few days later, the Gaawar and elements of Lou Nuer launched a large-scale raid that penetrated deep into Southern Dinka territory, following the now familiar pattern established in 1914 and 1916. Seventy villages were burned down to ashes and the crops destroyed, over two hundred Dinka were killed, four hundred young women and children were taken as captives and three thousand cattle taken. A Nuer raiding party with an estimated strength of fifteen hundred Warriors also attacked the government post at Duk Faiwil in the course of this raid. The Nuer succeeded in driving off fifty head of government cattle, but suffered heavy casualties: forty-eight men killed and eighty wounded.

        Being further removed from early incursions of the Nuer, the Twi, like the Bor, have suffered far less from yearly raids/invasions and have fattened upon their brother Dinka’s misfortunes. There is no doubt that they (the Twi) regarded the yearly flight for refuge into their country by the Nyarraweng and Ric as a chance for profit and were in the habit of annexing a large percentage of the herds of these tribes when the latter retired disorganized upon them for support.

        Dinka alliance with the Nuer had analogous effects. The alliance of a Dinak tribal section with a segment of one Nuer tribe provided security against raids by other Nuer only for that particular Dinka section, and only if the latter lived among their Nuer kin and affine. Moreover, the presence of such Dinka elements within a Nuer tribe did not deter them from raiding other Dinka (including, in some instances, other sections of the same Dinka tribe). Since Dinka refugees were often derived of their cattle by members of other Dinka tribes, they were not reluctant to urge their Nuer hosts to raid/invade the latter.

        The Nuer Warriors typically attack a Dinka village at dawn when the cattle are lodged in shelters or tethered near the homesteads. As a result of Nuer Warriors invasions, many Dinka families come into Nuer country to escape hunger and the other attendant miseries to which they have been reduced by constant Nuer raiding/invasion that always leave them cattleless. The Dinka seldom offer any concert resistance, but rather sought to escape with as many cattle as possible. Later a counterattack might be undertaken with the aid of reinforcements from other communities. This strategy of initial withdrawal conceded the destruction of the settlement and in harvest season raids, the loss of grain supplies.

        In 1912, the Eastern Jikany Nuer and Lou Nuer undertook their own reprisal against the Anyuak. The Nuer Warrios invasion/raid was directed against the Anyuak villages on the North bank of the Baro/Sobat River from the Ethiopian border to Itang/Achua, a distance about fifty miles. Later reports indicated “All the villages in this formerly prosperous neighborhood have been devastated.

        Ten Nuer contigents of three hundred men each could simultaneously attack as many communities and later regroup at one or two captured villages with their stolen cattle to await any counterattack that might be launched. A large [Raik Dinka] raiding surprised a Nuer village and, Dinka-like, sat down to a happy day wrangling over the spoil. It was their last, for meanwhile the Nuer Warriors surrounded them, and in the ensuing panic slaughtered them to the last man.

        The discipline of Nuer forces is also demonstrated by a remarkable capacity of continues to press and assault while sustaining very heavy casualties. When, the Eastern Jikany Nuer Warriors were attacked early in 1912 by a heavy armed Ethiopian force of Gala/Oromo and Amhara, intent on taking slaves, the Nuer lost over 100 men in the course of overrunning the invaders’ machine gun emplacement. The invaders’ (Ethiopians) mission was not only failed, but also lost over 300 soldiers and 50 missing. The Nuer also made a number of concerted attacks on fortified government posts. In one instance in which a Nuer raiding party was intercepted by a government patrol, the Nuer lost 85 men in the initial engagement but nevertheless counterattacked the same night and again the following day before withdrawing to home territory.

        It is also quite clear that Nuer military domination of the Dinka and other Jurs was grounded in their capacity to field a numerically superior fighting force, and in the organizational features through which mobilization on a large scale was effective. Other aspects of the Nuer advantage were secondary and derivative. Nuer Warriors tactics are relatively simple and straightforward.

        Systematic Nuer cattle raids/invasions, conducted on an annual basis, created a periphery of debilitated Dinka communities that yielded readily to Nuer territorial appropriation. Seasoned Nuer raiding parties were pitted against famine-ridden Dinka groups struggling to survive through periods of scarcity resulting from previous raids. Under the circumstances it is not surprising that the Dinka were unable to mount any effective resistance to continuing Nuer territorial expansion.

        As this expansion proceeded, displaced Dinka groups were pushed into adjacent areas where they came into conflict with the existing population whose land and grazing rights they infringed. These conflicts undoubtedly contributed to a lack of unity in meeting subsequent Nuer attacks. Successful Nuer cattle raids thus engendered conditions favorable to territorial expansion, and the continuation of this expansion was further facilitated by the aftermath of prior Dinka defeat.

        Persons of the Dinka decent form probably at least half the population of most [Nuer] sub-tribes. These Dinka are either children of captives or immigrants who have been brought up as Nuer, or are themselves captives and immigrants who are residing permanently among Nuer. They are “Jaang-Nath,” “Dinka-Nuer,” and, it is said, “caa Naath,” “they have become Nuer.”

        There must also have been pockets of the original Dinka, Anyuak and Burun occupants of the country overrun by the Nuer Warriors who submitted and gave up their language and habits in favor of those of the Nuer. At any rate, there are today in all Nuer sub-tribes many small Dinka lineages and village are often named after them (Dinka, Anyuak, Burun…)

        Nuer raids/invasions always resulted in the capture of substantial numbers of young women and children. Captives taken by the Nuer always includes boys, girls, and young women of
        Marriageable age, but the captives always outnumber the casualties inflicted on Dinka, Anyuak, Burun… by the Nuer Warriors. The loss of a single productive female is thus estimated to reduce her natal population by 3.4 individuals several generations later, and to add a like increment to the population she joins.

        The capture of 372 young women and girls a year during the period of 1818 to 1905 would remove 32,625 productive females from the Central Dinka and Anyuak population and thus eventually decrease that population by 110,915 individuals. The capture of 125 boys a year over the same period would decrease the Central Dinka and Anyuak population by an additional 5,250 persons. In sum, the proposed rate of capture would effectively transfer 116,165 persons from Central Dinka and Anyuak population to that of the Nuer.

        North of the Sobat River, the British faced even more formidable and intransigent opposition from the Eastern Jikany Nuer who lived along the Ethiopian frontier. They were well armed with rifles and ammunitions from Ethiopia and raid neighbors, the Burun and Koma to the North, the Dinka and Anyuak to the South – as well as Ethiopian tribes in the Western foothills.

        Under the command of Lt. Col. Bacon a powerful patrol was finally launched against the Eastern Jikany Nuer from Nasir in January 1920, complete with machine guns and airplanes. The three sections of Eastern Jikany Nuer Warriors attacked the advanced troops; sustaining heavy losses conflicted on both sides including the life of Lt. Col. Bacon. The Jikany Warriors were led by Captain of war, Mr. Mut Dung

        The Lou Nuer thus renewed their raids on the Dinka, while the Eastern Jikany Nuer attacked the Burun to the northeast. The later were as yet outside the sphere of British administrative attention and could be raided without interference. The intensity of Eastern Jikany Nuer raids on the Burun later became apparent when the colonial administration began to be extended into this area reporting improved.

        There were fifteen raids in 1919 and eight in 1920 before the “Systematic bombing and gunning,” of Eastern Jikany Nuer settlements by the Royal Air Force (F.A.F.) ended the Jikany offensive. In 1927, the Lou Nuer was thought to be planning a major offensive against the Dinka. This prompted a series of government patrols that thought unsuccessfully to arrest the Prophet Guek, believed to be the source of Lou Nuer “unrest.” Government action included the R.A.F bombing of Pyramid of Prophet Ngundeng, which was both a religious shrine and Guek’s home base.

        The record of the early colonial period reveals that the Dinka counterattacked Nuer raiding parties only when the later were quite small or when government troops spearheaded the counteroffensive. On two occasions when the Dinka joined the government forces in operations against large-scale Nuer raiding parties, they suffered devastating defeats. A single column which encountered resistance from a combined force of Dinka and government troops withdrew in apparent disarray with the Dinka in hot pursuit, while some of the Nuer Warriors feigned disorderly retreat. The majority ambushed the Dinka from two sides inflicting heavy casualties.

        There are no recorded instances in which the Dinka succeeded in countering a large-scale Nuer offensive without government assistance, despite the fact that they were issued guns and ammunitions by the government and hold a strong advantage in this respect. The Dinka were evidently incapable of mounting an offensive counteroffensive that would have tied down Nuer forces in defense of home territory and were likewise unable to recoup their steady losses in cattle and land. The Nuer were thus free to leave their villages undefended while they engaged in extended raids, operating from bases established in conquered Dinka villages. Although a Dinka counteroffensive against undermanned Nuer communities undoubtedly would have curtailed extended Nuer raids and offered highly favorable prospects for capturing large numbers of cattle, there is no evidence that the Dinka ever adopted this strategy. Moreover, the Dinka were unable to mobilize a defensive force equivalent in size to the eighteen hundred men who comprised a large raiding party and were consequently unable to contain their advance.

        Lacking the capacity to mount an offensive counterattack, the Dinka, Anyuak, Burun… had no recourse other than withdrawal. Under these circumstances, the rapid Nuer Conquest/occupation of the vast Western Dinka region [Mayom, Mankien…], Southern Dinka region [Nyuong Nuer territory], Central Dinka region [Fangak, Ayod, Waat…], Eastern Dinka, Anyuak and Burun region [Eastern Jikany Nuer and Lou Nuer territory] is not difficult to understand.

        Had the Nuer ever wished to occupy the whole greater Upper Nile, from Renk to Mading Bor and from Ruweng/Biemnom to Buma-Gambella, it seems unlikely that the other coward Jurs (Jaang, Teet, Bar, Chai…) could have stopped them.

        RS: NUER CONQUEST

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        • 31 August 2011 17:42, by JohnGarangFreedom

          Dinka Twi East Civil Group

          According to our analysis,its show that the apology of Dr. Riek Machar is deluted otherwise it is only directed to Dinka Bor alone and not Dinka Twic East or Dinka Duk, why? Because Dr. Riek Machar was being setup by Dinka Bor people who are trying to gains popularity concerning civil war ideal (History) over Dinka Twi East. So now they are trying through indirect way to gains that popularity or wrong way in that matter. In which in our views as Dinka Twi East, it will not happen in our watches. We the people of Dinka Twi/Twic East are respectful people but if you try to do unethical thing again us, we will deal with it right way.

          Second, you Dr. Riek Machar needs to be careful. Why? Because you are being pushed to wrong direction by Dinka Bor whom we the people of Dinka Twi East known very well when it comes to their tricky way of lifestyles.

          Third, we consider that apology of yours as direct to Dinka Bor only and not Dinka Twi East people. We are waiting to hear from you as direct apology to Dinka Twi/Tiwc East. And that apology will go direct to people in Twic East County who have faced lots of diversities of the 1991. The majority of people in Juba were not affected by the incident. We either call that incident Dinka Twic East massacre or Southeastern, Eastern, Jonglei Dinka massacre

          Thank you all, God bless.

          "Integrity, intelligence, honesty, calm, leadership, patience, and dignity are always our few blessing characters our God (Nhialic) bless our Dinka Twic East people." By Makol Makeer de Garang

          Message by Dinka Twic East Civil Group

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    • 1 September 2011 09:16, by gotutu

      TO KIM DENG.
      LEAVE THEM ALONE THEY WILL TALK AND TALK BUT NOTHING WILL COME OUT OF IT APART FROM DR RIEK APOLOOGY.
      TWICE PEOPLE DON,T WANT TO BE GUIDED BECAUSE OF THEIR REGIDITY.
      INSTEAD THE ARE TO APPRECIATE THE STEP TAKEN BY THE HONEST VICE PRESIDENT.

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  • 31 August 2011 17:15, by JohnGarangFreedom

    Dinka Twi/Twic East Civil Group our message to H.E President Kiir Mayardit.

    The following message our brother book.

    It is title: "Dr. John Garang de Mabior: The undiscovered Stories About Man Behind South Sudanese’ Freedom. Author: Garang de Faith & Truth.

    "We the people of Twic Dinka East Youth are not part of this protest, if there is any Dinka Twic east persons in there. We know that, he/she might be ill, crazy or being the slave or follower of Dinka Bor ideal of messes, bad characteristics whom they were born with as an indication of qualify public ethical virtues. To assure you Mr. President, as our history has been shown it, the people known as Twi Dinka East are not evils doing people, because they often know how to handle things professional. Acting like child is not theirs behaviors.

    Second, in last few months the Tuic Dinka East people are fighting with Dinka Bor indirectly for Twi ancestor identity whom they claim that the Dinka Twic East is sub-tribe of Dinka Bor instead of us being the major sub-tribe of Dinka as whole. So war is now going on. That was one of the elements allow them to deceive Dr. Riek Machar to make unorganized apology so that they will get credit and history as they planing. But we the people of Dinka Twi are not going to be deceived or being take like fool. That’s thing will not happen in our watches.

    Third, as Twic East County we have this people already in high positions of South Sudan government:

    (1) Atem de Garang in higher position
    (2) Lual Achuek Deng still there
    (3) Majak Agoot in deputy position were he has seniority
    (4) Atem Yak Atem
    (5) We believe Nyandeng will be there
    (6) Malok as well will be in another high position in government
    (7) Aguer Manyang
    (8) Jurkuch de Barach
    (9) Bior da Ajang
    (10) Chol de piowei
    (12) And many more in your administration positions and some are coming.

    We the Dinka Twi/Twic East people are so proud of your excellent job well done Mr. President.

    Garang background links to earliest SPLM/A top five leaders

    “It is not flesh and blood but the heart which makes us fathers and sons.” Johann Schiller
    “Always continue the climb. It is possible for you to do whatever you choose, if you first get to know who you are and are willing to work with a power that is greater than ourselves to do it.”
    By Ella Wheeler Wilcox

    The following is the descriptions about the new discovery in regards to Late Dr. John Garang links to the others earliest five leaders of the Sudan People Liberation Movement/Army (SPLM/A) top five military Commanders, particularly when it comes to their backgrounds related to tribe’s identifications. And I have no idea if they were knew it back then or not, that they were all from Dinka or Jieng tribe. However, I think Dr. Garang was so sure about Late Cdr. Kerubino Kuanyin Bol and late Cdr. Arok Thon Arok that they were from two branches of Dinka Twic East and Dinka Twic West (Mayardit), and at the same I believe he knew that Dr. Kiir was from Dinka Twic, but I am not so sure Dr. Garang knows that Dr. Kiir was related to him through the roots of the other Dinka or Jieng Twic/Tuic West (Mayardit).
    Anyway in my view, when it comes to his knowledge about late Cdr. William Nyuon Bany and Cdr. Salva Kiir Mayardit relationship to him through sub-tribes of Dinka (Jieng) Twic East and Dinka Twic West. I think that time he didn’t even aware of these intriguing links, except, he may have known them then as those two guys were having Jieng’s (Dinka) backgrounds only up to that point, in whatsoever. By the way, the bottom-line is this; they were all having the same traits or bonds of kinship through Dinka tribe backgrounds. So ahead are all the top five commanders of the Sudan People Liberation Movement/Army (SPLM/A) leadership in earliest days of the movement; they were having the unbelievable story related to their backgrounds in which the majority of South Sudanese (Sudanese) people didn’t even have knowledge during their lifetimes or in another hand when all of them were still alive.
    However, for me to be short and brief about the explanations, they were all closes and related in blood kinships through two branches of Jieng tribe called Dinka Tuic East (Jonglei State) and of course, the other Dinka Tuic Mayardit of the West Nile River (Warrap State.) So here are those leaders by their names and positions they were holding when they were all together under one well-known umbrella of the Sudan People Liberation Movement/Army (SPLM/A) movement in 1980s and the earliest years of the 1990s:
    • Chairman of the SPLM/A, C-in-C late Dr. John Garang de Mabior;
    • Deputy Chairman of the SPLM/A, late Cdr. Kerubino Kuanyin de Bol;
    • Lt. Commander of the SPLM/A, late William Nyuon de Bany;
    • Lt. Commander of the SPLM/A, Salva Kiir de Mayardit;
    • Lt. Commander of the SPLM/A, late Arok Thon da Arok.

    First of all, ladies and gentlemen, you may not believe what I have discovered about these earliest top five commanders of the Sudan People Liberation Movement/Army (SPLM/A) leaderships’ backgrounds, it is an intriguing and fascinating story you couldn’t even believe I think, but the truth of matter is; they were all blooded linked together under two sub-tribes of the Dinka tribe called Twic East and Twic West (Mayardit). As a story goes and at the same time what the names had shown it to you above, these two sub-tribes are related to one another through many characteristics such as: intelligence, calm, leadership, honesty, tolerant, good behaviors (attitudes) people, dignity, accountability, hospitality, cares, tactic, unselfish, patience, stands for truth, use of more diplomats than violent, integrity, commitment (perseverance), trustworthy, fairness when it comes to human being life, respect, they are also fantastic when it comes to the logistical way of distributing things in a fair and balance way (manner) to everybody, plus many other values and beliefs of their own principled (disciplined) culture, etc.
    Back to the topic, would you believe this fascinating story or wouldn’t you? Please takes a deep breath my friend if you don’t believe this story; the story is factually 100 percentages true story I am talking about here. And I know some of you out there may be pessimistic or being certain kind of doubts if I may add that on top, especially when it comes to me being concentrated on two Commanders like late Commander William Nyuon Bany plus our currently President of the republic of South Sudan, Dr. Salva Kiir Mayardit. Who is also holding the position of the First Vice president of the republic of Sudan.
    By not overdue the explanations, I am going to put their links together below under an individual chain of descriptions, here are those links: As we all may have had known already that, late Dr. John Garang de Mabior and late Arok Thon Arok are from Dinka (Jieng) Tuic (Twic) East tribe in Jonglei state (formerly known as the Upper Nile region before the separations of the country into two nations/states) in South Sudan.
    However, before hand, you don’t have to be confused my friend about this tribe (Dinka or Jieng Twic/Tuic East) identity correction between this claims and the original misleading issues of their identity misidentification during the movement (Civil war times in Sudan) and/or after the British Empire has given Sudanese’ independence in 1956. That was the time, whereas the Jieng Twic East tribe identity became like parts of Jieng Bor tribe rather than being considered as a stand alone and/or an independent branch tribe within the Dinka tribe of South Sudan or Sudan before present times. In which to me at that particular days, it was an erroneous or unfortunate misidentification of Jieng Tuïc East tribe identity back then, but this correction is being done at present moment. It is an appropriate times for everybody to be called upon to respect and totally adore to corrections of this tribe identity’s roots and aligned it with their truly tribe of the Dinka Twic East.
    All this information must not be taken simply like this is an Author views alone, which is not. It must be accepted that through a mutual respectful way and integrity, this correction is also adherents to Dinka Twic East’s historians, scholars, class act colleagues, intellectuals, Twic East County people, and everyone else who have a Jieng Twic (Tuic) East people with deep and acquainted roots in history of the Dinka Twic East traits.
    So I am here to represent the interests (views) of an entire community of the Dinka Twic East people who are daring to correct their own and truly identity. It is one of the priority goals (components) God (Nhialic) Himself given me to conquer it over the rest of my life on earth. Because Dr. Garang didn’t have time back then at the time of civil war unrest in Sudan, and of course, his immediate or unfortunate death before he would have been able to corrects this identity is a main reason why I was given a green-light by Creator to do so to my fellow tribe mates. Again, it was one of the reasons why God (Nhialic) Himself allows me to do it to my people of the Jieng Twic East, just simple as that.
    Furthermore, this issue is one of the main core missions God (Nhialic) wants me to strengthen for His people of the Dinka Twic/Tuic East community. And you are advised to respect and being adored by their requests for the well being or mutual respect based on rights of truth acceptance under the morale code of ethics (moral philosophy) and class acts.
    By the way, if you didn’t even know that there was another main branch of Dinka (Jieng) so-called Twic (Tuic) East after Sudan gained its independence in 1956; please it is time for you out there to correct this tribe’s identity. And if you still don’t believe me about this correction of mine regarding to the Dinka Twic East identity. With due respects of your opinions or thoughts, I don’t think there will be any other places on earth where you will get a better truth or evidence than what I had been explained inside this book. There is no way even God (Nhialic) Himself knows it, plus the majority of people in South Sudan know that the Dinka Twic East is an independent tribe in Jieng (Dinka). The Dinka Twic East has its own language (Dialect), and at the same time these people are having their own distinguishing characteristics (Traits) from other Dinka (Jieng) Bor in which sometimes most people miss associated with.
    And to people who may not know about the earliest SPLM/A Deputy chairman, who is also back then or late Commander Kerubino Kuanyin Bol, if you didn’t know this guy background; starting from today you have to remember that, he is from Dinka Twic Mayardit of the West Nile River (White Nile) side, currently located in Warrap State, South Sudan. It is the first place where most of the Clans who made up the Jieng Tuic (Twic) East tribe of the Jonglei State, South Sudan came from some centuries ago. That is where the majority of the clans came to the existing land of the Dinka Twic East people inhabited as of today at the east bank of the River Nile (White Nile/Toc) basin. In their own mother tongue, they call the River Nile as “Toc.”
    Over either sides of the River Nile (White Nile) where Dinka Twic East and Dinka Twic West (Mayardit), both cousin tribes now each has its own Adiang Clan (Wut), in places where the Dinka Twic East and the Dinka Twic West people had been occupied respectively for centuries since both tribes separated from each other through the unknown reason(s).
    Alright, what about Dr. Salva Kiir Mayardit? Who is currently owned the position of the Presidency of the republic of South Sudan. And at the same he is holding the position of the First Vice President of the republic of Sudan. If you don’t know about him, Dr. Kiir is from the Dinka tribe of Rek in Warrap State, South Sudan. However, what way he is being linked to the other two branches of the Dinka Twic East (Jonglei State) and the Dinka Twic West (Warrap State)? Well, that is a very interesting question to ask; of course, Kiir mother is from Dinka Twic West (Mayardit) now located in Warrap State (Formerly known as Bhar el Ghazal region). I think that is a quick and simply answer concerning where President Salva Kiir Mayardit has a chained relationship or links with the others top four of the Sudan People Liberation Movement/Army (SPLM/A) earliest leadership body.
    Anyway, apart from individualism explanations, these leaders were all linked to these two branches of the Dinka Twic East and Dinka Twic West (Mayardit). Again, briefly, they were all Dinka (Jieng) guys.
    Finally, what about the background of late Commander William Nyuon Bany? Where to go to question as well, he also has roots from the Jieng (Dinka) tribe; especially the part of the Dinka sub-tribe where his roots or chains being linked to, is Dinka Twic East of the Jonglei State, South Sudan. It is the same sub-tribe of Jieng where both late Dr. John Garang de Mabior and late Arok Thon Arok respectively are from. But in what way? Well, the following explanations would be a little quite intriguing why he got a related root from Dinka’s branch so-call the Dinka Twic East? For instance, in the earliest years of the twenty-centuries, there was a big flood over the Dinka or Jieng Twic (Tuic) East land in Jonglei State (obviously known as the Upper Nile region during pre-eras of Sudan’s separations into two states or countries) in South Sudan. The disaster was caused by the big flood as people call it as “Amol thith (Run de Paw??r) in Dinka/Jieng Twic (Tuic) East tribe and Nuer or Naath is being called Pilual” in their mother tongue (Tho? de Twic/Tuïc East). That means it was the year of calamity of flood in Dinka Twic East’s land. As I had been told, the flood was a devastating disaster that did take a lot of people lives; livestock and everything else have been uncountable in those days. Did I say everything? If I did, I do mean anything people of the Jieng Tuïc East lives were depending on as valuable and basic needs for life were wipeout. It is one of the biggest disasters that had over passed the Dinka Twic East land; I think it should be aligned with the disaster of the Nov 15, 1991 in their land.
    So over that period, most of the Jieng (Dinka) Tuic East people did migrate to many places like Nuer’s land sub-tribes like Lou, Gaweer, Jikany East, Fangak, etc., and some people even went as far as other sub-tribes of the Jieng lands such as: Jieng Abiliang in Upper Nile State (back then known as the Upper Nile region), Jieng Padang (Padeng) at the moment located in Jonglei State (back then as well known as the Upper Nile region) within the same location where the Jieng Tuic East currently residing too, some people even went to nearby bordering tribes of Jieng like Jieng Duk (Dukkeen) (Nyarweng, Hol, etc.) within the same Jonglei State. Of course, in those days of the flood in their land; few went to Jieng Bor’s land located within the same Jonglei State, South Sudan at that particular juncture of flood.
    That means according to the elders’ narrations about this calamity time in Dinka Twic East people history, as a result of that calamity some people didn’t even bother themselves of coming back to the Dinka Twic East’s land after the flood (Amol/Abor) had even subdued back into the Nile River (Toc). But the majority of their demographics or populations did return to their ancestors’ land of the Jieng Tuic East after the devastating flood (Amol de Paweer) had seceded. Except that the small percentages of the population didn’t try their level bests though to come back, that percentage of families who didn’t return to Twic (Tuic) East land after all were the one including the relatives of the late commander William Nyuon Bany. It turns out that his family was among the groups of people or families who hadn’t even tried to come back to the Dinka Twic East’s land when the flood (Amol or Abor) has totally ended, and people started to immigrate back to their home cooking land of the Dinka (Jieng) Twic/Tuic East.
    The way I have studied this guy (William Nyuon) in my natural psychological knowledge through his video tapes (DVD), he is really Dinka Twic East. In those video tapes (DVD), he has demonstrated the Dinka Twic East people characteristics, as the story has been showing it that, the Dinka Twic East people are intelligent people, natural leadership characterized people, tolerant, and calm, perseverance (commitment) when it comes to truth base causes, hospitality, honesty, fair character about human being life, non-violent, and pro-more points of views toward diplomatic ways than fighting (aggression) solutions. For instance, if Dinka or Jieng Twic/Tuic East person has decided to do something, and he/she believes that it is the right thing to do. Often, there would be no frequently of retreats or backs down from the course otherwise, until the person achieves the pursuing goal (s). By the way, in their lives, they dislike these terms like gossiping, jealousy; greedy, selfish, jealousy, provocative behaviors, violent behaviors, etc. In opposite, they are trustworthy people, honest, good attitudes, guru of accountability, calm, they always don’t like to be the first problem causer between two or among people (group), and many more. Furthermore, one of their good characteristics had been shown so far during the times of the movement in regard to (Sudanese) South Sudanese’s freedom struggles’ days; specifically, by their own beloving son, hero of South Sudanese, (Sudanese) and of course, the freedom father of South Sudanese (Sudanese), late Dr. John Garang de Mabior."

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  • 31 August 2011 17:41, by JohnGarangFreedom

    Dinka Twi East Civil Group

    According to our analysis,its show that the apology of Dr. Riek Machar is deluted otherwise it is only directed to Dinka Bor alone and not Dinka Twic East or Dinka Duk, why? Because Dr. Riek Machar was being setup by Dinka Bor people who are trying to gains popularity concerning civil war ideal (History) over Dinka Twi East. So now they are trying through indirect way to gains that popularity or wrong way in that matter. In which in our views as Dinka Twi East, it will not happen in our watches. We the people of Dinka Twi/Twic East are respectful people but if you try to do unethical thing again us, we will deal with it right way.

    Second, you Dr. Riek Machar needs to be careful. Why? Because you are being pushed to wrong direction by Dinka Bor whom we the people of Dinka Twi East known very well when it comes to their tricky way of lifestyles.

    Third, we consider that apology of yours as direct to Dinka Bor only and not Dinka Twi East people. We are waiting to hear from you as direct apology to Dinka Twi/Tiwc East. And that apology will go direct to people in Twic East County who have faced lots of diversities of the 1991. The majority of people in Juba were not affected by the incident. We either call that incident Dinka Twic East massacre or Southeastern, Eastern, Jonglei Dinka massacre

    Thank you all, God bless.

    "Integrity, intelligence, honesty, calm, leadership, patience, and dignity are always our few blessing characters our God (Nhialic) bless our Dinka Twic East people." By Makol Makeer de Garang

    Message by Dinka Twic East Civil Group

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  • 31 August 2011 21:17, by Cadaai ?o?

    “Call it a clan, call it a network, call it a tribe, call it a family: Whatever you call it, whoever you are, you need one.” By Jane Howard
    “The individual has always had to struggle to keep from being overwhelmed by the tribe. If you try it, you will be lonely often, and sometimes frightened. But no price is too high to pay for the privilege of own yourself.” By Friedrich Nietzsche

    “W? ce deer ku na cï w? deer në yicda ?icku, ayukku kuany cök e lö? tue?, kuj? k??kë b? kuanycök.” By J. Thon de Garang

    The Dinka Twic East is one of the Dinka (Jieng) communities located in Jonglei State (formerly well-known as the Upper Nile region before Sudan separated into two nations of North & South Sudan) of the Republic of South Sudan. The genesis of Twic East Community is from Twic East County located between Bor and Duk Counties. Dinka Jieng Tuic East people are pretty known by their common characters like calm, kind, honesty, daring wisdom, suitable compassion, hospitality, unselfish, non-greedy, non-violent people any levels of life aspects, and leadership, intelligent and other elements of their characters.
    “…Contrary to popular conception Dr. John Garang is from Dinka Twic-east, NOT Bor. The Twic Dinka is a separate county from Dinka Bor, and speaks a different dialect, with ...”
    Source: www.Sudantribune.com/
    According to my personal analysis: here are some of the problems we have in South Sudan when it comes to dealing with communities, bumas, lineages, clans, Payams, Counties, regions and tribal naming issues
    (a) In former times, whoever was a leader in South Sudan’s government would use nepotism to name all the communities, clans and tribes through their own lineages’ names. This has become an issue today; because people are starting to acknowledge the mess that has been made by biased people during their time of leadership. So now most of the lineages, communities, clans and tribes are trying to fix this issue of naming. Yet there is still a long way to go for them to reach the truth, because of the extremists who are in contrast maintaining the mindset of the old eras. They are ignoring the facts, and even some people are not abiding by the truth of the matter. These extremists are always trying to support their own related folks that have violated the ethics of the social leadership positions they were holding. Even though they know the facts, still their stubborn hearts of division through nepotism, communalism, clannishness and tribalism do allow them to hold on to the negative and baseless truth. They just want to promote their own communities, clans and tribes names as proud symbols of their domination over any social organized groups, in my studied opinion. These extremists use propaganda as their way to deny the legitimacy of the truth, and they just hide behind their dishonesty.
    (b) Educators in those former days were the ones who put those controversial names on the official documents, even though they were aware that it was the wrong thing for them to do. Still they were possessed by the evils of nepotism, clannishness and tribalism. I would call it a mistake made by most of the South Sudanese scholars; to me, this issue was not the Northerners’ problem or propaganda against the Southerners. Northerners were just documenting what was given to them by our Southern intellectuals who were representing us in Khartoum’s government. Personally, I do not point my finger toward the Northerners for the mess. I do blame our Southerners, who were our intellectuals and leaders at that particular period of time. They dishonestly violated the ethics of their leadership posts and their professional class, which was given to them by the people whom they were representing in government. Furthermore, their misuse of honor and names recognition many years ago is right now becoming a critical problem that needs to be addressed it, so that the controversies of naming of places, regions. Tribes or sub-tribes are not allowed to become a disaster against peace and unity. To me, it is easy to solve it if everybody is really open to the truth. And if they don’t accept the truth, it becomes a complicated issue rooted in stereotyping and propaganda.
    (c) Selfishness and tribal bias were the most driving forces behind this controversial issue of naming within most of the South Sudanese’ communities, clans and tribes. The mistake was done by our own Southerners who were leaders or scholars in private sectors in Sudan’s government. These individuals’ ideology of division or bias was behind their leadership concentration when it came to their own interests of close lineages, communities, clans, tribes, etc. That is what I believe was a primary source behind their leadership objectives, where an individual had the power to promote his own section’s name as the combination name for other lineages, communities, clans, tribes, Payams (Divisions), Counties (Districts), even States if I am not mistaken.
    (d) Popularity did play a significant role then too; especially for personalities who were well known during all those past days, because their popularity was a very basic accelerator to this issue. Now it becomes harder to deal with because of those extremists who are not always abiding by the truth, even when they actually knew that they were totally wrong in supporting this controversial issue of names. Back then, those people didn’t respect the integrity of the offices they occupied. So my message to those extremists is this: please, you should honor the truth for the well being of our people’s integrity, peace, liberty, prosperity and harmony. Be a person with class by considering our late father of freedom, John Garang. His mission before he died was to straighten out these zigzag roads, and now it is time for us who are alive to make those roads straighter for our freedom. Furthermore, my mission here which God (Nhialic) has given me is to tackle the truth. And I hope those who are blessed with the vision of advocating for truth are going to join me for the sake of our people’s peace, freedom, liberty, prosperity and unity.
    In conclusion, my final piece of advice to those who want to be catalysts behind this messy situation of names among most of our lineages, communities, clans, and tribes in Southern Sudan: Please! Please! Please! Take a deep breath and think beyond the depth of your propaganda of divisions, nepotism, clannishness, tribalism and so forth. Because now it is time we (South Sudanese) need to be civilized rather than going back to the old days’ ideology of truth twisting. We just need to strengthen our unity in South Sudan; that is what I think should be a legitimate pathway to freedom, liberty, peace, unity, harmony, prosperity, etc. Again, our journey of strengthening things out was started by our late Dr. John Garang. And we shouldn’t be going back, in my opinion, when it comes to those controversial ideologists who are not unsuitable for our unity in South Sudan. I don’t think we can afford the resumption of that road, ladies and gentlemen. We just need to correct all those issues that are capable of undermining our harmony and our peaceful Bumas, Payams, Counties, states and nation. Let us all join our hands and solve this issue through a peaceful way, abiding by truth and honoring the facts, as a group or individually. Extreme pretense will not lead us into a successful society, nor will an evil heart of divisions, bias, nepotism, communalism, clannishness and tribalism lead us into a better society. The only oil for the engine of our society’s future development and prosperity is to always rely on the acceptance of truth.
    N/B: People should know that, historically; Dinka tribe cultural is based under clannish systems of governance. There is no what so call Dinka Bor that exists as a combination name for other tribes like Twic (Tuic) East, Nyarweng, and Hol. Bor is an independent tribe alone; it is factually 100 percent truth. Dinka or Jieng Twic /Tuic East tribe is an independent alone; it is factually 100 percent truth. The same thing with Nyarweng and Hol tribes, according to history, Dinka [Monyjang/Jieng] is the only name combining all the sub-tribes of the Dinka or Jieng tribe of South Sudan. (Justice Trust God [Nhialic]).
    Furthermore, Twic (Tuic) East and Bor are having a big gap when it comes to their languages’ accents and words too, characteristics; especially when you consider the similarities among Dinka or Jieng (Monyjang) sub-tribes. Dinka (Jieng) Twic (Tuic) tribe language is related to Dinka Padang (Padeng) language, Dinka Abiliang language, Dinka Ruweng language, Dinka Rek and the other Twic (Tuic) in West Nile, etc.
    Please, for you those who claimed the name Bor as our (Twic/Tuic East) name too. Forget about it, and don’t allow our people history disappear in a wrong way. If you don’t have any idea concerning the background of our people’s history, please don’t rush into support of anything you don’t have a clue. You might put yourself into a tricky way of politics or ideology that would disadvantage you and your own people. Before doing so, please seeks advice from our people back home who are specialist in history of our people.
    For me not going overboard, this is time to fix this issue, because our generation purpose is to setup good foundation for future generations. Example would be Our Late and our own Son and honorable Dr. John Garang had started the strengthening of Histories/things. Right now, is the appropriate time to deal with this issue without further do. Otherwise, the disappearing of our history is going to rest on our shoulders that are still alive at this point. And who wants to be blame for our history mess later down the line of many generations that are going to come after our lifetime? Plus, who wants to let that happen in his/her own watch? You individually would be the judge about your identity, deal with it or not deal with it. It is your choice individually.
    Suggested name for Dinka (Jieng) tribes/Counties in Jonglei State is ‘Southeastern Dinka (JiengJang) Counties.’ Again, those tribes or Counties are consists of Bor, Twic (Tuic) East and Duk (Dukkeen) (Nyarweng, Hol and others.)
    But where the name Dinka JiengJang (JiengJang) came from? Well, that is a very interesting question. The word “Jieng” means the people of the Jonglei state who are Dinka or Jieng by tribe, and also it is another name for the whole Dinka tribe that occupies the country of the South Sudan. What about the suffix “Jang”? The suffix “Jang” was derived from the language of Dinka other names, which in two full terminologies they call “Thuongjang /Thongmonyjang”. So either of the two terminologies is where the suffix “Jang” came from. Then, if you combine those two words, you would be able to come up with the name “JiengJang“. By the way, the Dinka language is also called Thongjieng. Sometimes it depends on what regions of Dinka land in South Sudan where a person is dwelling. Because in most of the Dinka’s sub-tribes, sections, clans, lineages, etc., live far away from one another for quite sometimes has allowed them to create their own accents and pronunciations; also it has created some deterioration in their languages original uniqueness. In addition, the word “Jang” in Dinka or Jieng Twic/Tuic East language it means “many or people (many people)”. I think you now know the meaning or the root of the Southeastern Dinka or Jieng (Jieng de Jonglei State of South Sudan, according to some people. To summarize, the Dinka JiengJang (Southeastern Dinka/Jieng) is the name of tribes of Dinka people who are dwelling in Jonglei State, South Sudan. Again, those sub-tribes of Dinka or Jieng are consisting of Bor, Twic (Tuic) East, Duk (Dukkeen) (Nyarweng, Hol, etc.). Also, you can call those tribes by their Counties’ names as Southeastern Dinka or Jieng Counties of Jonglei State (Jieng de Jonglei State as others put it). By their names, they are: Bor County, Twic East County and Duk County of Jonglei State, South Sudan. Furthermore, anyway I do call them as JiengJang Counties or JiengJang tribes of Jonglei State.

    repondre message

    • 31 August 2011 22:01, by Ajok Garang

      Someone replied to me that Dinka twice from Warap state is the Dinka twice west which true and again they are called Dinka Bhar El Ghazal since they are subtribe of Bhar el ghazal and they are not Dinka of their own .we have only Dinka Bhar el Ghazal and Dinka Bor ...not even Dinka twice south nor North ..
      Its good to claimed an identy which existed before ..whoever need to break away is free to break away as long as there is peace in the country .

      repondre message

      • 31 August 2011 22:33, by Cadaai ?o?

        Ajok Garang

        Historian and Identity Advocacy View:

        I know you are Dinka Bor, and that’s why you don’t accept the truth that Dinka Twic East is difference from you guys. If you are honest person, please leave behind wrong identitification, I sure you.

        repondre message

  • 1 September 2011 06:02, by Odingo

    Coward Dinka Bor, Not Dinka Twic East

    Dr. Riek Machar apology was not true. Dr. Riek apology was secret contract between him and Robecca Nyadeng Garang as you Dr. Riek is the man after woman,that is what apology is all about.

    You will not believe it because you are not a human being but an animals.

    repondre message

  • 1 September 2011 07:00, by Bow de Bow

    The idea of welcoming the apology of the South Sudan’s vice president Dr. Riek Machar was the political move by Bor Community who where disatified by the formation of the first cabinet.The majority of the Dinka Bor who fought for the freedom of South Sudanes people seem to change a political direction as saying goes, no permanent enemy or permanent friends just interest.

    repondre message

    • 1 September 2011 09:23, by gotutu

      TO BOW DE BOW(DOG)
      WHAT DO THEY WANT WHILE THEY HAVE BEEN FAVOURED BY THE PRESIDENT.

      repondre message

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